SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Capital city

A capital or capital city is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, province, or other administrative region as its seat of government. A capital is a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official capital and the seat of government, in another place. Capital cities that serve as the prime economic, cultural, or intellectual centres of a nation or an empire are sometimes referred to as primate cities. Examples are Athens, Brussels, Cairo, Mexico City, Lima and Tokyo. News media use the name of a capital city as an alternative name for the country of which it is the capital or of the government, seated there, as a form of metonymy. For example, "relations between Washington and London" refer to "relations between the United States and the United Kingdom"; the word capital derives from the Latin caput, meaning ‘head’.

In several English-speaking states, the terms county town and county seat are used in lower subdivisions. In some unitary states, subnational capitals may be known as ’administrative centres’; the capital is the largest city of its constituent, though not always. The major economic centre of a state or region becomes the focal point of political power, becomes a capital through conquest or federation. Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Ancient Athens, Constantinople, Chang'an, Ancient Cusco, Paris, Moscow, Tokyo, Vienna and Berlin; the capital city attracts politically motivated people and those whose skills are needed for efficient administration of national or imperial governments, such as lawyers, political scientists, bankers and public policy makers. Some of these cities are or were religious centres, e.g. Constantinople, Jerusalem, Ancient Babylon, Belgrade and Peking; the convergence of political and economic or cultural power is by no means universal. Traditional capitals may be economically eclipsed by provincial rivals, e.g. Nanking by Shanghai, Quebec City by Montreal, numerous US state capitals.

The decline of a dynasty or culture could mean the extinction of its capital city, as occurred at Babylon and Cahokia. Although many capitals are defined by constitution or legislation, many long-time capitals have no legal designation as such: for example Bern, Lisbon, London and Wellington, they are recognised as capitals as a matter of convention, because all or all the country's central political institutions, such as government departments, supreme court, embassies, etc. are located in or near them. Counties in the United Kingdom have historic county towns, which are not the largest settlement within the county and are no longer administrative centres, as many historical counties are now only ceremonial, administrative boundaries are different. In Canada, there is a federal capital, while the ten provinces and three territories all have capital cities; the states of such countries as Mexico and Australia all have capital cities. For example, the six state capitals of Australia are Adelaide, Hobart, Melbourne and Sydney.

In Australia, the term "capital cities" is used to refer to the aforementioned state capitals plus the federal capital Canberra and Darwin, the capital of the Northern Territory. Abu Dhabi is the capital city of the Emirate of the United Arab Emirates overall. In unitary states which consist of multiple constituent nations, such as the United Kingdom or the Kingdom of Denmark, each will have its own capital city. Unlike in federations, there is not a separate national capital, but rather the capital city of one constituent nation will be the capital of the state overall, such as London, the capital of England and the United Kingdom; each of the autonomous communities of Spain and regions of Italy has a capital city, such as Seville or Naples, while Madrid is the capital of the Community of Madrid and the Kingdom of Spain as a whole and Rome is the capital of Italy and the region of Lazio. In the Federal Republic of Germany, each of its constituent states has its own capital city, such as Dresden, Mainz, Düsseldorf and Munich, as do all of the republics of the Russian Federation.

The national capitals of Germany and Russia: the Stadtstaat of Berlin and the Federal City of Moscow, are constituent states of both countries in their own right. Each of the States of Austria and Cantons of Switzerland have their own capital cities. Vienna, the national capital of Austria, is one of the states, while Bern is the capital of both Switzerland and the Canton of Bern. Many national capitals are the largest city in their respective countries, but in many countries this is not the case. Governing entities sometimes plan and build new capital cities to house the seat of government of a polity or of a subdivision. Deliberately planned and designed capitals include: Gaborone, Botswan

Mantra (Dave Grohl song)

"Mantra" is a song by Dave Grohl, Josh Homme, Trent Reznor from the 2013 album Sound City: Real to Reel, the soundtrack to the 2013 documentary Sound City. Grohl was joined by different artists for different tracks as Grohl's Sound City Players. For "Mantra", the final track on the album, he was joined by Reznor. Homme appeared on two other tracks on the album, "Centipede" and "A Trick With No Sleeve"; the song was recorded during the jam sessions at Studio 606, Grohl and the Foo Fighters' own studio, where Grohl moved the notorious Neve 8028 console from Sound City after it had closed. The collaboration for "Mantra" was announced on December 14, 2012, two days after the live debut of another song, "Cut Me Some Slack", which features ex-Nirvana bandmates Dave Grohl, Krist Novoselic, Pat Smear, ex-Beatle Paul McCartney. Live footage from the studio, which features Grohl and Reznor performing an instrumental version of "Mantra", was released via Rolling Stone's official website on March 7, 2013.

