Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere. Conversely, immigration describes the movement of persons into one country from another. Both are acts of migration across other geographical boundaries. Demographers examine push and pull factors for people to be pushed out of one place and attracted to another. There can be a desire to escape negative circumstances such as shortages of land or jobs, or unfair treatment. People can be pulled to the opportunities available elsewhere. Fleeing from oppressive conditions, being a refugee and seeking asylum to get refugee status in a foreign country, may lead to permanent emigration. Forced displacement refers to groups that are forced to abandon their native country, such as by enforced population transfer or the threat of ethnic cleansing. Patterns of emigration have been shaped by numerous economic and political changes throughout the world in the last few hundred years. For instance, millions of individuals fled poverty and political turmoil in Europe to settle in the Americas and Oceania during the 18th, 19th, 20th centuries.
Millions left South China in the Chinese diaspora during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Demographers distinguish factors at the origin that push people out, versus those at the destination that pull them in. Motives to migrate can be either incentives attracting people away, known as pull factors, or circumstances encouraging a person to leave. Lack of employment or entrepreneurial opportunities. Lack of freedom to choose religion, or to choose no religion. Favourable letters relatives or informants who have moved. Regarding lists of positive or negative factors about a place, Jose C. Moya writes "one could compile similar lists for periods and places where no migration took place." Unlike immigration, few if any records are maintained in regard to persons leaving a country either on a temporary or permanent basis. Therefore, estimates on emigration must be derived from secondary sources such as immigration records of the receiving country or records from other administrative agencies; some countries restrict the ability of their citizens to emigrate to other countries.
After 1668, the Qing Emperor banned Han Chinese migration to Manchuria. In 1681, the emperor ordered construction of the Willow Palisade, a barrier beyond which the Chinese were prohibited from encroaching on Manchu and Mongol lands; the Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union began such restrictions in 1918, with laws and borders tightening until illegal emigration was nearly impossible by 1928. To strengthen this, they set up internal passport controls and individual city Propiska permits, along with internal freedom of movement restrictions called the 101st kilometre, rules which restricted mobility within small areas. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Soviet Union occupied several Central European countries, together called the Eastern Bloc, with the majority of those living in the newly acquired areas aspiring to independence and wanted the Soviets to leave. Before 1950, over 15 million people emigrated from the Soviet-occupied eastern European countries and immigrated into the west in the five years following World War II.
By the early 1950s, the Soviet approach to controlling national movement was emulated by most of the rest of the Eastern Bloc. Restrictions implemented in the Eastern Bloc stopped most East-West migration, with only 13.3 million migrations westward between 1950 and 1990. However, hundreds of thousands of East Germans annually immigrated to West Germany through a "loophole" in the system that existed between East and West Berlin, where the four occupying World War II powers governed movement; the emigration resulted in massive "brain drain" from East Germany to West Germany of younger educated professionals, such that nearly 20% of East Germany's population had migrated to West Germany by 1961. In 1961, East Germany erected a barbed-wire barrier that would be expanded through construction into the Berlin Wall closing the loophole. In 1989, the Berlin Wall fell, followed by German reunification and within two years the dissolution of the Soviet Union. By the early 1950s, the Soviet approach to controlling international movement was emulated by China and North Korea.
North Korea still restricts emigration, maintains one of the strictest emigration bans in the world, although some North Koreans still manage to illegally emigrate to China. Other countries with tight emigration restrictions at one time or another included Angola, Ethiopia, Somalia, Burma, Democratic
Mauritius–United States relations
Mauritius – United States relations are bilateral relations between Mauritius and the United States. Official U. S. representation in Mauritius dates from the end of the 18th century. An American consulate was established in 1794 and was closed in 1911, it was reopened in 1967 and elevated to embassy status upon Mauritius' independence in 1968. Since 1970, the mission has been directed by a resident U. S. ambassador. There is a U. S. Embassy in Port Louis, Mauritius. Relations between the United States and Mauritius are cordial and revolve around trade; the United States is Mauritius’ third-largest market but ranks 12th in terms of exports to Mauritius. Principal imports from the U. S. include aircraft parts, automatic data processing machines, jewelry, radio/TV transmission apparatus, telecommunications equipment, agricultural/construction/industrial machinery and equipment, casino slot machines, outboard motors and encyclopedias, industrial chemicals. Mauritian exports to the U. S. include apparel, non-industrial diamonds, jewelry articles, live animals, sunglasses and cut flowers.
