SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cape Cod

Cape Cod is a geographic cape extending into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern corner of mainland Massachusetts, in the northeastern United States. Its historic, maritime character and ample beaches attract heavy tourism during the summer months; as defined by the Cape Cod Commission's enabling legislation, Cape Cod is conterminous with Barnstable County, Massachusetts. It extends from Provincetown in the northeast to Woods Hole in the southwest, is bordered by Plymouth to the northwest. Since 1914, most of Cape Cod has been separated from the mainland by the Cape Cod Canal; the canal cuts 7 miles across the base of the peninsula, though small portions of the Cape Cod towns of Bourne and Sandwich lie on the mainland side of the canal. Two highway bridges cross the Cape Cod Canal: the Bourne Bridge. In addition, the Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge carries railway freight and limited passenger services onto the Cape. Cape territory is divided into 15 towns with many villages. Like Cape Cod itself, the islands south of the Cape have evolved from whaling and trading areas to become resort destinations, attracting wealthy families and other tourists.

These include Martha's Vineyard. Both islands are famous summer tourist destinations accessed by ferry from several locations on the cape; the phrases Cape Cod and the Islands and the Cape and Islands are used to describe the whole region of Barnstable County, Dukes County, Nantucket County. Several small islands right off Cape Cod, including Monomoy Island, Monomoscoy Island, Popponesset Island, Seconsett Island, are in Barnstable County; the Forbes family-owned Naushon Island was first purchased by John Murray Forbes. Naushon is one of the Elizabeth Islands, many of which are owned. One of the publicly accessible Elizabeths is the southernmost island in the chain, with a year-round population of 52 people. Several prominent families have established compounds or estates on the larger islands, making these islands some of the wealthiest resorts in the Northeast, yet they retain much of the early merchant trading and whaling culture. Cape Cod in particular is a popular retirement area, and the average age of residents is the highest of any area in New England.

Cape Cod is majority Democrat, but by a smaller margin than the rest of Massachusetts. The bulk of the land in the area is glacial terminal moraine and represents the southernmost extent of glacial coverage in southeast New England; the name "Cape Cod", as it was first used in 1602, applied only to the tip of the peninsula. It remained that way for 125 years, until the "Precinct of Cape Cod" was incorporated as the Town of Provincetown. No longer in "official" use over the ensuing decades, the name came to mean all of the land east of the Manomet and Scusset rivers – along the line that became the Cape Cod Canal; the creation of the canal separated the majority of the peninsula from the mainland. Most agencies, including the Cape Cod Commission and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, treat the Cape as an island with regard to disaster preparedness, groundwater management, the like. Cape Codders tend to refer to the land on the mainland side of the canal as "off-Cape", though the legal delineation of Cape Cod, coincident to the boundaries of Barnstable County, includes portions of the towns of Bourne and Sandwich that are located north of the canal.

Cape Cod Bay lies in between Cape Cod and the mainland – bounded on the north by a horizontal line between Provincetown and Marshfield. North of Cape Cod Bay is Massachusetts Bay, which contains the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, located 5 miles north of Provincetown; the Atlantic Ocean is to the east of Cape Cod, to the southwest of the Cape is Buzzards Bay. The Cape Cod Canal, completed in 1916, connects Buzzards Bay to Cape Cod Bay. Cape Cod extends 65 miles into the Atlantic Ocean, with a breadth of between 1–20 miles, covers more than 400 miles of shoreline, its elevation ranges from 306 feet at its highest point, at the top of Pine Hill, in the Bourne portion of Joint Base Cape Cod, down to sea level. One of the biggest barrier islands in the world, Cape Cod shields much of the Massachusetts coastline from North Atlantic storm waves; this protection erodes the Cape's shoreline at the expense of its cliffs, while protecting towns from Fairhaven to Marshfield. Cape Cod and the Islands are part of a continuous archipelagic region consisting of a thin line of islands stretching west to include Long Island.

This region is and collectively known by naturalists as the Outer Lands. Cape Cod incorporates all of Barnstable County, which comprises 15 towns: Bourne, Falmouth, Barnstable, Harwich, Brewster, Orleans, Wellfleet and Provincetown; each of these towns include a number of villages. Barnstable, the most populated municipality on Cape Cod, is the only one to have adopted a city form of government, whose legislative body is an elected 13-member council. However, like other smaller Massachusetts cities, Barnstable retained its "Town of Barnstable" moniker. All of the other towns elect a 5-member Board of Selectmen as the executive policy-setting board, utilize Town Meetings as their legislative body. To the south of Cape Cod lie Nantuc

Paracas Candelabra

The Paracas Candelabra called the Candelabra of the Andes, is a well-known prehistoric geoglyph found on the northern face of the Paracas Peninsula at Pisco Bay in Peru. Pottery found nearby has been radio carbon dated to 200 BCE, the time of the Paracas culture; the design is cut two feet into the soil, with stones from a date placed around it. The figure is large enough to be seen 12 miles at sea. A variety of popular myths have arisen: one attributes it to José de San Martín; some believe. Although the exact age of the Candelabra geoglyph is unknown, archaeologists have found pottery around the site dating back to around 200 BCE; this pottery belonged to the Paracas people, although whether they were involved in the creation of the geoglyph is not known. The reason for the Candelabra's creation is unknown, although it is most a representation of the trident, a lightning rod of the god Viracocha, seen in mythology throughout South America, it has been suggested that the Candelabra was built as a sign to sailors, or as a symbolic representation of a hallucinogenic plant called Jimsonweed.

Nazca Lines 500 m large Candelabra geoglyph grown from trees since 1950, 100 km north of Montevideo, Uruguay http://www.kmatthews.org.uk/cult_archaeology/out_of_place_artefacts_13.html

Pandeli Cale

Pandeli Cale was one of the signatories of Albanian Declaration of Independence, who subsequently served as Minister of Agriculture in the Provisional Government of Albania. Pandeli Cale was born in Korçë on 28 March 1879, he finished the French Classic Lyceum in Egypt. During 1900-1904 he worked in the Bucharest Albanian colony, returning in Albania in 1904. Sent by the Albanian diaspora in Romania to be their representative in southern Albania, Cale aimed to influence Orthodox Christians to join an uprising if Muslims and their beys would rise against the empire. Cale was insistent on forming guerrilla bands and suggested that care should be taken when choosing teher leaders from among Albanian patriots, he was one of the co-founders of the Secret Albanian Committee in Thessaloniki, together with Themistokli Gërmenji, Midhat Frashëri. He was president of the society "Freedom's Band" in 1908. In February 1909, he was elected secretary of the society "Lidhja orthodhokse", he was quite active during the Albanian uprisings of 1910 – 1912, participating in one local guerrilla.

He was participant of the November 5, 1912 meeting, voluntarily accompanying Ismail Qemali in his way to Albania. On November 28, 1912, as a delegate of Korça region, he signed the Albanian declaration of independence as "Pandeli Cale", he was elected Minister of Agriculture and Commerce in Ismail Qemali's cabinet. He led the negotiations with Count Leopold Berchtold, foreign minister of Austria–Hungary, the British and Italian ambassadors which led to those countries' support for Albanian autonomy; the first years of World War I would find him in Switzerland, Ukraine and France. In 1919, he returned to Albania, he is mentioned as part of the Albanian in the League of Nations Committee of the Peace Conference in 1919, together with Fan Noli, Hil Mosi, Gjergj Adhamidhi, lobbying for the Albanian membership application, so much contested by Greece and Yugoslavia. Pandeli was the signer of the Kapshtica Protocol; the same year he got elected Mayer of Korçë, in February 1921 member of the first Albanian parliament.

Died due to serious health implications in an hospital in Thessaloniki, Greece. "History of Albanian People" Albanian Academy of Science. ISBN 9992716231