In a second step were added Reznor's distorted guitar and the interweaving between the singing of the three musicians: "Grohl delivers the primary vocal, but by song's end, Reznor has grabbed the mic, while Homme delivers harmonies and guitar work throughout." The song received positive reviews from the critics. Chris Martins of Spin praised the track, calling it a "transcendent, nearly eight-minute track." He noted the song's transition, with describing it as a song "which opens with a simple drum beat and bass slowly grows into a gargantuan slab of soulful rock before ending in an orchestral explosion of guitars and keys and fuzz". It has the big layering crescendo typical of Reznor’s work, is quite impressive, it features a lengthy Nine Inch Nails-esque bass and effects-heavy breakdown." Michael Nelson of Stereogum stated that the song does a "surprisingly good job of featuring all three of its stars" and found it "very subdued and textured". The song was compared to Reznor's recent works with How to Destroy Angels.

Rolling Stone gave the song a positive review, complimenting the "trio's impeccable chemistry". Dave Grohl – lead vocals, drums Josh Homme – bass, backing vocals Trent Reznor – electric piano, lead vocals Official website for the documentary "Sound City" Making of "Mantra" on YouTube Instrumental studio performance of "Mantra" via Rolling Stone "Mantra" official music video on YouTube "Mantra" official music video on YouTube

Conflict resource

Conflict resources are natural resources extracted in a conflict zone and sold to perpetuate the fighting. There is both statistical and anecdotal evidence that belligerent accessibility to precious commodities can prolong conflicts; the most prominent contemporary example has been the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where various armies, rebel groups, outside actors have profited from mining while contributing to violence and exploitation during wars in the region. The four most mined conflict minerals are cassiterite, wolframite and gold ore, which are extracted from the eastern Congo, passed through a variety of intermediaries before being purchased; these minerals are essential in the manufacture of a variety of devices, including consumer electronics such as smartphones and computers. The extraction and sale of blood diamonds known as "conflict diamonds", is a better-known phenomenon which occurs under identical conditions. Petroleum can be a conflict resource.

There have been international efforts to reduce trade in conflict resources, which try to reduce incentives to extract and fight over them. For example, in the United States, the 2010 Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act required manufacturers to audit their supply chains and report use of conflict minerals. In 2015 a US federal appeals court struck down some aspects of the reporting requirements as a violation of corporations’ freedom of speech, but left others in place; the concept of'conflict resource', or'conflict commodity' emerged in the late 1990s in relation to the'conflict diamonds' that were financing rebellions in Angola and Sierra Leone. ` conflict timber' financed hostilities in Liberia. The concept was first discussed by the UN General Assembly in the context of'conflict diamonds': The UN Security Council has since referred to conflict resources in several resolutions. Global Witness has called for an international standardized definition to facilitate a more systematic application of UN resolutions, the prevention of complicity in abuses during hostilities by commercial entities exploiting or trading in conflict resources, the prosecution of war profiteers suspected of supporting or abetting war criminals."...natural resources whose systematic exploitation and trade in a context of conflict contribute to, benefit from or result in the commission of serious violations of human rights, violations of international humanitarian law or violations amounting to crimes under international law.

Since 1996 the Bonn International Center for Conversion has tracked resource governance and conflict intensity by country. Aside from fossil fuels, metals and timber it tracks the governance of other primary goods that might fund conflicts, including: poppy seeds and talc, rubber and cocoa; the four most prominent conflict minerals, for example codified in the U. S. Conflict Minerals Law, are: Columbite-tantalite is the metal ore from which the element tantalum is extracted. Tantalum is used for the production of tantalum capacitors for applications requiring high performance, a small compact format and high reliability, from hearing aids and pacemakers, to airbags, GPS, ignition systems and anti-lock braking systems in automobiles, through to laptop computers, mobile phones, video game consoles, video cameras and digital cameras. In its carbide form, tantalum wear resistance properties; as a result, it is used in drill bits, end mills and other tools. Cassiterite is the chief ore needed to produce tin, essential for the production of tin cans and the solder on the circuit boards of electronic equipment.

Tin is commonly a component of biocides, fungicides and as tetrabutyl tin/tetraoctyl tin, an intermediate in polyvinyl chloride and high performance paint manufacturing. Wolframite is an important source of the element tungsten. Tungsten is a dense metal and is used for this property, such as in fishing weights, dart tips and golf club heads. Like tantalum carbide, tungsten carbide possesses hardness and wear resistance properties and is used in applications like metalworking tools, drill bits and milling. Smaller amounts are used to substitute lead in "green ammunition". Minimal amounts are used including the vibration mechanism of cell phones. Gold is used in jewelry, investments and dental products, it is present in some chemical compounds used in certain semiconductor manufacturing processes. These are sometimes referred to as "the 3T's and gold", 3TG, or simply the "3T's". Under the US Conflict Minerals Law, additional minerals may be added to this list in the future; as of 2010, the conflict resource fueling the world's deadliest war is gold in the Congo.

Gold bars are less traceable than diamonds, gold is abundant in the Kivu conflict region. In any case, no jewellery industry standard exists for verifying gold origination, as it does for diamonds. Other conflict minerals being illicitly exported from the Congo include cobalt, tungsten and coltan. Armed conflict and mineral resource looting by the Congolese National Army and various armed rebel groups, including the Democratic Forces