Mauritian products that meet the rules of origin are eligible for duty- and quota-free entry in the U. S. market under Opportunity Act. In September 2006, the Governments of Mauritius and the United States signed a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement to remove impediments and further enhance trade and investment relations between the two countries. More than 200 U. S. companies are represented in Mauritius. About 30 have offices in Mauritius, serving the domestic and/or the regional market in the information technology, fast food, express courier, financial services sectors; the largest U. S. subsidiaries are Esso Mauritius. U. S. brands are sold widely. Several U. S. franchises, notably Kentucky Fried Chicken, Pizza Hut, McDonald's have been operating for a number of years in Mauritius. The United States funds a small military assistance program; the embassy manages special self-help funds for community groups and nongovernmental organizations and a democracy and human rights fund. In 2002, Mauritius recalled its Ambassador to the United Nations for not conveying his government's stance in the Security Council debate over how to disarm Iraq.
Principal U. S. Embassy Officials include: Ambassador--David Dale Reimer This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Mauritius - U. S. relations
Eritrea–United States relations
Eritrea–United States relations are bilateral relations between Eritrea and the United States. Natalie E. Brown is the current U. S. Ambassador to Eritrea; the U. S. government established a consulate in Asmara in 1942. In 1953, the USG signed a Mutual Defense Treaty with Ethiopia; the treaty granted the United States control and expansion of the important British military communications base at Kagnew near Asmara. In the 1960s, as many as 1,700 U. S. military personnel were stationed at Kagnew. In the 1970s, technological advances in the satellite and communications fields were making the communications station at Kagnew obsolete. In 1974, Kagnew Station drastically reduced its personnel complement. In early 1977, the United States informed the Ethiopian government that it intended to close Kagnew Station permanently by September 30, 1977. In the meantime, U. S. relations with the Mengistu regime worsened. In April 1977, Mengistu abrogated the 1953 mutual defense treaty and ordered a reduction of U.
S. personnel in Ethiopia, including the closure of Kagnew Communications Center and the consulate in Asmara. In August 1992, the United States reopened its consulate in Asmara, staffed with one officer. On April 27, 1993, the United States recognized Eritrea as an independent state, on June 11, diplomatic relations were established with the appointment of a chargé d'affaires; the first U. S. Ambassador arrived that year. U. S. interests in Eritrea include consolidating the peace with Ethiopia, encouraging progress toward establishing a democratic political culture, supporting Eritrean efforts to become constructively involved in solving regional problems, promoting economic reform. The U. S. Embassy is in Asmara. Micheal Veasy is the Deputy Chief of Mission. Foreign relations of the United States Foreign relations of Eritrea This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Eritrea - U. S. relations
Rwanda–United States relations
Rwanda–United States relations are bilateral relations between Rwanda and the United States. According to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 76% of Rwandans approve of U. S. leadership, with 17% disapproving and 7% uncertain. U. S. Government interests have shifted since the 1994 genocide from a humanitarian concern focusing on stability and security to a strong partnership with the Government of Rwanda focusing on sustainable development; the largest U. S. Government programs are the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the President's Malaria Initiative, which aim to reduce the impact of these debilitating diseases in Rwanda. Other activities support good governance and decentralization. Overall U. S. foreign assistance to Rwanda has increased fourfold over the past four years. A major focus of bilateral relations is the U. S. Agency for International Development's program. In support of the overall Government of Rwanda development plan, USAID aims to improve the health and livelihoods of Rwandans and increase economic and political development.
To achieve this, USAID activities focus on: Prevention and care of HIV/AIDS. The Mission is implementing a number of activities related to the goals above, is working with the Millennium Challenge Corporation to obtain approval of the Threshold Country Plan submitted by the Government of Rwanda in November 2007. Once approved, the plan will be implemented by USAID and will focus on strengthening the justice sector and civic participation, promoting civil rights and liberties; the State Department's Public Affairs section maintains a cultural center in Kigali, which offers public access to English-language publications and information on the United States. American business interests have been small. S. investment is limited to the tea industry and small holdings in service and manufacturing concerns. Annual U. S. exports to Rwanda, under $10 million annually from 1990–93, exceeded $40 million in 1994 and 1995. Although exports decreased in the years after the genocide, in 2007 they were estimated at $17 million, a 20% increase over 2006.
