Cape Arkona

Cape Arkona is a 45-metre high cape on the island of Rügen in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It forms the tip of the Wittow peninsula, just a few kilometres north of the Jasmund National Park; the protected landscape of Cape Arkona, together with the fishing village of Vitt, belongs to the municipality of Putgarten and is one of the most popular tourist destinations on Rügen, receiving about 800,000 visitors annually. On the cape there are two lighthouses, a navigation tower, two military bunker complexes, the Slavic temple fortress of Jaromarsburg and several tourist buildings; because of its geology and the weathering that occurs here, there are frequent coastal collapses in winter. Cape Arkona is referred to as "the northernmost point of Rügen", not true. One kilometre to the north-west, there is a point on the steep coast, known as the Gellort, a little further north. Directly at the foot of the Gellort is a 165-ton glacial erratic boulder known as the Siebenschneiderstein; the cape offers an impressive view of the island, both from sea.

The smaller of the two lighthouses was built of brick in 1826/27 based on plans by Karl Friedrich Schinkel and taken into service in 1828. It has a focal height of 60 m above sea level; the rooms of the three-storey tower are used as operating and storage rooms. It is called the Schinkelturm. On 31 March 1905 it was taken out of service, it is the second oldest lighthouse on the German Baltic Sea coast after the Travemünde Lighthouse. The largest tower was built in 1901/02 right next to the old tower and entered service on 1 April 1905, it is 35 metres high and has a focal height of 75 m above NN. It stands on an octagonal granite base. For 90 years its light source was two arc lamps, but they were replaced in 1995 by a Metal-halide lamp. This, combined with the rotating triple optics, emits 3 flashes every 17 seconds; the old naval navigation tower was acted as a marine navigation beacon. From 1911 to 1925, attempts were made - which were ground-breaking for that time - to improve navigation for the Sassnitz-Trelleborg railway ferry, established in 1909, using the emission of radio waves.

The foundations of the associated radio operating facility inside the ramparts have survived to this day. The technical facilities of the navigation tower were destroyed, however, in 1945 All three towers were renovated in the early 1990s and are open to visitors. In the old lighthouse, there is now a branch of the registry office. Marriages may be commemorated here on a small plaque in the ground in front of the tower; the navigation tower is used as studio. On each tower there is a viewing platform from which there are unobstructed views of Rügen and the peninsula of Wittow. In clear weather you can see as far as the Danish island of Møn. From the 9th to the 12th centuries, the Jaromarsburg was a cult site for the Rani, a Slavic tribe, dedicated to their god Svantevit. Located at the tip of the cape, it was protected on three sides by cliffs and from the land side by a 25-metre-high burgwall; the temple located within the ramparts grew in importance as a religious centre for the Slavs of Mecklenburg after the destruction of Rethra in 1068.

In 1168, the Danish king Valdemar I conquered Rügen which became Christian. Churches were established and the castle and its temple destroyed. At the tip of Arkona in recent centuries, the cliffs have collapsed into the sea, with the result that only the ramparts of the Jaromarsburg are still visible today. Several metres west of Cape Arkona is the Königstreppe, whose 230 steps climb up the 42-metre-high cliff 230; the Swedish king, Frederick IRügen belonged to Sweden – had a daymark erected near the present-day steps during the Russo-Swedish War in order to warn the population. Hence the spot was known as the Königssteig or "King's Climb". In 1833, for the arrival of the steamboat Hercules during its Imperial Russian chronometer expedition, the Prussian king, Frederick William III - Rügen was now Prussian - had a landing stage and flight of steps built. From this point in 1865, the first telegraph cable was laid under the Baltic Sea to Sweden. With the rise of the island's coastal resorts, tourism at Cape Arkona grew.

Many travelers came by excursion boats. The landing stage was, however destroyed by the storm flood of 1953; the new Königstreppe steps were completed in 1995 at the same historic spot. South of the remnants of the ramparts at Jaromarsburg are the Veilchentreppe, a descent to the beach that runs from Arkona to Vitt; the name comes from the violets. There are 2 bunkers in the immediate neighbourhood of the 2 lighthouses; the smaller, older bunker dates from Wehrmacht times and, in GDR days, housed an outpost of the 6th Border Brigade. It is called the Arkona Bunker; the larger, newer bunker was built from 1979 to 1986 and acted as a command post for the Sixth Flotilla, stationed on Bug, the Baltic Fleet. Starting from a main central tunnel with two entrances, there are several autonomous individual bunkers with a total area of 2,000 square metres, they comprise nine small ones, made of prefabricated concrete elements. The FB-75 type bunker had an intermediate floor level, where the sleeping areas were located, an emergency exit.


Justin Hall

Justin Hall is an American journalist and entrepreneur, best known as a pioneer blogger. Born in Chicago, Hall graduated Francis W. Parker High School in 1993. In 1994, while a student at Swarthmore College, Justin started his web-based diary Justin's Links from the Underground, which offered one of the earliest guided tours of the web. Over time, the site came to focus on Hall's life in intimate detail. In December, 2004, New York Times Magazine referred to him as "the founding father of personal blogging."In 1994, during a break from college Hall joined HotWired, the first commercial web magazine started within Wired magazine. There, he began a long-term working partnership with critic and teacher Howard Rheingold. Hall would become a freelance journalist covering video games, mobile technology and internet culture, he published analysis from game conferences such as E3 as well as the Tokyo Game Show. He chronicled the first Indie Game Jam in 2002. From late 2001 and 2003, Hall was based in Japan Tokyo and Akita, authoring a guidebook Just In Tokyo.

In 2007, Hall graduated from the MFA program in the USC Interactive Media Division. His thesis project was an attempt to make surfing the web into a multiplayer game: PMOG, the Passively Multiplayer Online Game. Hall went on to serve as CEO of GameLayers, which raised $2 million to turn PMOG into The Nethernet, a MMO in a Firefox toolbar; the Nethernet failed to turn a profit, GameLayers closed down as a company. The server and client software for the Nethernet was released as open source and Hall went on to publish A Story of GameLayers, "open-sourcing our business process". At present, Hall lives in California, he served as a Producer on ngmoco:)'s Touch Pets series, became ngmoco:)'s Director of Culture & Communications. After working for ngmoco:)'s parent company DeNA as a Recruiter, Hall left the company in mid-2013. In 2015 he released a self-produced short documentary Overshare: the Story exploring his "extremely personal blogging".. In September 2017, Hall began work as co-founder & Chief Technology Officer for, a California benefit corporation delivering recreational cannabis, built on a domain he registered in 1994.

Playing a Life Online - an audio recording March 11, 2006 "The Fantasy Life of Coder Boys", April 2003, Wired "Where the Geeks Are", August 19, 1999, Rolling Stone "Today's Visions of the Science of Tomorrow", January 4, 2003, New York Times op-ed "Hire This Boy To Play Your Video Games", October 12, 2000, Rolling Stone Just In Tokyo, 2002, Garrett County Press. ISBN 978-1-891053-50-4 J. Goldstein & J. Raessens, Handbook of Computer Game Studies, MIT Press, 2005: Chapter on "Future of Games: Mobile Gaming" T. Fullerton & C. Swain, Game Design Workshop, CMP Books, 2004: Sidebar/chapter on "The Indie Game Jam." V. Burnham, Supercade: A Visual History of the Videogame Age, MIT Press, 2001: Essays on the Apple ][, Burger Time and Spy Hunter. Hall was featured in the documentary Home Page, he appeared nude as an actor in Blood. Hall appears in the science fiction film Radio Free Steve. Justin Hall, Passively Multiplayer Online Games. International Journal of Communication, 16 November 2006 Yahoo Internet Life, May 2001, "Who let the Blogs out?"

Jeffrey Rosen, Your Blog or Mine? New York Times Magazine, 19 December 2004 Rosenberg, Say Everything: How Blogging Began, What It's Becoming, Why It Matters, New York: Crown Publishers, 2009. ISBN 978-0-307-45136-1 Official website "Dark Night" video clip of his breakdown July 2010 Photo of Justin Hall by Howard Rheingold


In recreational mathematics, a polystick is a polyform with a line segment as the basic shape. A polystick is a connected set of segments in a regular grid. A square polystick is a connected subset of a regular square grid. A triangular polystick is a connected subset of a regular triangular grid. Polysticks are classified according to; when reflections are considered distinct we have the one-sided polysticks. When rotations and reflections are not considered to be distinct shapes, we have the free polysticks. Thus, for example, there are 7 one-sided square tristicks because two of the five shapes have left and right versions; the set of n-sticks that contain no closed loops is equivalent, with some duplications, to the set of -ominos, as each vertex at the end of every line segment can be replaced with a single square of a polyomino. In general, an n-stick with m loops is equivalent to a -omino. Polysticks Puzzles & Solutions, at Polyforms Puzzler Covering the Aztec Diamond with One-sided Tetrasticks, Alfred Wassermann, University of Bayreuth, Germany Polypolylines, at Math Magic