Santa Clarita Valley
The Santa Clarita Valley is part of the upper watershed of the Santa Clara River in Southern California. The valley was part of the 48,612-acre Rancho San Francisco Mexican land grant. Located in Los Angeles County, its main population center is the city of Santa Clarita which includes the communities of Canyon Country, Newhall and Valencia. Adjacent unincorporated communities include Castaic, Stevenson Ranch, Val Verde, the new master planned community of Newhall Ranch; the Santa Clarita Valley is bordered by the Lake Piru area, including the community of Val Verde, Los Padres National Forest, Castaic Lake to the northwest, Sierra Pelona Mountains and Angeles National Forest to the north and northeast, San Gabriel Mountains to the east and southeast, Santa Susana Mountains to the south and southwest, Ventura County and the Santa Clara River Valley to the west. To the west-northwest lies the Topatopa Mountains. Santa Clarita Valley is connected to a wide array of other nearby valleys: the San Fernando Valley and Los Angeles Basin via Newhall Pass to the south.
Downstream lies the Santa Clara River Valley, given the moniker Heritage Valley by the tourism bureau representing Piru and Santa Paula. Upstream is Soledad Canyon which contains the communities of Vincent, Acton and Agua Dulce; the Santa Clara River was named by Spanish explorers for Claire of Assisi. The valley became known as "little Santa Clara" in deference to the Northern California mission and city of Santa Clara, California. In time, "little Santa Clara" became "Santa Clarita." Santa Clarita Valley is about 20 miles from the Burbank Bob Hope Airport, about 35 miles away from the Los Angeles International Airport. It is home to the 262-acre theme park Six Flags Magic Mountain and the gated waterpark Six Flags Hurricane Harbor, it offers a variety of family-oriented activity centers such as the Mountasia Family Fun Center, Copper Horse Riding Ranch and the Ice Station Valencia and shopping centers, golf courses and theaters, luxurious day spas, outdoor recreation areas like Castaic Lake, Placerita Canyon, Towsley Canyon Park, as well as acres of parkland, animal sanctuaries like the Gentle Barn and Gibbon Conservation Center, over 70 miles of paseos and trails for hiking and biking, more.
Santa Clarita is home to a number of historical sites, such as the oil drilling town Mentryville, Walk of Western Stars, William S. Hart Ranch and Museum. Santa Clarita Valley has a rich Western heritage, since 1994, it has hosted an annual Cowboy Festival, which attracts more than 10,000 visitors each year; the Santa Clarita Valley is home to many school districts such as Acton-Agua Dulce Unified School District, Castaic Union School District, Newhall School District, Saugus Union School District, Sulphur Springs School District, William S. Hart Union High School District, with several elementary, junior high, high schools within these districts. Many of these schools in these districts have been awarded with the California Distinguished and National Blue Ribbon School Award; the Santa Clarita Valley includes three colleges. One is a private university called The California Institute of the Arts, otherwise known as CalArts and is located in Valencia. CalArts is run by President Ravi Rajan; the second college is College of the Canyons, a public two-year community college that operates within the Santa Clarita Community College District.
The colleges main campus is located in Valencia with a smaller satellite campus located in Canyon Country. Dr. Dianne G. Van Hook is president of the college and chancellor of the Santa Clarita Community College District; the Master's University is a private Christian college located in Santa Clarita Valley. Santa Clarita, California Placerita Canyon State Park Newhall Pass Rancho San Francisco Disney—Golden Oak Ranch Monogram Movie Ranch—Melody Ranch Santa Susana Mountains Santa Clara River Santa Clarita Valley Historical Society website
Castaic Creek is a 25.0-mile-long stream in the Sierra Pelona Mountains, in northeastern Los Angeles County, California. It is a tributary of the Santa Clara River. Castaic Dam on the creek forms Castaic Lake, but most of the water comes from the West Branch of the West Branch California Aqueduct, part of the California State Water Project; the 323,700 acre foot lake is the terminus for west branch of the aqueduct. The aqueduct delivers water to the lake by a pipeline from Pyramid Lake. Besides storing drinking water, Castaic Lake is the lower reservoir in a pumped-storage hydroelectric system. During times of peak electricity demand, water is released from Pyramid Lake and run through the turbines at Castaic Power Plant. At night, when demand and electricity prices are lower, water is pumped from Castaic Lake to Pyramid Lake; the income from the electricity sold offsets a portion of the cost for pumping the water in some parts of the aqueduct, such as over the Tehachapi Mountains. Some water is released into Castaic Lagoon downstream of the dam.
The lagoon provides Groundwater recharge of the recreation. Downstream of the lagoon, water continues in Castaic Creek through the eastern Sierra Pelona Mountains to its confluence with the Santa Clara River, a few miles west of Santa Clarita; the rest is distributed to the northern Greater Los Angeles Area by pipelines. "The California Water Plan Update, October 1994". California Department of Water Resources. Archived from the original on 2009-06-05. "California Public Utilities Commission". Santa Clara River topics San Francisquito Creek St. Francis Dam List of rivers of California
Don't Tell Mom the Babysitter's Dead
Don't Tell Mom the Babysitter's Dead is a 1991 American coming-of-age black comedy film directed by Stephen Herek and starring Christina Applegate, Joanna Cassidy, Josh Charles, David Duchovny. The plot focuses on seventeen-year-old Sue Ellen Crandell, whose mother leaves for a two-month summer vacation in Australia, putting all five siblings in the care of an evil tyrannical elderly babysitter; when the babysitter dies in her sleep, Sue Ellen assumes the role as head of the household to prevent her mother from returning home early. She fakes a resume to get a job in the fashion industry, but proves capable and lucky enough to succeed. Sue Ellen Crandell is a 17-year-old high school graduate who, due to a lack of funds, cannot go to Europe for the summer with her friends, she is about to head to college in the fall. However, when her divorced mother goes on a vacation to Australia with her boyfriend, Sue Ellen looks forward to an entire summer of freedom with her siblings: 16-year old slacker/stoner Kenny, 14-year-old ladies' man Zach, 13-year-old tomboy Melissa, 11-year-old TV fanatic Walter.
Much to Sue Ellen's dismay, her mother hires a live-in babysitter, Mrs. Sturak, a sweet, humble old woman who assures Mrs. Crandell that she can take care of all five children; as soon as Mrs. Crandell leaves, Mrs. Sturak shows her true colors as an evil tyrant drawing the ire of the children. However, she dies of a heart attack; when her body is discovered by Sue Ellen, the children agree to stuff the babysitter in a trunk and drop her off at a local funeral home and keep her car. They discover that the envelope given to Mrs. Sturak by their mother with their summer money is empty. With no money to pay the family's bills, Sue Ellen finds work at a fast food restaurant called Clown Dog. Despite a budding relationship with her co-worker named Bryan, she quits because of the obnoxious manager. Sue Ellen forges a résumé under the guise of a young fashion designer and applies at General Apparel West, hoping to secure a job as a receptionist. However, Rose Lindsey, a company executive, finds her résumé so impressive that she offers Sue Ellen a job as an executive assistant, much to the chagrin of Carolyn, a receptionist on Rose's floor, in line for the job.
While having dinner at a restaurant that night, Mrs. Sturak's car is stolen by drag queens, forcing Sue Ellen to call in a favor from Bryan to bring them home. Sue Ellen obtains the keys to her mother's Volvo, begins stealing from petty cash at GAW to support the family, intending to return it when she receives her paycheck. At work, Sue Ellen has to balance the adult responsibilities thrust upon her while still trying to enjoy herself as a teenager; the double life strains her relationship with Bryan when she discovers that he and Carolyn are brother and sister. Sue Ellen finds herself tested when she learns that GAW is in danger of going out of business, she takes it upon herself to create a new clothing line and Rose suggests holding a fashion show to exhibit their new designs. Sue Ellen offers to host the party, convincing her siblings to help clean up the house, beautify the yard, act as caterers. Although she manages to pull off the party, it comes to an end when Mrs. Crandell comes home early and catches Sue Ellen in the act, forcing her to confess her lie in front of everyone.
While apologizing to Rose after the party, Sue Ellen learns that her unique designs had saved GAW. Rose offers the real Sue Ellen the job as her personal assistant, which she respectfully declines in favor of going to college first. Rose tells Sue Ellen that she can "pull some strings" to get her in to Vassar and they make plans to get together for dinner. In the end, Sue Ellen and Bryan make up, but are soon interrupted by Mrs. Crandell, who inquires about Mrs. Sturak's whereabouts; as the credits roll, the scene cuts away to the cemetery, where two morticians look over a gravestone that reads "Nice Old Lady Inside, Died of Natural Causes." Christina Applegate as Sue Ellen "Swell" Crandell Joanna Cassidy as Rose Lindsey John Getz as Gus Brandon Keith Coogan as Kenneth "Kenny" Crandell Josh Charles as Bryan Concetta Tomei as Mrs. Crandell David Duchovny as Bruce Kimmy Robertson as Cathy Henderson Jayne Brook as Carolyn Eda Reiss Merin as Mrs. Sturak Robert Hy Gorman as Walter Crandell Danielle Harris as Melissa Crandell Christopher Pettiet as Zach Crandell Jeff Bollow as Mole Michael Kopelow as Hellhound Dan Castellaneta as Animated Mrs. Sturak "Draggin' the Line", performed by Beat Goes Bang "Perfect World", performed by Alias "What She Don't Know", performed by Flame "Keep the Faith", performed by Valentine "Chains", performed by Lorraine Lewis "I Only Have Eyes For You", performed by Timothy B.
Schmit "The Best Thing", performed by Boom Crash Opera "Viva La Vogue", performed by Army of Lovers "Stampede", performed by Brad Gillis "Bitter", performed by Terrell "Life's Rich Tapestry", performed by Modern English "Children of the Fire", performed by Mike Reeves "Runnin' on Luck Again", performed by Valentine "Gimme Some Money", performed by Spinal Tap "As Time Goes By", written by Herman Hupfield " The Tender Trap", lyrics and music Sammy Cahn and Jimmy Van Heussen "Twilight Zone Theme", written by Marius Constant Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 33% based on reviews from 27 critics, with an average score of 4/10. The New York Post called Don't Tell Mom the Babysitter's Dead the best teen hit of 1991. Several reviewers compared the movie unfavorably to the then-recent hit Home Alone, with Peter Travers of Rolling Stone stating: "Blame the smash of'
Newhall Pass is a low mountain pass in Los Angeles County, California. Called Fremont Pass and San Fernando Pass, with Beale's Cut, it separates the Santa Susana Mountains from the San Gabriel Mountains. Although the pass was discovered in August 1769 by Catalan explorer Gaspar de Portolà, it was named for Henry Newhall, a significant businessman in the area during the 19th century. Newhall Pass links the San Fernando Valley to the Santa Clarita Valley and is a main entry to the Greater Los Angeles area; the pass is known for the historic San Fernando Tunnel. In the pass weather can vary from triple-digit heat in the summer to below zero in winter. Snow is possible in December to February, but is rare, when it does occur can lead to heavy traffic and accidents; the pass can have heavy flooding in La Niña and El Niño events. Wildfires nearby have occasionally closed down the pass and California State Route 14. Newhall Pass was named'Fremont Pass' for General John C. Frémont, thought to have passed through it in 1847 on his way to sign the Treaty of Cahuenga, but he went east of the pass on the El Camino Viejo.
In 1853, a Los Angeles businessman, Henry Clay Wiley installed a windlass atop the Fremont Pass to speed and ease the ascent and descent of the steep Santa Clara Divide. He built a tavern and stable nearby. In 1854, Wiley sold out to Sanford and Cyrus Lyon and it began to be called Lyons Station. At the same time, Phineas Banning obtained the business of supplying Fort Tejon; the steep pass was made easier to cross with a deep slot-like road cut by Charles H. Brindley, Andrés Pico, James R. Vineyard, to whom the State of California awarded a twenty-year contract to maintain the turnpike and collect tolls. Thus, the "San Fernando Mountain," the most daunting obstacle along the Fort Tejon Road, the main inland route from Los Angeles to the north, was cut through. Butterfield Overland Mail, a stagecoach that operated mail between St. Louis and San Francisco began using it directly. In 1861, a landowner and surveyor named Edward Beale was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln as the federal Surveyor General of California and Nevada.
Beale challenged General Pico's loyalty to the new president and in 1863, Beale was awarded the right to collect the toll in the pass. Beale maintained rights to the cut for the next twenty years and so it became known as "Beale's Cut."Beale's Cut was deepened to 90 feet. It lasted as a transportation passage in the neighborhood of present-day Newhall Pass until construction of the Newhall Tunnel was completed in 1910. Beale's Cut appeared in many silent western movies; the location became a favorite of movie producers like D. W. Griffith. In Ford's 1923 film Three Jumps Ahead, American film actor Tom Mix is filmed jumping over the pass. John Ford used the location in at least four films over a twenty-year period beginning as early as 1917. Still in existence today, it is no longer passable by automobiles, it suffered a partial collapse during the Northridge Earthquake, on January 17, 1994, now is about 30 feet deep. It is visible from the Sierra Highway about one mile north from the intersection of The Old Road and Sierra Highway, just after the first bridge under SR 14.
It lies between Sierra Highway and the new freeway, about a quarter mile to the northeast of a stone marker. Beale's Cut is difficult to find today because it is fenced off and not close enough to the Sierra Highway to be seen. Newhall Pass is named after businessman Henry Newhall, whose land holdings formed the basis of the city of Santa Clarita. Newhall came to California from Saugus, Massachusetts during the California Gold Rush in 1850. Over time he purchased a number of properties in the state, the most significant being the 46,460-acre Rancho San Francisco in northern Los Angeles County. Within this territory, he granted a right-of-way to Southern Pacific through what is now Newhall Pass, he sold them a portion of the land, upon which the company built a town they named after him: Newhall; the first station built on the line he named for Saugus. After his death in 1882 his family incorporated the Newhall Farming Company. Newhall Pass remains a main traffic route, as the Newhall Pass interchange of Interstate 5 and State Route 14, as well as Sierra Highway, Foothill Boulevard, San Fernando Road travel through the pass.
The Sierra Highway crossing was once the Newhall Tunnel, built by Los Angeles County in 1910 to replace Beale's Cut. Metrolink's Antelope Valley Line and the Union Pacific Railroad go through the pass via the San Fernando Tunnel; the 6,940-foot-long railroad tunnel took a half to complete. Over 1,500 Chinese laborers took part in the tunnel construction, which began at the south end of the mountain on March 22, 1875. Many of them had prior experience working on Southern Pacific's tunnels in the Tehachapi Pass. Due to the sandstone composition of the mountain, saturated with water and oil, frequent cave-ins occurred and the bore had to be shored up by timbers during excavation; the initial location for the north end of the tunnel was near Lyons Station Stagecoach Stop, abandoned due to frequent cave-ins caused by oil-soaked rock. The north end was moved a little further west towards the present town of California; the north end of the tunnel excavation commenced in June 1875. Water was a constant problem during construction and pumps were utilized to keep the tunnel from flooding.
Workers digging from both the north and south ends of the tun
St. Francis Dam
The St. Francis Dam was a curved concrete gravity dam, built to create a large regulating and storage reservoir for the city of Los Angeles, California; the reservoir was an integral part of the city's Los Angeles Aqueduct water supply infrastructure. It was located in San Francisquito Canyon of the Sierra Pelona Mountains, about 40 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles, 10 miles north of the present day city of Santa Clarita; the dam was designed and built between 1924 and 1926 by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power named the Bureau of Water Works and Supply. The department was under the direction of its General Manager and Chief Engineer, William Mulholland. At 11:57 p.m. on March 12, 1928, the dam catastrophically failed, the resulting flood took the lives of what is estimated to be at least 431 people. The collapse of the St. Francis Dam is considered to be one of the worst American civil engineering disasters of the 20th century and remains the second-greatest loss of life in California's history, after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire.
The disaster marked the end of Mulholland's career. In the early years of Los Angeles, the city's water supply was obtained from the Los Angeles River; this was accomplished by diverting water from the river through a series of ditches called zanjas. At that time a private water company, the Los Angeles City Water Company, leased the city's waterworks and provided water to the city. Hired in 1878 as a zanjero, William Mulholland proved to be a brilliant employee who after doing his day's work would study textbooks on mathematics and geology, taught himself engineering and geology. Mulholland moved up the ranks of the Water Company and was promoted to Superintendent in 1886. In 1902, the City of Los Angeles ended its lease with the private water company and took control over the city's water supply; the city council established the Water Department with Mulholland as its Superintendent and when the city charter was amended in 1911, the Water Department was renamed the Bureau of Water Works and Supply.
Mulholland was named as its Chief Engineer. Mulholland achieved great recognition among members of the engineering community when he supervised the design and construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, which at the time was the longest aqueduct in the world and uses gravity alone to bring the water 233 miles from the Owens Valley to Los Angeles; the project was completed on time and under budget, despite several setbacks. Excluding the incidents of sabotage by Owens Valley residents in the early years, the aqueduct has continued to operate well throughout its history and remains in operation today, it was during the process of building the Los Angeles Aqueduct that Mulholland first considered sections of San Francisquito Canyon as a potential dam site. He felt that there should be a reservoir of sufficient size to provide water for Los Angeles for an extended period in the event of a drought or if the aqueduct were damaged by an earthquake. In particular he favored the area between where the hydroelectric power plants Powerhouses No. 1 and No. 2 were to be built, with what he perceived as favorable topography, a natural narrowing of the canyon downstream of a wide, upstream platform which would allow the creation of a large reservoir area with a minimum possible dam.
A large camp had been set up to house the workers near this area and Mulholland used his spare time becoming familiar with the area's geological features. In the area where the dam would be situated, he found the mid and upper portion of the western hillside consisted of a reddish colored conglomerate and sandstone formation that had small strings of gypsum interspersed within it. Below the red conglomerate, down the remaining portion of the western hillside, crossing the canyon floor and up the eastern wall, a drastically different rock composition prevailed; these areas were made up of mica schist, laminated, cross-faulted in many areas and interspersed with talc. Although many geologists disagreed on the exact location of the area of contact between the two formations, a majority opinion placed it at the inactive San Francisquito Fault line. Mulholland ordered exploratory tunnels and shafts excavated into the red conglomerate hillside to determine its characteristics, he had water percolation tests performed.
The results convinced him that the hill would make a satisfactory abutment for a dam should the need arise. A surprising aspect of the early geologic exploration came when the need for a dam arose. Although Mulholland wrote of the perilous nature of the face of schist on the eastern side of the canyon in his annual report to the Board of Public Works in 1911, it was either misjudged or ignored by the construction supervisor of the St. Francis Dam, Stanley Dunham. Dunham testified, at the Coroner's Inquest, that tests which he had ordered yielded results which showed the rock to be hard and of the same nature throughout the entire area which would become the eastern abutment, his opinion was. The population of Los Angeles was increasing rapidly. In 1900 the population was over 100,000. By 1910, it had become more than three times that number at 320,000, by 1920 the figure reached 576,673; this unexpectedly rapid growth brought a demand for a larger water supply. Between 1920 and 1926, seven smaller reservoirs were built and modifications were made to raise the height of its largest of the time, the Lower San Fernando, by seven feet, but the need for a still larger reservoir was clear.
The planned site of this new large reservoir was to be in Big Tujunga Canyon, above the city now known as Sunland, i
Mission San Fernando Rey de España
Mission San Fernando Rey de España is a Spanish mission in the Mission Hills the district of Los Angeles, California. The mission was founded on September 8, 1797, was the seventeenth of the twenty-one Spanish missions established in Alta California. Named for Saint Ferdinand, the mission is the namesake of the nearby city of San Fernando and the San Fernando Valley; the mission was secularized in 1834 and returned to the Catholic Church in 1861. Today the mission grounds function as a museum. In 1769, the Spanish Portolá expedition – the first Europeans to see inland areas of California – traveled north through the San Fernando Valley. On August 7 they camped at a watering place near where the mission would be established. Fray Juan Crespi, a Franciscan missionary travelling with the expedition, noted in his diary that the camp was "at the foot of the mountains"; the Rancho of Francisco Reyes was approved by the padres as a suitable site for the Mission. After brief negotiations with the Alcalde, the land was acquired.
The mission was founded on September 8, 1797 by Father Fermín Lasuén who, with the assistance of Fray Francisco Dumetz and in the presence of troops and natives, performed the ceremonies and dedicated the mission to San Fernando Rey de España, making it the fourth mission site he had established. Fray Francisco Dumetz and his associate Fray Francisco Javier Uría labored in the mission until after 1800. Early in October, 1797, 13 adults were baptized and the first marriage took place on October 8. At the end of the year, there were 55 neophytes. By 1800, there were 310 neophytes, 352 baptisms, 70 deaths. An adobe church with a tile roof was blessed in December 1806. Fray Dumetz left the mission in April 1802 returned in 1804 and left the following year at the same time as Fray Francisco Javier Uría, who left the country. In 1805, Fray Nicolás Lázaro and Fray José María Zalvidea arrived at the mission, the latter was transferred to San Gabriel in 1806 and the former died at San Diego in August 1807.
Padres José Antonio Uría and Pedro Muños arrived in 1807, the former retired in November 1808 and was succeeded by Fray Martín de Landaeta while Fray José Antonio Urresti arrived in 1809 and became the associate of Fray Muñoz, Fray Landaeta died in 1816. During the first decade of the century, the neophyte population increased from 310 to 955, there had been 797 deaths, 1468 baptisms; the largest number of baptisms in any one year was 361 in 1803. In 1804 there was a land controversy where the padres protested against the granting of the Rancho Camulos to Francisco Avila. Fray Urresti died in 1812 and was succeeded by Fray Joaquin Pascual Nuez in 1812 to 1814, Fray Vincente Pascual Oliva was stationed in the mission from 1814 to 1815. Fray Pedro Muñoz left California in 1817, his place was taken by Fray Marcos Antonio de Vitoria from 1818 to 1820. Fray Ramon Ulibarri arrived in January and Fray Francisco Gonzalez de Ibarra in October 1820. On December 21, 1812, an earthquake hit the area which did enough damage to necessitate the introduction of 20 new beams to support the church wall.
Before 1818 a new chapel was completed. During the period of 1810 to 1820 the population gained reaching its highest figure, 1080, in 1819, after which its decline began. After Fray Ulibarri died in 1821, Fray Francisco Gonzalez de Ibarra was stationed alone in the mission. Mission San Fernando was the 17th mission to be found after all 21 After the Mexican Empire gained independence from Spain on September 27, 1821, the Province of Alta California became the Mexican Territory of Alta California; the missions continued under the rule of Mexico. Fray Ibarra began to complain that the soldiers of his guard were causing problems by selling liquor and lending horses to the natives and in 1825, he declared that "the presidio was a curse rather than a help to the mission, that the soldiers should go to work and raise grain, not live on the toil of the Indians, whom they robbed and deceived with talk of liberty while in reality they treated them as slaves." This led to a sharp reply from Captain Guerra.
The amount of supplies furnished by the mission to the presidio from 1822 to April 1827 amounted to $21,203. Fray Ibarra continued his labors alone until the middle of 1835, his successor was Fray Pedro Cabot from San Antonio, stationed here until his death in October 1836. After Fray Cabot's death, there is no mention of a missionary at San Fernando until August 1838 when Fray Blas Ordaz remained there during the rest of the decade. Down to 1834, the neophyte population decreased by less than 100 and the mission remained productive. In October 1834, Comisionado Antonio del Valle took charge of the mission estates by inventory from Fray Ibarra. From the mission was to be a parish of the second class with a $1000 salary. In 1842, six years before the California Gold Rush, a brother of the mission mayordomo made the first Alta California gold discovery in the foothills near the mission. In memory of that discovery, the place was given the name Placerita Canyon, but only small quantities of gold were found.
In 1845, Governor Pío Pico declared the Mission buildings for sale and, in 1846, made Mission San Fernando Rey de España de velicata his headquarters as Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando. The Mission was utilized in a number of ways during the late 19th century: north of the mission was the site of Lopez Station for the Butterfield Stage Lines.