Principal U. S. Officials include Ambassador Donald W. Koran, Deputy Chief of Mission Jessica Lapenn, USAID Program Director George Lewis; the U. S. maintains an embassy in Rwanda. In July 2013, the US warned Rwanda to end its support for the March 23 Movement rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo, after evidence was found that Rwandan military officials were involved. In November 2015, the US criticized a vote by Rwandan lawmakers to approve a change to their constitution to allow President Paul Kagame to serve a third term. A State Department spokesman did not explicitly threaten that US aid to its traditionally close African friend would be cut, but warned ties could be reviewed. Foreign relations of Rwanda Foreign relations of the United States This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Rwanda - U. S. relations Media related to Relations of Rwanda and the United States at Wikimedia Commons
Salt is a mineral composed of sodium chloride, a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts. Salt is present in vast quantities in seawater; the open ocean has about 35 grams of solids per liter of sea water, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt is essential for life in general, saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. Salt is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, salting is an important method of food preservation; some of the earliest evidence of salt processing dates to around 6,000 BC, when people living in the area of present-day Romania boiled spring water to extract salts. Salt was prized by the ancient Hebrews, the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Hittites and the Indians. Salt became an important article of trade and was transported by boat across the Mediterranean Sea, along specially built salt roads, across the Sahara on camel caravans; the scarcity and universal need for salt have led nations to go to war over it and use it to raise tax revenues. Salt has other cultural and traditional significance.
Salt is processed from salt mines, by the evaporation of seawater and mineral-rich spring water in shallow pools. Its major industrial products are caustic chlorine. Of the annual global production of around two hundred million tonnes of salt, about 6% is used for human consumption. Other uses include water conditioning processes, de-icing highways, agricultural use. Edible salt is sold in forms such as sea salt and table salt which contains an anti-caking agent and may be iodised to prevent iodine deficiency; as well as its use in cooking and at the table, salt is present in many processed foods. Sodium is an essential nutrient for human health via its role as an osmotic solute. Excessive salt consumption may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, in children and adults; such health effects of salt have long been studied. Accordingly, numerous world health associations and experts in developed countries recommend reducing consumption of popular salty foods; the World Health Organization recommends that adults should consume less than 2,000 mg of sodium, equivalent to 5 grams of salt per day.
All through history, the availability of salt has been pivotal to civilization. What is now thought to have been the first city in Europe is Solnitsata, in Bulgaria, a salt mine, providing the area now known as the Balkans with salt since 5400 BC; the name Solnitsata means "salt works". While people have used canning and artificial refrigeration to preserve food for the last hundred years or so, salt has been the best-known food preservative for meat, for many thousands of years. A ancient salt-works operation has been discovered at the Poiana Slatinei archaeological site next to a salt spring in Lunca, Neamț County, Romania. Evidence indicates that Neolithic people of the Precucuteni Culture were boiling the salt-laden spring water through the process of briquetage to extract the salt as far back as 6050 BC; the salt extracted from this operation may have had a direct correlation to the rapid growth of this society's population soon after its initial production began. The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi, dates back to at least 6000 BC, making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks.
There is more salt in animal tissues, such as meat and milk, than in plant tissues. Nomads who subsist on their flocks and herds do not eat salt with their food, but agriculturalists, feeding on cereals and vegetable matter, need to supplement their diet with salt. With the spread of civilization, salt became one of the world's main trading commodities, it was of high value to the ancient Hebrews, the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Hittites and other peoples of antiquity. In the Middle East, salt was used to ceremonially seal an agreement, the ancient Hebrews made a "covenant of salt" with God and sprinkled salt on their offerings to show their trust in him. An ancient practice in time of war was salting the earth: scattering salt around in a defeated city to prevent plant growth; the Bible tells the story of King Abimelech, ordered by God to do this at Shechem, various texts claim that the Roman general Scipio Aemilianus Africanus ploughed over and sowed the city of Carthage with salt after it was defeated in the Third Punic War.
