International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
Melaleuca is a genus of nearly 300 species of plants in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae known as paperbarks, honey-myrtles or tea-trees. They range in size from small shrubs that grow to more than 1 m high, to trees up to 35 m, their flowers occur in groups, forming a “head” or “spike” resembling a brush used for cleaning bottles, containing up to 80 individual flowers. They are superficially like Banksia species, which have their flowers in a spike, but the structures of individual flowers in the two genera are different. Second only to members of the family Proteaceae, melaleucas are an important food source for nectarivorous insects and mammals. Many are popular garden plants, either as dense screens. Most melaleucas are endemic to Australia, with a few occurring in Malesia. Seven are endemic to New Caledonia, one is found only on Lord Howe Island. Melaleucas are found in a wide variety of habitats. Many are adapted for life in swamps and boggy places, while others thrive in the poorest of sandy soils or on the edge of saltpans.
Some have a wide distribution and are common, whilst others are rare and endangered. Land clearing, exotic myrtle rust, draining and clearing of swamps threaten many species. Melaleucas range in size from small shrubs such as M. aspalathoides and M. concinna which grow to more than 1 m high, to trees like M. cajuputi and M. quinquenervia, which can reach 35 m. Many, like M. lineariifolia, are known as paperbarks and have bark that can be peeled in thin sheets, whilst about 20% of the genus, including M. bracteata, have hard, rough bark and another 20% have fibrous bark. Every species in the genus is an evergreen, the leaves vary in size from minute and scale-like to 270 mm long. Most have distinct oil glands dotted in the leaves, making the leaves aromatic when crushed. Melaleuca flowers are arranged in spikes or heads. Within the head or spike, the flowers are in groups of two or three, each flower or group having a papery bract at its base. Five sepals occur, although these are sometimes fused into a ring of tissue and five petals which are small, not showy, fall off as the flower opens or soon after.
The stamens vary in colour, from white to cream or yellow, red, or mauve with their yellow tips contrasting with their "stalks". The fruit are woody, cup-shaped, barrel-shaped, or spherical capsules arranged in clusters along the stems; the seeds are sometimes retained in the fruit for many years, only opening when the plant, or part of it, dies or is heated in a bushfire. In tropical areas, seeds are released annually in the wet season; the first known description of a Melaleuca species was written by Rumphius in 1741, in Herbarium amboinense before the present system of naming plants was written. The plant he called; the name Melaleuca was first used by Linnaeus in 1767. Many species known as Metrosideros were placed in Melaleuca. In Australia, Melaleuca is the third most diverse plant genus with up to 300 species; the genus Callistemon was raised by Robert Brown, who noted its similarity to Melaleuca, distinguishing it only on the basis of whether the stamens are free of each other, or joined in bundles.
Botanists in the past, including Ferdinand von Mueller and Lyndley Craven have proposed uniting the two genera but the matter is not decided. Evidence from DNA studies suggests that either Callistemon and some other genera be incorporated into Melaleuca or that at least 10 new genera be created from the present genus. In 2014, Lyndley Craven and others proposed, on the basis of DNA evidence, that species in the genera Beaufortia, Conothamnus, Lamarchea, Petraeomyrtus and Regelia be transferred to Melaleuca; the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families maintained by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew lists Calothamnus and the other genera as synonyms of the accepted genus Melaleuca. The move has not been adopted by all Australian herbaria with some taxonomists, including Alex George opposing the move; the name Melaleuca is derived from the Ancient Greek μέλας meaning “dark" or "black” and λευκός meaning “white” because one of the first specimens described had fire-blackened white bark. The common name "tea-tree" has been applied to species in the genera Leptospermum, Melaleuca and Baeckea because the sailors on the Endeavour used the leaves of a shrub from one of these groups as a replacement for tea Camellia sinensis during Captain James Cook's 1770 voyage to Australia.
Most melaleucas occur only on the Australian mainland. Eight occur in Tasmania. One is endemic to Lord Howe Island and seven are endemic to Grande Terre, the main island of New Caledonia. A few tropical species occur in Papua New Guinea, the distribution of one subspecies, Melaleuca cajuputi subsp. Cumingiana extends as far north as Myanmar and Vietnam; the southwest of Western Australia has the greatest density of species, in the tropical north of the continent, species such as M. argentea and M. leucadendra are the dominant species over large areas. Melaleucas grow in a range of soil types and many tolerate occasional or permanent waterlogging; some species the South Australian swamp paperbark, M. halmaturorum, thrive in saline soils where few other species survive. Many
Four-wheel drive called 4×4 or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously. It may be full-time or on-demand, is linked via a transfer case providing an additional output drive-shaft and, in many instances, additional gear ranges. A four-wheeled vehicle with torque supplied to both axles is described as "all-wheel drive". However, "four-wheel drive" refers to a set of specific components and functions, intended off-road application, which complies with modern use of the terminology. 4WD systems were used in many different vehicle platforms. There is no universally accepted set of terminology to describe the various architectures and functions; the terms used by various manufacturers reflect marketing rather than engineering considerations or significant technical differences between systems. SAE International's standard J1952 recommends only the term All-Wheel-Drive with additional sub classifications which cover all types of AWD/4WD/4x4 systems found on production vehicles.
Four-by-four or 4x4 is used to refer to a class of vehicles in general. Syntactically, the first figure indicates the total number of wheels, the second indicates the number that are powered. So 4x2 means a four-wheel vehicle that transmits engine torque to only two axle-ends: the front two in front-wheel drive or the rear two in rear-wheel drive. A 6×4 vehicle has three axles, two of which provide torque to two axle ends each. If this vehicle were a truck with dual rear wheels on two rear axles, so having ten wheels, its configuration would still be formulated as 6x4. During World War II, the U. S. military would use spaces and a capital'X' – like "4 X 2" or "6 X 4". Four-wheel drive refers to vehicles with two axles providing torque to four axle ends. In the North American market the term refers to a system, optimized for off-road driving conditions; the term "4WD" is designated for vehicles equipped with a transfer case which switches between 2WD and 4WD operating modes, either manually or automatically.
All-wheel drive was synonymous with "four-wheel drive" on four-wheeled vehicles, six-wheel drive on 6×6s, so on, being used in that fashion at least as early as the 1920s. Today in North America the term is applied to both heavy vehicles as well as light passenger vehicles; when referring to heavy vehicles the term is applied to mean "permanent multiple-wheel drive" on 2×2, 4×4, 6×6 or 8×8 drive train systems that include a differential between the front and rear drive shafts. This is coupled with some sort of anti-slip technology hydraulic-based, that allows differentials to spin at different speeds but still be capable of transferring torque from a wheel with poor traction to one with better. Typical AWD systems are not intended for more extreme off-road use; when used to describe AWD systems in light passenger vehicles, it refers to a system that applies torque to all four wheels and/or is targeted at improving on-road traction and performance, rather than for off-road applications. Some all-wheel drive electric vehicles solve this challenge using one motor for each axle, thereby eliminating a mechanical differential between the front and rear axles.
An example of this is the dual motor variant of the Tesla Model S, which on a millisecond scale can control the torque distribution electronically between its two motors. Individual-wheel drive is used to describe electric vehicles with each wheel being driven by its own electric motor; this system has inherent characteristics that would be attributed to four-wheel drive systems like the distribution of the available torque to the wheels. However, because of the inherent characteristics of electric motors, torque can be negative, as seen in the Rimac Concept One and SLS AMG Electric; this can have drastic effects, as in better handling in tight corners. The term IWD can refer to a vehicle with any number of wheels. For example, the Mars rovers are 6-wheel IWD. Per the SAE International standard J1952, AWD is the preferred term for all the systems described above; the standard subdivides AWD systems into three categories. Part-Time AWD systems require driver intervention to couple and decouple the secondary axle from the driven axle and these systems do not have a center differential.
The definition notes. Full-Time AWD systems drive both rear axles at all times via a center differential; the torque split of that differential may be fixed or variable depending on the type of center differential. This system can be used on any surface at any speed; the definition does not address exclusion of a low range gear. On-Demand AWD systems drive the secondary axle via an active or passive coupling device or "by an independently powered drive system"; the standard notes that in some cases the secondary drive system may provide the primary vehicle propulsion. An example is a hybrid AWD vehicle where the primary axle is driven by an internal combustion engine and secondary axle is driven by an electric motor; when the internal combustion engine is shut off the secondary, electrically driven axle is the only driven axle. On-demand systems function with only one powered axle until torque is required by the second axle. At that point either a passive or active coupling sends torque to the secondary axle.
In addition to the above primary classifications the J1952 standard notes seconda
Quartzite is a hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock, pure quartz sandstone. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Pure quartzite is white to grey, though quartzites occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide. Other colors, such as yellow, green and orange, are due to other minerals; when sandstone is cemented to quartzite, the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism; the grainy, sandpaper-like surface becomes glassy in appearance. Minor amounts of former cementing materials, iron oxide, silica and clay migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis; this causes lenses to form within the quartzite. Orthoquartzite is a pure quartz sandstone composed of well-rounded quartz grains cemented by silica.
Orthoquartzite is 99% SiO2 with only minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon and magnetite. Although few fossils are present, the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved; the term is traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites, both usages are found in the literature. The typical distinction between the two is a metamorphic quartzite is so cemented, diagenetically altered, metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries, not around them. Quartzite is resistant to chemical weathering and forms ridges and resistant hilltops; the nearly pure silica content of the rock provides little material for soil. In the United States, formations of quartzite can be found in some parts of Pennsylvania, the Washington DC area, eastern South Dakota, Central Texas, southwest Minnesota, Devil's Lake State Park in the Baraboo Range in Wisconsin, the Wasatch Range in Utah, near Salt Lake City, Utah and as resistant ridges in the Appalachians and other mountain regions.
Quartzite is found in the Morenci Copper Mine in Arizona. The town of Quartzsite in western Arizona derives its name from the quartzites in the nearby mountains in both Arizona and Southeastern California. A glassy vitreous quartzite has been described from the Belt Supergroup in the Coeur d’Alene district of northern Idaho. In the United Kingdom, a craggy ridge of quartzite called the Stiperstones runs parallel with the Pontesford-Linley fault, 6 km north-west of the Long Mynd in south Shropshire. To be found in England are the Cambrian "Wrekin quartzite", the Cambrian "Hartshill quartzite". In Wales, Holyhead mountain and most of Holy island off Anglesey sport excellent Precambrian quartzite crags and cliffs. In the Scottish Highlands, several mountains composed of Cambrian quartzite can be found in the far north-west Moine Thrust Belt running in a narrow band from Loch Eriboll in a south-westerly direction to Skye. In Ireland areas of quartzite are found across the northwest, with Errigal in Donegal as the most prominent outcrop.
In continental Europe, various regionally isolated quartzite deposits exist at surface level in a belt from the Rhenish Massif and the German Central Highlands into the Western Czech Republic, for example in the Taunus and Harz mountains. In Poland quartzite deposits at surface level exists in Świętokrzyskie Mountains. In Canada, the La Cloche Mountains in Ontario are composed of white quartzite; the highest mountain in Mozambique, Monte Binga, as well as the rest of the surrounding Chimanimani Plateau are composed of hard, pale grey, Precambrian quartzite. Quartzite is mined in Brazil for use in kitchen countertops; because of its hardness and angular shape, crushed quartzite is used as railway ballast. Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls, as roofing tiles, as flooring, stair steps, its use for countertops in kitchens is expanding rapidly. It is more resistant to stains than granite. Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction. High purity quartzite is used to produce ferrosilicon, industrial silica sand and silicon carbide.
During the Paleolithic, quartzite was used, along with flint and other lithic raw materials, for making stone tools. The term quartzite is derived from German: Quarzit. Neomorphism R. V. Dietrich's GemRocks: Quartzite CSU Pomona Geology: Quartzite Cowen's "The First Geologists" Minnesota Department of Natural Resources: Natural History: Minnesota's geology Wisconsin's Baraboo Syncline South Dakota 2002 Mineral Summary: Production and Environmental Issues Big Sioux River: History of Sioux Falls and Quartzite Photos
Bureau of Meteorology
The Bureau of Meteorology is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. It was established in 1906 under the Meteorology Act, brought together the state meteorological services that existed before then; the states transferred their weather recording responsibilities to the Bureau of Meteorology on 1 January 1908. The Bureau of Meteorology is the main provider of weather forecasts and observations to the Australian public; the Bureau distributes weather images via radiofax and is responsible for issuing flood alerts in Australia. The Bureau's head office is in Melbourne Docklands, which includes the Bureau's Research Centre, the Bureau National Operations Centre, the National Climate Centre, the Victorian Regional Forecasting Centre as well as the Hydrology and Satellite sections. Regional offices are located in each territory capital; each regional office includes a Regional Forecasting Centre and a Flood Warning Centre, the Perth and Brisbane offices house Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres.
The Adelaide office incorporates the National Tidal Centre, while the Darwin office the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre and Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology issues Tropical Cyclone Advices and developed the Standard Emergency Warning Signal used for warnings; the Bureau is responsible for tropical cyclone naming for storms in waters surrounding Australia. Three lists of names used to be maintained, one for each of the western and eastern Australian regions. However, as of the start of the 2008–09 Tropical Cyclone Year these lists have been rolled into one main national list of tropical cyclone names; the regional offices are supported by the Bureau National Operations Centre, located at the head office in Melbourne Docklands. The Bureau maintains a network of field offices across the continent, on neighbouring islands and in Antarctica. There is a network of some 500 paid co-operative observers and 6,000 voluntary rainfall observers; the following people have been directors of the Bureau of Meteorology: In the head office a Cray XC40 supercomputer called "Australis" provides the operational computing capability for weather, climate and wave numerical prediction and simulation, while other Unix servers support the computer message switching system and real-time data base.
The Australian Integrated Forecast System affords the main computing infrastructure in the regional offices. Numerical weather prediction is performed using the Unified Model software; the Bureau of Meteorology announced the Cray contract in July 2015, commissioned the Cray XC40 supercomputer on 30 June 2016 and decommissioned their Oracle HPC system in October 2016. World Meteorological Organization, co-ordination body for weather and environment services Weatherzone, another Australian weather service provider International Cloud Experiment, which collected data on tropical cyclones in January and February 2006 2018–19 Australian region cyclone season Water Data Transfer Format Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council Bureau of Meteorology main page Federation and Meteorology: the history of meteorology in Australia
The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are colourful and fragrant known as the orchid family. Along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two largest families of flowering plants; the Orchidaceae have about 28,000 accepted species, distributed in about 763 genera. The determination of which family is larger is still under debate, because verified data on the members of such enormous families are continually in flux. Regardless, the number of orchid species nearly equals the number of bony fishes and is more than twice the number of bird species, about four times the number of mammal species; the family encompasses about 6–11% of all seed plants. The largest genera are Bulbophyllum, Epidendrum and Pleurothallis, it includes Vanilla–the genus of the vanilla plant, the type genus Orchis, many cultivated plants such as Phalaenopsis and Cattleya. Moreover, since the introduction of tropical species into cultivation in the 19th century, horticulturists have produced more than 100,000 hybrids and cultivars.
Orchids are distinguished from other plants, as they share some evident, shared derived characteristics, or synapomorphies. Among these are: bilateral symmetry of the flower, many resupinate flowers, a nearly always modified petal, fused stamens and carpels, small seeds. All orchids are perennial herbs, they can grow according to two patterns: Monopodial: The stem grows from a single bud, leaves are added from the apex each year and the stem grows longer accordingly. The stem of orchids with a monopodial growth can reach several metres in length, as in Vanda and Vanilla. Sympodial: Sympodial orchids have a front and a back; the plant produces a series of adjacent shoots, which grow to a certain size and stop growing and are replaced. Sympodial orchids grow laterally following the surface of their support; the growth continues by development of new leads, with their own leaves and roots, sprouting from or next to those of the previous year, as in Cattleya. While a new lead is developing, the rhizome may start its growth again from a so-called'eye', an undeveloped bud, thereby branching.
Sympodial orchids may have visible pseudobulbs joined by a rhizome, which creeps along the top or just beneath the soil. Terrestrial orchids may form corms or tubers; the root caps of terrestrial orchids are white. Some sympodial terrestrial orchids, such as Orchis and Ophrys, have two subterranean tuberous roots. One is used as a food reserve for wintry periods, provides for the development of the other one, from which visible growth develops. In warm and humid climates, many terrestrial orchids do not need pseudobulbs. Epiphytic orchids, those that grow upon a support, have modified aerial roots that can sometimes be a few meters long. In the older parts of the roots, a modified spongy epidermis, called velamen, has the function of absorbing humidity, it can have a silvery-grey, white or brown appearance. In some orchids, the velamen includes spongy and fibrous bodies near the passage cells, called tilosomes; the cells of the root epidermis grow at a right angle to the axis of the root to allow them to get a firm grasp on their support.
Nutrients for epiphytic orchids come from mineral dust, organic detritus, animal droppings and other substances collecting among on their supporting surfaces. The base of the stem of sympodial epiphytes, or in some species the entire stem, may be thickened to form a pseudobulb that contains nutrients and water for drier periods; the pseudobulb has a smooth surface with lengthwise grooves, can have different shapes conical or oblong. Its size is variable; some Dendrobium species have long, canelike pseudobulbs with short, rounded leaves over the whole length. With ageing, the pseudobulb becomes dormant. At this stage, it is called a backbulb. Backbulbs still hold nutrition for the plant, but a pseudobulb takes over, exploiting the last reserves accumulated in the backbulb, which dies off, too. A pseudobulb lives for about five years. Orchids without noticeable pseudobulbs are said to have growths, an individual component of a sympodial plant. Like most monocots, orchids have simple leaves with parallel veins, although some Vanilloideae have reticulate venation.
Leaves may be ovate, lanceolate, or orbiculate, variable in size on the individual plant. Their characteristics are diagnostic, they are alternate on the stem folded lengthwise along the centre, have no stipules. Orchid leaves have siliceous bodies called stegmata in the vascular bundle sheaths and are fibrous; the structure of the leaves corresponds to the specific habitat of the plant. Species that bask in sunlight, or grow on sites which can be very dry, have thick, leathery leaves and the laminae are covered by a waxy cuticle to retain their necessary water supply. Shade-loving species, on the other hand, have thin leaves; the leaves of most orchids are perennial, that is, they live for several years, while others those with plicate leaves as in Catasetum, shed them annually and de
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur