Severe Tropical Cyclone Hamish was a powerful tropical cyclone that caused extensive damage to the Great Barrier Reef and coastal Queensland, Australia, in March 2009. The eighth named storm of the 2008–09 Australian region cyclone season, Hamish developed out of an area of low pressure on 4 March near the Cape York Peninsula; the storm developed into a Category 1 cyclone on the Australian intensity scale the next day. On 6 March, an eye developed, Hamish strengthened into a Category 3 cyclone. Deep convection developed around the eye, fueling further intensification, which allowed the storm to become a Category 5 tropical cyclone late on 7 March. Hamish made its closest approach, but continued moving southeastward; the cyclone weakened and turned back towards the northwest, weakening into a remnant low on 11 March, before dissipating on 14 March. Severe Tropical Cyclone Hamish was first identified on 4 March 2009 by the Bureau of Meteorology, as a tropical low over the Coral Sea. Drifting westward, the system became better defined, developing convective banding features that day.
Situated in an area favouring tropical cyclone development, characterised by warm waters, low wind shear and upper-level diffluence, the low was able to strengthen. On the following day, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert as convection wrapped around the centre of circulation and an anticyclone developed over the system, allowing for good outflow. Hours the BoM classified the low as Tropical Cyclone Hamish as the storm began to moved southward in response to a mid-level ridge situated to the east. Shortly thereafter, the JTWC began monitoring Hamish as a tropical storm. Not long after being classified a tropical cyclone, Hamish began to undergo rapid intensification becoming a severe tropical cyclone, a storm with winds exceeding 120 km/h, on 6 March. Deep convection continued to develop around a well-defined low pressure centre, allowing for further strengthening. Additionally, satellite images depicted. A steady south-easterly track was established by this time as the ridge to the east and a trough over central Australia prevented westward movement.
Based on radar observations, the eye of Hamish was about 28 km in diameter by 7 March. That day, the storm further intensified into a Category 5 cyclone on the Australian intensity scale, becoming the first to do so since Cyclone George in 2007; that day, Hamish attained its peak intensity with winds of 215 km/h along with a barometric pressure of 924 mbar. At the same time, the JTWC assessed the storm to have nearly become a Category 5 equivalent on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. At its peak, Hamish was a small cyclone. After maintaining Category 5 status for 24 hours, Hamish began to weaken as the interaction with coastal Australia and increased wind shear took their toll. Late on 8 March, an eyewall replacement cycle had begun to take shape, allowing the storm to maintain Category 4 intensity for the following few days. By 10 March, the storm began to show signs of steady weakening as shear continued to increase due to an approaching trough from the west; that day, the storm began to slow as it moved within a region of light steering currents.
Substantial loss of convection took place during this time, causing Hamish to weaken below severe tropical cyclone status by 11 March. Convection failed to redevelop over the centre of Hamish throughout 11 March, prompting the JTWC to issue their final advisory on the system; the BoM declared Hamish a remnant low around the same time. The remnants of Hamish tracked in an erratic, north-westward direction over the next few days, backtracking over where it had been days earlier; the system dissipated on 14 March off the coast of Australia, never having made landfall. Following the formation of Hamish as a tropical low on 4 March, a Cyclone Watch was issued for areas between Cape Melville and Bowen. Early the next morning, a Cyclone Warning was declared for areas between Cape Melville and Cardwell and the watch was extended to Hayman Island and to Mackay and St Lawrence; as Hamish travelled parallel to the coastline, the watches and warnings shifted towards the south, with the warnings between Cape Melville and Cape Flattery being cancelled during the afternoon of 6 March.
New Cyclone Warnings were issued for areas between Cape Lucinda. Due to heavy rains produced by the outer bands of the cyclone, Flood Warnings were issued for areas between Cooktown and Townsville. On 7 March, Queensland Premier Anna Bligh signed a Declaration of Disaster Situation which permitted Australian officials to evacuate residents from the areas most at risk from Cyclone Hamish. People were advised to take every action necessary to prepare for the storm and be ready to evacuate on short notice. Although in the direct path of Hamish, no evacuations took place on Hayman Island; the 3,000 residents and tourists on Hamilton Island were advised to have the preparations complete by nightfall. Most of the boats on the island were removed from the water in attempts to protect them from rough seas. Non-essential staff and tourists were evacuated from the small resort islands of South Molle Island and Long islands. In the Whitsundays to shelters located on larger islands. A state of emergency was declared for severa
Rame Head (Victoria)
Ram Head or since 1970 Rame Head is a coastal headland in eastern Victoria, Australia. It is within the Croajingolong National Park; the local aboriginal people call Kouowee. James Cook named today's Rame Head as he passed by on 19 April 1770. Cook named Rame Head Ram Head, after a point that can be seen going into Plymouth Sound, Cook wrote the name Ram in Modern English and that spelling was adopted by Aaron Arrowsmith, George Bass, Matthew Flinders, James Grant, Louis de Freycinet and John Hawesworth when commissioned by the Admiralty to edit Cook's papers and journal and that spelling became official when the Admiralty published Matthew Flinders' charts, dated January and February 1814; the Royal Navy and the Australian Navy continued to use Cook's spelling of "Ram" for the headland in Australia. In the early 1800s. In 1971, the Victorian Government gazetted the point as "Rame" to match its Cornish namesake. In Cook's time, Naval Charts used Cook's spelling for the Headland in Cornwall, the small village nearby used the New modem English spelling, we use today.
Around 1810 the small village and Headland, in Cornwall, reverted to the Old Modern English spelling of Rame. There are many grave stones in the area, dating back to the early and mid 1700's that used "Ram". In 1986 one of Australia’s foremost maritime historians, Lieutenant Commander Geoffrey Ingleton RAN - "An accomplished and fine Cartographer" www.navyhistory.org.au/obituary-geoffrey-ingleton-1908-1998/ Wrote in his book -'Matthew Flinders: Navigator and Chartmaker': "The coastlines of both New South Wales and Van Diemens Land were delineated by Flinders, considering the nature and quickness of the survey. Interesting was Flinders' correct identification of Cook's Ram Head, so named for its' similarity to Rame Head in England in the western approaches to Plymouth. Flinders was familiar with its' characteristic appearance - a conical hill on a distinctive promontory; the only feature on this coast SW of Cape Howe which meets that description is the present Rame Head. This historic headland is identical with that shown on Flinders' charts.
There is a walking track to the "summit" of the head. However, this point lacks a clear vantage point over surrounding scrub, is marked by a trig point. Placenames Australia, journal of the Australian National Placenames Survey, June 2002 Rame Head at Geoscience Australia Captain James Cook Captain Cook's Journal of the First Voyage Around the World A Voyage to Terra Australis
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed of sand-sized mineral particles or rock fragments. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen's reaction series. Like uncemented sand, sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds form visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are composed of sandstone allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. Fine-grained aquifers, such as sandstones, are better able to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices, such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Quartz-bearing sandstone can be changed into quartzite through metamorphism related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.
Sandstones are clastic in origin. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a pre-existing rock or be mono-minerallic crystals; the cements binding these grains together are calcite and silica. Grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye, including siltstones and shales, are called argillaceous sediments; the formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. First, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. Once it has accumulated, the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by the pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains; the most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried.
Colors will be tan or yellow. A predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe and Mongolia; the regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a primary building material or as a facing stone, over other forms of construction. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone, which, in finer detail, include its grain size and composition and, in more general detail, include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine, as illustrated by the following broad groupings: Terrestrial environmentsRivers Alluvial fans Glacial outwash Lakes Deserts Marine environmentsDeltas Beach and shoreface sands Tidal flats Offshore bars and sand waves Storm deposits Turbidites Framework grains are sand-sized detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a sandstone.
These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition: Quartz framework grains are the dominant minerals in most clastic sedimentary rocks. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events, while allowing the grains to display some degree of rounding. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock, which are felsic in origin and from older sandstones that have been recycled. Feldspathic framework grains are the second most abundant mineral in sandstones. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: plagioclase feldspars; the different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8, this represents a complete solid solution. Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8.
Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, called lithic fragments or clasts. Lithic fragments can be any fine-grained or coarse-grained igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rock, although the most common lithic fragments found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. Common accessory minerals include micas, olivine and corundum. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that
Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The harbour is an inlet of the Tasman Sea, it is the location of the Sydney Opera Sydney Harbour Bridge. The location of the first European settlement and colony on the Australian mainland, Port Jackson has continued to play a key role in the history and development of Sydney. Many recreational events are based on or around the harbour itself the Sydney New Year's Eve celebrations and the starting point of the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race; the waterways of Port Jackson are managed by the Maritime Services. Sydney Harbour National Park protects a number of islands and foreshore areas, swimming spots, bushwalking tracks and picnic areas; the land around Port Jackson was occupied at the time of the European arrival and colonisation by the Eora clans, including the Gadigal and Wangal. The Gadigal occupied the land stretching along the south side of Port Jackson from what is now South Head, in an arc west to the present Darling Harbour.
The Cammeraygal lived on the northern side of the harbour. The area along the southern banks of the Parramatta River to Rose Hill belonged to the Wangal; the Eora occupied west to Parramatta. The first recorded European discovery of Sydney Harbour was by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook named the inlet after Sir George Jackson, one of the Lord Commissioners of the British Admiralty, Judge Advocate of the Fleet; as the Endeavour sailed past the entrance at Sydney Heads, Cook wrote in his journal "at noon we were...about 2 or 3 miles from the land and abrest of a bay or harbour within there appeared to be a safe anchorage which I called Port Jackson." No-one on the ship recorded seeing any of the Harbour's many islands. This would have been because their line of sight was blocked by the high promontories of South Head and Bradleys Head that shape its dog-leg entrance. However, these islands were known to Captain Arthur Phillip, the First Fleet commander, before he departed England in 1787. Cook had seen the main body of the Harbour in 1770 and, on returning home, he had reported his important discovery to the Admiralty.
An explanation of Cook's discovery was first proposed in the book Lying for the Admiralty. While the Endeavour was anchored in Botany Bay, Cook may have followed one of the ancient Aboriginal tracks that connect Botany Bay to Port Jackson, a distance of some ten kilometres; the Admiralty had ordered Cook to conceal strategically valuable discoveries, so he omitted the main Harbour from his journal and chart. Eighteen years on 21 January 1788, after arriving at Botany Bay, Governor Arthur Phillip took a longboat and two cutters up the coast to sound the entrance and examine Cook's Port Jackson. Phillip first stayed over night at Camp Cove moved down the harbour, landing at Sydney Cove and Manly Cove before returning to Botany Bay on the afternoon of 24 January. Phillip returned to Sydney Cove in HM Armed Tender Supply on 26 January 1788, where he established the first colony in Australia to become the city of Sydney. In his first dispatch from the colony back to England, Governor Phillip noted that:...we had the satisfaction of finding the finest harbour in the world, in which a thousand sail of the line may ride in the most perfect security...
The Great White Fleet, the United States Navy battle fleet, arrived in Port Jackson in August 1908 by order of U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt. From 1938, seaplanes landed in Sydney Harbour on Rose Bay, making this Sydney's first international airport. In 1942, to protect Sydney Harbour from a submarine attack, the Sydney Harbour anti-submarine boom net was constructed, it spanned the harbour from Green Point, Watsons Bay to the battery at Georges Head, on the other side of the harbour. On the night of 31 May 1942, three Japanese midget submarines entered the harbour, one of which became entangled in the western end of the boom net's central section. Unable to free their submarine, the crew detonated charges. A second midget submarine came to grief in the two crew committing suicide; the third submarine fired two torpedoes at USS Chicago before leaving the harbour. In November 2006, this submarine was found off Sydney's Northern Beaches; the anti-submarine boom net was demolished soon after World War II, all that remains are the foundations of the old boom net winch house, which can be viewed on Green Point, Watsons Bay.
Today, the Australian War Memorial has on display a composite of the two midget submarines salvaged from Sydney Harbour. The conning tower of one of the midget submarines is on display at the RAN Heritage Centre, Garden Island, Sydney. Fort Denison is a former penal site and defensive facility occupying a small island located north-east of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney Harbour. There are fortifications at elsewhere, some of which are now heritage listed; the earliest date from the 1830s, were designed to defend Sydney from seaborn attack or convict uprisings. There are four historical fortifications located between Taronga Zoo and Middle Head, they are: the Middle Head Fortifications, the Georges Head Battery, the Lower Georges Heights Commanding Position and a small fort located on Bradleys Head, known as the Bradleys Head Fortification Complex; the forts were built from sandstone quarried on site and consist of various tunnels, underground rooms, open batteries and casemated batteries, shell rooms, gunpowder magazines and trenches.
Geologically, Port Jackson is a drowned river v
Broken Bay, a semi–mature tide-dominated drowned valley estuary, is a large inlet of the Tasman Sea located about 50 kilometres north of Sydney central business district on the coast of New South Wales, Australia. Broken Bay is the first major bay north of Sydney Harbour. Broken Bay has its origin at the confluence of the Hawkesbury River and Brisbane Water and flows into the Tasman Sea; the total catchment area of the bay is 17.1 square kilometres. The entrance to Broken Bay lies between the northern Box Barrenjoey Head to the south. Barrenjoey Lighthouse was constructed in 1881 to guide ships away from the prominent headland; the bay comprises three arms, being the prominent estuary of the Hawkesbury River in the west, Pittwater to the south, Brisbane Water to the north. These three arms are flooded rivers formed at a time when the sea level was much lower than it is at the present day; the Hawkesbury River flows from the confluence of the Grose and Nepean Rivers at the base of the Blue Mountains.
Pittwater is the northernmost extent of the greater Sydney area. Pittwater's calm waters make it a popular sailing area. West Head, west of Barrenjoey Head, marks the divide between the Hawkesbury. Brisbane Water is the northern arm of Broken Bay and has the towns of Gosford and Woy Woy on its shores. Lion Island, named for its profile's resemblance to a Sphinx from some viewpoints, is located at the entrance of Broken Bay. Lion Island Nature Reserve covers the entire island, is home to a colony of fairy penguins. James Cook recorded "broken land" seen north of Port Jackson just before sunset on 7 May 1770, named it Broken Bay. However, there has been some controversy over whether what is now known as'Broken Bay' was what was sighted by Cook. Matthew Flinders, The colonists have called this place Broken Bay, but it is not what was so named by Captain Cook. Ray Parkin in his book H. M. Bark Endeavour claims that the modern'Broken Bay' was passed unremarked at night, that Cook was in fact referring to the area around Narrabeen Lagoon.
Matthew Flinders placed Cook's'Broken Bay' at 33° 42' South, near to the mouth of Narrabeen Lagoon. Whatever the case, Governor Phillip was the first to examine the present day Broken Bay in a longboat from the Sirius on 2 March 1788. On 28 November 2005, documentary film-maker Damien Lay claimed that the wreckage of M-24, a Japanese midget submarine involved in the attack on Sydney Harbour in 1942 and disappeared soon afterward, was buried under sand on the seabed, just east of Lion Island. Lay claimed to have confirmed that copper wiring found at the site was consistent with that used in similar Japanese vessels. A few weeks New South Wales Planning Minister Frank Sartor announced that sonar scans conducted by the New South Wales Heritage Office at the location specified had found no trace of the lost submarine. M-24 was found 13 kilometres south of Broken Bay, 5 kilometres off Bungan Head, proving the hypothesis that M-24 chose to not draw attention to its mother submarines to the south of Sydney Harbour and instead moved north towards Broken Bay.
First voyage of James Cook
The first voyage of James Cook was a combined Royal Navy and Royal Society expedition to the south Pacific Ocean aboard HMS Endeavour, from 1768 to 1771. It was the first of three Pacific voyages; the aims of this first expedition were to observe the 1769 transit of Venus across the Sun, to seek evidence of the postulated Terra Australis Incognita or "unknown southern land". The voyage was commissioned by King George III and commanded by Lieutenant James Cook, a junior naval officer with good skills in cartography and mathematics. Departing from Plymouth Dockyard in August 1768, the expedition crossed the Atlantic, rounded Cape Horn and reached Tahiti in time to observe the transit of Venus. Cook set sail into the uncharted ocean to the south, stopping at the Pacific islands of Huahine and Raiatea to claim them for Great Britain, unsuccessfully attempting to land at Rurutu. In September 1769 the expedition reached New Zealand, being the second Europeans to visit there, following the first European discovery by Abel Tasman 127 years earlier.
Cook and his crew spent the following six months charting the New Zealand coast, before resuming their voyage westward across open sea. In April 1770 they became the first Europeans to reach the east coast of Australia, making landfall at Point Hicks, proceeding to Botany Bay; the expedition continued northward along the Australian coastline, narrowly avoiding shipwreck on the Great Barrier Reef. In October 1770 the badly damaged Endeavour came into the port of Batavia in the Dutch East Indies, her crew sworn to secrecy about the lands they had discovered, they resumed their journey on 26 December, rounded the Cape of Good Hope on 13 March 1771, reached the English port of Deal on 12 July. The voyage lasted three years; the year following his return Cook set out on a second voyage of the Pacific, which lasted from 1772 to 1775. His third and final voyage lasted from 1776 to 1779. On 16 February 1768 the Royal Society petitioned King George III to finance a scientific expedition to the Pacific to study and observe the 1769 transit of Venus across the sun to enable the measurement of the distance from the Earth to the Sun.
Royal approval was granted for the expedition, the Admiralty elected to combine the scientific voyage with a confidential mission to search the south Pacific for signs of the postulated continent Terra Australis Incognita. The aims of the expedition were revealed in the press: "To-morrow morning Mr. Banks, Dr. Solano, with Mr. Green, the Astronomer, will set out for Deal, to embark on board the Endeavour, Capt. Cook, for the South Seas, under the direction of the Royal Society, to observe the Transit of Venus next summer, to make discoveries to the South and West of Cape Horn"; the London Gazetteer was more explicit when it reported on 18 August 1768: "The gentlemen, who are to sail in a few days for George's Land, the new discovered island in the Pacific ocean, with an intention to observe the Transit of Venus, are we are credibly informed, to attempt some new discoveries in that vast unknown tract, above the latitude 40". Another article reported that "the principal and sole national advantage" of the island discovered by Captain Wallace, Tahiti, was "its situation for exploring the Terra Incognita of the Southern Hemisphere", that, "The Endeavour, a North-Country Cat, is purchased by the Government, commanded by a Lieutenant of the Navy.
The Gazette de France of 20 June 1768 reported that the British Admiralty was outfitting two sloops of war to go to "the newly discovered island", from whence they would "essay the discovery of the Southern Continent". The Royal Society suggested command be given to Scottish geographer Alexander Dalrymple, who had urged that an expedition be sent to make contact with the estimated 50 million inhabitants of the Southern Continent with whom, he said, there was "at present no trade from Europe thither, though the scraps from this table would be sufficient to maintain the power and sovereignty of Britain, by employing all its manufacturers and ships"; as a condition of his acceptance, Dalrymple demanded a brevet commission as a captain in the Royal Navy. However, First Lord of the Admiralty Edward Hawke refused, going so far as to say he would rather cut off his right hand than give command of a Navy vessel to someone not educated as a seaman. In refusing Dalrymple's command, Hawke was influenced by previous insubordination aboard the sloop HMS Paramour in 1698, when naval officers had refused to take orders from civilian commander Dr. Edmond Halley.
The impasse was broken when the Admiralty proposed James Cook, a naval officer with a background in mathematics and cartography. Acceptable to both parties, Cook was promoted to Lieutenant and named as commander of the expedition; the vessel chosen by the Admiralty for the voyage was a merchant collier named Earl of Pembroke, launched in June 1764 from the coal and whaling port of Whitby in North Yorkshire. She was ship-rigged and sturdily built with a broad, flat bow, a square stern and a long box-like body with a deep hold. A flat-bottomed design made her well-suited to sailing in shallow waters and allowed her to be beached for loading and unloading of cargo and for basic repairs without requiring a dry dock, her length was 106 feet, with a beam of 29 feet 3 inches, measuring 36871⁄94 tons burthenEarl of Pembroke was purchased by the Admiralty in May 1768 for £2,840 10s 11d and sailed to Deptford on the River Thames to be prepared for the voyage. Her hull was sheathed and caulked, a third internal deck installed to provide cabins
Cape Byron is the easternmost point of the mainland of Australia. It is about 3 km east of the town of projects into the Pacific Ocean; the cape was named by British explorer Captain James Cook, when he passed the area on 15 May 1770, to honour British explorer John Byron who circumnavigated the globe in HMS Dolphin from 1764 to 1766. The Cape is part of the Cape Byron State Conservation Area. Built in 1901, the Cape Byron Lighthouse is the last of the great 19th-century Victorian era lighthouses managed by the National Parks and Wildlife Service, it is constructed from concrete blocks and stands on the most easterly point of the Australian mainland. The Cape Byron walking track winds through the Cape Byron State Conservation Area; the 3.7 kilometres loop walk can be started at any point with parking available at Captain Cook Lookout, Palm Valley, Wategos Beach and the Lighthouse. Cape Byron is part of the 22,000 hectare Cape Byron Marine Park, established in November 2002; the area is noted for its wildlife, with the whale watching industry a significant contributor to the local economy.
Cape Byron Marine Park is a multiple-use marine park which includes protected areas where fishing and collecting are prohibited, general-use areas which support both commercial and recreational fishing. It extends from the Brunswick River to Lennox Head, from mean high water out to three nautical miles from the coast or islands, it includes the tidal waters of the Brunswick River and Tallow creeks. Migrating whales can be seen swimming past the Cape. Cape York, the northernmost point on the Australian mainland. South Point, the southernmost point on the Australian mainland. Steep Point, the westernmost point on the Australian mainland. Mount Kosciusco, the uppermost point on the Australian mainland. Extreme points of Australia