Salt may have been used for barter in connection with the obsidian trade in Anatolia in the Neolithic Era. Salt was included among funeral offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC, as were salted birds, salt fish. From about 2800 BC, the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon cedar and the dye Tyrian purple. Herodotus described salt trading routes across Libya back in the 5th century BC. In the early years of the Roman Empire, roads were built for the transportation of salt from the salt imported at Ostia to the capital. In Africa, salt was used as currency south of the Sahara, slabs of rock salt were used as coins in Abyssinia. Moorish merchants in the 6th century traded salt for weight for weight; the Tuareg have traditionally maintained routes across the Sahara for the transportation of salt by Azalai. The caravans
Brava, Cape Verde
Brava is an island in Cape Verde, in the Sotavento group. At 62.5 km2, it is the smallest inhabited island of the Cape Verde archipelago, but at the same time the greenest. First settled in the early 16th century, its population grew after Mount Fogo on neighbouring Fogo erupted in 1680. For more than a century, its main industry was whaling, but the island economy is now agricultural. Brava was discovered in 1462 by the Portuguese explorer Diogo Afonso. There is no evidence of human presence on the Cape Verde islands before the arrival of the Portuguese. Around 1620 the population of Brava started with the arrival of settlers from Madeira and the Azores. Settlement of Brava took a rise in 1680 when it received many refugees from the nearby larger island of Fogo after its volcano erupted and covered the island with ash. Frequent pirate attacks forced the population towards the interior of the island, where the town Nova Sintra was founded around 1700. Around 1720, the fungus Roccella tinctoria was discovered, traded as a textile dye.
From the end of the 18th century, whaling ships from North America started hunting whales around the Azores and the Cape Verde Islands. They used the harbours of Brava to stock up on supplies and drinking water, they hired men from Brava as sailors, several of these men from Brava settled around the Massachusetts whaling port of New Bedford. The island of Brava is 10.5 km long and its width is 9.3 km. Its area is 62.51 km2. The whole island is a stratovolcano, it lies in the lee of the enormous Fogo volcano. Volcanic activity on the island has been located along three lines, which all intersect at the crest of ground that forms the highest part of the island. Brava has no documented historical eruptions, but its youthful volcanic morphology and the fact that earthquake swarms still occur indicate the potential for future eruptions. 13% of the island area is forested. North of Brava are several uninhabited islets. Monte Fontainhas is the highest point on the island. Being mountainous this island has a quite diverse climate.
Brava island has moderate tropical climate along the coast and semi-arid mild tropical climate Bsh with balanced temperatures year round in the interior. The average annual temperature on the coast is about 23–25 °C, decreasing to some 17–20 °C in the mountains. There can be remarkably cool weather with warmer wet season starting in June and ending in November with colder dry season starting in December and ending in May. Administratively, the island of Brava is covered by Concelho da Brava; this municipality consists of two freguesias: São João Baptista and Nossa Senhora do Monte. The municipal seat is the city Nova Sintra. Since 2012, the Movement for Democracy is the ruling party of the municipality, its president is Orlando da Luz Vieira Balla; the results of the latest elections, in 2016: The island's main town is Nova Sintra. The island's two parishes São João Baptista and Nossa Senhora do Monte are subdivided into 16 population zones for statistical purposes: In the 1830s, the population was estimated at 8,000.
The economy of the island is based on agriculture and fishing. Main agricultural goods include coffee, potatoes including sweet potatoes, corn and sugar cane. Nova Sintra, a town with a museum, traditional Portuguese architecture, several churches and shops. Fajã de Agua, a small harbour on the West coast with a natural swimming pool. Nossa Senhora do a village in the mountains with a pilgrimage church. Cova Rodela, a village in the mountains with a dragon tree in its main street. There are several football clubs on Boa Vista, organised in the Brava Regional Football Association; the Esperadinha Airport, inaugurated in 1992, was closed in 2004 because of persisting strong winds. The village of Furna has a commercial port, the other port is Fajã de Água, only used for fishing. Ferries to the islands of Fogo and Santiago depart from Furna. On Brava the villages may be reached by "Aluguer" bus. There is no fixed schedule. A few taxis are available as well. Eugénio Tavares, musician. A statue dedicated to Eugénio Tavares is in the main square of Vila Nova Sintra, surrounded by a garden with trees, flowers and other types of plants.
Vinny deMacedo - Massachusetts State Representative & State Senate candidate was born in Brava. Armand d'Avezac. "Brava". Îles de l'Afrique. Paris: Firmin Didot Frères. Pp. 208–210. Câmara Municipal da Brava Brava News - News directly from Brava Brava island - caboverde.com Brava, Cape Verde Islands - University of Massachusetts 1930 Cartographic Map at TV Ciência
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins