RKO Pictures is an American film production and distribution company. In its original incarnation, as RKO Radio Pictures, Inc. it was one of the Big Five studios of Hollywood's Golden Age. The business was formed after the Keith-Albee-Orpheum theater chain and Joseph P. Kennedy's Film Booking Offices of America studio were brought together under the control of the Radio Corporation of America in October 1928. RCA chief David Sarnoff engineered the merger to create a market for the company's sound-on-film technology, RCA Photophone. By the mid-1940s, the studio was under the control of investor Floyd Odlum. RKO has long been renowned for its cycle of musicals starring Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers in the mid- to late 1930s. Actors Katharine Hepburn and Robert Mitchum had their first major successes at the studio. Cary Grant was a mainstay for years; the work of producer Val Lewton's low-budget horror unit and RKO's many ventures into the field now known as film noir have been acclaimed after the fact, by film critics and historians.
The studio produced two of the most famous films in motion picture history: King Kong and Citizen Kane. RKO was responsible for notable co-productions such as It's a Wonderful Life and Notorious, it distributed many celebrated films by animation producer Walt Disney and leading independent producer Samuel Goldwyn. Maverick industrialist Howard Hughes took over RKO in 1948. After years of disarray and decline under his control, the studio was acquired by the General Tire and Rubber Company in 1955; the original RKO Pictures ceased production in 1957 and was dissolved two years later. In 1981, broadcaster RKO General, the corporate heir, revived it as a production subsidiary, RKO Pictures Inc. In 1989, this business with its few remaining assets, the trademarks and remake rights to many classic RKO films, was sold to new owners, who now operate the small independent company RKO Pictures LLC. In October 1927, Warner Bros. released the first feature-length talking picture. Its success prompted Hollywood to convert from silent to sound film production en masse.
The Radio Corporation of America controlled an advanced optical sound-on-film system, Photophone developed by General Electric, RCA's parent company. However, its hopes of joining in the anticipated boom in sound movies faced a major hurdle: Warner Bros. and Fox, Hollywood's other vanguard sound studio, were financially and technologically aligned with ERPI, a subsidiary of AT&T's Western Electric division. The industry's two largest companies and Loew's/MGM, with two other major studios and First National, were poised to contract with ERPI for sound conversion as well. Seeking a customer for Photophone, in late 1927 David Sarnoff general manager of RCA, approached Joseph P. Kennedy about using the system for Kennedy's modest-sized studio, Film Booking Offices of America. Negotiations resulted in General Electric acquiring a substantial interest in FBO—Sarnoff had already conceived of a plan for the company to attain a central position in the film industry, maximizing Photophone revenue. Next on the agenda was securing a string of exhibition venues like those the leading Hollywood production companies owned.
Kennedy began investigating the possibility of such a purchase. Around that time, the large Keith-Albee-Orpheum circuit of theaters, built around the then-fading medium of live vaudeville, was attempting a transition to the movie business. In mid-1927, the filmmaking operations of Pathé and Cecil B. De Mille had united under KAO's control. Early in 1928, KAO general manager John J. Murdock, who had assumed the presidency of Pathé, turned to Kennedy as an adviser in consolidating the studio with De Mille's company, Producers Distributing Corporation; this was the relationship Kennedy sought. After an aborted attempt by Kennedy to bring yet another studio that had turned to him for help, First National, into the Photophone fold, RCA was ready to step back in: the company acquired Kennedy's stock in both FBO and the KAO theater business. On October 23, 1928, RCA announced the creation of the Radio-Keith-Orpheum Corp. holding company, with Sarnoff as chairman of the board. Kennedy, who withdrew from his executive positions in the merged companies, kept Pathé separate from RKO and under his personal control.
RCA owned the governing stock interest in 22 percent. On January 25, 1929, the new company's production arm, presided over by former FBO vice-president Joseph I. Schnitzer, was unveiled as RKO Productions Inc. A week it filed for the trademark "Radio Pictures". Looking to get out of the film business the following year, Kennedy arranged in late 1930 for RKO to purchase Pathé from him. On January 29, 1931, Pathé, with its contract players, well-regarded newsreel operation, Culver City studio and backlot, was merged into RKO as Kennedy sold off the last of his stock in the company he had been instrumental in creating. RKO began production at the small facility FBO shared with Pathé in New York City while the main FBO studio in Hollywood was technologically refitted. In charge of production was William LeBaron, who had held the same position at FBO; the new company's two initial releases were musicals: The melodramatic Syncopation, which completed shooting before FBO was reincorporated as RKO, premiered on March 29, 1929.
The comedic Street Girl debuted July 30. This was billed as its first to be shot in Hollywood. A few nonsinging pictures followed. RKO spent on the lavish
The Fairmont Château Laurier is a 660,000-square-foot hotel with 429 guest rooms in downtown Ottawa, Canada, located near the intersection of Rideau Street and Sussex Drive and designed in a French Gothic Revival Châteauesque style to complement the adjacent Parliament buildings. The hotel is above the Rideau Canal overlooks the Ottawa River; the main dining room overlooks Major's Hill Park. The reception rooms include the Wedgewood-blue Adam Room; the hotel was designated a national historic site in 1980. Château Laurier was commissioned by Grand Trunk Railway president Charles Melville Hays, was constructed for $2 million, between 1909 and 1912 in tandem with Ottawa's downtown Union Station across the street; the two buildings were connected with a tunnel. When the hotel first opened, private rooms cost $2 a night. In addition dormitories and common bathrooms were available as were rooms for travelling salesmen with sample tables to display goods; the hotel features original Tiffany stained-glass windows and hand-moulded plaster decorations dating back to 1912.
The walls were constructed of Indiana limestone. There are conical turrets and dormer windows and the roof is copper; the gables are carved with flowers and crests. The lobby floors were constructed of Belgian marble; the plans for the hotel generated some controversy, as the Château was to be constructed on what was a portion of Major's Hill Park. Sir Wilfrid Laurier the Prime Minister of Canada, helped secure the important site for the construction, the hotel was named in his honour. Laurier's government was subsidizing the Grand Trunk Railway's Pacific Line. Further conflict ensued when the original architect, Bradford Gilbert, from New York was dismissed due to disagreements with Grand Trunk executives, the Montreal firm of Ross and Macfarlane was hired to complete the design; the hotel was to be opened on 26 April 1912, but Hays, returning to Canada for the hotel opening, perished aboard the RMS Titanic when it sank on 15 April. A subdued opening ceremony was held on 12 June 1912, with Sir Wilfrid Laurier in attendance.
The sub-basement housed laundry, repair shops and electrical departments. A barber shop was added in 1918. In August 1914, Major Raymond Brutinel enrolled the first recruits for the Canadian Automobile Machine Gun Brigade at the hotel. A memorial plaque with a circular "bas relief" of Brigadier-General Brutinel bust, a "bas relief" of machine gunners on Vimy ridge are dedicated to the memory of Brigadier-General R. Brutinel, C. B. C. M. G. D. S. O. who commanded the Canadian Automobile Machine Gun Brigade and the members of the Canadian Machine Gun Brigade who died on active service and in honour of those who served. When the Grand Trunk became part of the Canadian National Railway in 1923, the Château Laurier became one of CN's most important hotels. In addition to hotel guests, the Château Laurier has served over the years as the home of two important Ottawa institutions. From July 1924 to October 2004, the seventh and eight floors at the top were home to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's local English and French language radio stations.
Photographer Yousuf Karsh maintained his residence at the Château Laurier for many years. In 1929, a $6-million east wing addition by Montreal architect John Archibald and CN's architect John Schofield along Mackenzie Avenue added 240 rooms. Although the exterior of the addition was French-inspired, the interior lobby resembled an English or Scottish baronial hall with dark-oak panelling, a railed gallery overlooking the double-height space and trophies of the hunt; the lobby led to music room and gentlemen's lounge. The ballroom featured vaulted ceiling and rich drapes; the ultra-modern kitchen was designed to cater to up to 5,000 people. The Jasper Tea Room designed by Edwin Holgate in 1929, featured Pacific Coast aboriginal art, columns carved into totem poles surrounding a dance floor, lamps decorated with motifs of bears and crows. From 1929–1991, the Canadian Grill was a softly-lit and dark-panelled below-ground restaurant where diners ate the specialty, roast prime rib of beef au jus and danced to live music.
In 1930, the hotel added a 60-foot indoor pool in Art Deco style. In the 1930s and 1940s, the "therapeutic" spas offered electric therapy, ultra-violet ray lamps and alternate streams of hot and cold water to clients with nervous afflictions, polio or back problems. For years, the hotel thrived, playing host to royalty, heads of state, political figures and members of Canada's elite. R. B. Bennett lived in a suite in the hotel during his term as Canadian prime minister, from 1930 to 1935. During the 1960s and 1970s, the construction of numerous competing hotels in the capital, as well as the closure of Union Station, led to a slow decline in the Château's fortunes. In 1965, the Jasper Lounge, was redecorated into a mock English tavern called the Cock and Lion with oak and old brick walls; the union went to court to protest management's decision to replace waiters with young women in low-cut tops to serve in the new pub, but lost. In 1981, the hotel was designated a National Historic Site of Canada.
The Westin Hotel opened across the street in 1983. A $21-million renovation was undertaken in the 1980s to refurbish and renovate the Château Laurier, thus restoring its position as Ottawa's pre-eminent hotel. A new canopied front entrance was added; the lobby's dark wood was lighte
D. W. Griffith
David Wark Griffith was an American director and producer who pioneered modern cinematic techniques. He is remembered for The Birth of a Intolerance; the Birth of a Nation made use of advanced camera and narrative techniques, its popularity set the stage for the dominance of the feature-length film in the United States. The film has sparked significant controversy surrounding racism in the United States, focusing on its negative depiction of black people and the glorification of the Ku Klux Klan. Today, it is both acclaimed for its radical technique and condemned for its inherently racist philosophy; the film was subject to boycotts by the NAACP. Intolerance was an answer to his critics. Several of Griffith's films were successful, including Broken Blossoms, Way Down East, Orphans of the Storm, but his high costs for production and roadshow made his ventures commercial failures, he made 500 films by the time of his final feature The Struggle. Griffith is one of the founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and among the most important figures in the history of film.
He popularized the use of the close-up shot. Griffith was born on a farm in Oldham County, the son of Mary Perkins and Jacob Wark "Roaring Jake" Griffith a Confederate Army colonel in the American Civil War, elected as a Kentucky state legislator. Griffith was raised a Methodist, he attended a one-room schoolhouse where he was taught by his older sister Mattie, his father died when he was ten, the family struggled with poverty. When Griffith was 14, his mother abandoned the farm and moved the family to Louisville, where she opened a boarding house, it failed shortly after. Griffith left high school to help support the family, taking a job in a dry goods store and in a bookstore, he began his creative career as an actor in touring companies. Meanwhile, he was learning how to become a playwright, but had little success—only one of his plays was accepted for a performance, he traveled to New York City in 1907 in an attempt to sell a script to Edison Studios producer Edwin Porter. He decided to become an actor and appeared in many films as an extra.
In 1908, Griffith accepted a role as a stage extra in Professional Jealousy for the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, where he met cameraman Billy Bitzer, his career in the film industry changed forever. In 1908, Biograph's main director Wallace McCutcheon, Sr. grew ill, his son Wallace McCutcheon, Jr. took his place. McCutcheon, Jr. did not bring the studio success. He directed a total of 48 shorts for the company that year, his short In Old California was the first film shot in California. Four years he produced and directed his first feature film Judith of Bethulia, one of the earliest to be produced in the US. Biograph believed. According to Lillian Gish, the company thought that "a movie that long would hurt eyes". Griffith left Biograph because of company resistance to his cost overruns on the film, he joined the Mutual Film Corporation. There, he co-produced The Life of General Villa, a biographical action–drama film starring Pancho Villa as himself, shot on location in México during a civil war.
He formed a studio with Majestic Studio manager Harry Aitken which became known as Reliance-Majestic Studios and was renamed Fine Arts Studio. His new production company became an autonomous production unit partner in Triangle Film Corporation along with Thomas H. Ince and Keystone Studios' Mack Sennett; the Triangle Film Corporation was headed by Aitken, released from the Mutual Film Corporation, his brother Roy. Griffith directed and produced The Clansman through Reliance-Majestic Studios in 1915, which became known as The Birth of a Nation and is considered one of the first feature length American films; the film was a success, but it aroused much controversy due to its depiction of slavery, the Ku Klux Klan, race relations in the American Civil War and the reconstruction era of the United States. It was based on Jr.'s 1905 novel The Clansman. This view of the era was popular at the time and was endorsed for decades by historians of the Dunning School, although it met with strong criticism from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and other groups.
The NAACP attempted to stop showings of the film. They were successful in some cities, but it was shown and became the most successful box office attraction of its time, it is considered among the first "blockbuster" motion pictures and broke all box office records, established until then. "They lost track of the money it made", Lillian Gish remarked in a Kevin Brownlow interview. Audiences in some major northern cities rioted over the film's racial content, filled with action and violence. Griffith's indignation at efforts to censor or ban the film motivated him to produce Intolerance the following year, in which he portrayed the effects of intolerance in four different historical periods: the Fall of Babylon.
A baluster—also called spindle—is a moulded shaft, square or of lathe-turned form, cut from a rectangular or square plank, one of various forms of spindle in woodwork, made of stone or wood, sometimes of metal or plastic, standing on a unifying footing, supporting the coping of a parapet or the handrail of a staircase. Multiplied in this way, they form a balustrade. Individually, a baluster shaft may describe the turned form taken by a brass or silver candlestick, an upright furniture support, or the stem of a brass chandelier, etc. According to OED, "baluster" is derived through the French: balustre, from Italian: balaustro, from balaustra, "pomegranate flower", from Latin balaustium, from Greek βαλαύστιον; the earliest examples are those shown in the bas-reliefs representing the Assyrian palaces, where they were employed as window balustrades and had Ionic capitals. As an architectural element the balustrade did not seem to have been known to either the Greeks or the Romans, but baluster forms are familiar in the legs of chairs and tables represented in Roman bas-reliefs, where the original legs or the models for cast bronze ones were shaped on the lathe, or in Antique marble candelabra, formed as a series of stacked bulbous and disc-shaped elements, both kinds of sources familiar to Quattrocento designers.
The application to architecture was a feature of the early Renaissance: late fifteenth-century examples are found in the balconies of palaces at Venice and Verona. These quattrocento balustrades are to be following yet-unidentified Gothic precedents, they form balustrades of colonnettes as an alternative to miniature arcading. Rudolf Wittkower withheld judgement as to the inventor of the baluster and credited Giuliano da Sangallo with using it as early as the balustrade on the terrace and stairs at the Medici villa at Poggio a Caiano, used balustrades in his reconstructions of antique structures. Sangallo passed the motif to Bramante and Michelangelo, through whom balustrades gained wide currency in the 16th century. Wittkower distinguished two types, one symmetrical in profile that inverted one bulbous vase-shape over another, separating them with a cushionlike torus or a concave ring, the other a simple vase shape, whose employment by Michelangelo at the Campidoglio steps, noted by Wittkower, was preceded by early vasiform balusters in a balustrade round the drum of Santa Maria delle Grazie, railings in the cathedrals of Aquileia and Parma, in the cortile of San Damaso and Antonio da Sangallo's crowning balustrade on the Santa Casa at Loreto installed in 1535, liberally in his model for the Basilica of Saint Peter.
Because of its low center of gravity, this "vase-baluster" may be given the modern term "dropped baluster". The baluster, being a turned structure, tends to follow design precedents that were set in woodworking and ceramic practices, where the turner's lathe and the potter's wheel are ancient tools; the profile a baluster takes is diagnostic of a particular style of architecture or furniture, may offer a rough guide to date of a design, though not of a particular example. Some complicated Mannerist baluster forms can be read as a vase set upon another vase; the high shoulders and bold, rhythmic shapes of the Baroque vase and baluster forms are distinctly different from the sober baluster forms of Neoclassicism, which look to other precedents, like Greek amphoras. The distinctive twist-turned designs of balusters in oak and walnut English and Dutch seventeenth-century furniture, which took as their prototype the Solomonic column, given prominence by Bernini, fell out of style after the 1710s.
Once it had been taken from the lathe, a turned wood baluster could be split and applied to an architectural surface, or to one in which architectonic themes were more treated, as on cabinets made in Italy and Northern Europe from the sixteenth through the seventeenth centuries. Modern baluster design is in use for example in designs influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement in a 1905 row of houses in Etchingham Park Road Finchley London England. Outside Europe, the baluster column appeared as a new motif in Mughal architecture, introduced in Shah Jahan's interventions in two of the three great fortress-palaces, the Red Fort of Agra and Delhi, in the early seventeenth century. Foliate baluster columns with naturalistic foliate capitals, unexampled in previous Indo-Islamic architecture according to Ebba Koch became one of the most used forms of supporting shaft in Northern and Central India in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; the modern term baluster shaft is applied to the shaft dividing a window in Saxon architecture.
In the south transept of the Abbey in St Albans, are some of these shafts, supposed to have been taken from the old Saxon church. Norman bases and capitals have been added, together with plain cylindrical Norman shafts. Balusters are separated by at least the same measurement as the size of the square bottom section. Placing balusters too far apart diminishes their aesthetic appeal. Balustrades terminate in columns, building walls or more properly in heavy newel posts because otherwise they will not be structurally strong enough. Balusters may be formed in several ways. Wood and stone can be shaped on the lathe, wood can be cut from square or rectangular section boards, while concrete, plaster and plastics are formed by molding and casting. Turned patterns or old examples are used for the molds. Cast iron Cast stone Hardwoods and softwoods Plaster Polymer stone Polyurethane/polystyrene Wrought iron Vinyl The word banister
Ottawa River timber trade
The Ottawa River timber trade known as the Ottawa Valley timber trade or Ottawa River lumber trade, was the nineteenth century production of wood products by Canada on areas of the Ottawa River destined for British and American markets. It was the major industry of the historical colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada and it created an entrepreneur known as a lumber baron; the trade in squared timber and sawed lumber led to population growth and prosperity to communities in the Ottawa Valley the city of Bytown. The product was white pine; the industry lasted until around 1900 as both supplies decreased. The industry came about following Napoleon's 1806 Continental Blockade in Europe causing the United Kingdom to require a new source for timber for its navy and shipbuilding; the U. K.'s application of increasing preferential tariffs increased Canadian imports. The first part of the industry, the trade in squared timber lasted until about the 1850s; the transportation for the raw timber was first by means of floating down the Ottawa River, proved possible in 1806 by Philemon Wright.
Squared timber would be assembled into large rafts which held living quarters for men on their six week journey to Quebec City, which had large exporting facilities and easy access to the Atlantic Ocean. The second part of the industry involved the trade of sawed lumber, the American lumber barons and lasted chiefly from about 1850 to 1900-1910; the Reciprocity Treaty caused a shift to American markets. The source of timber in Britain changed, where its access to timber in the Baltic region was restored, it no longer provided the protective tariffs. Entrepreneurs in the United States at that time began to build their operations near the Ottawa River, creating some of the world's largest sawmills at the time; these men, known as lumber barons, with names such as John Rudolphus Booth and Henry Franklin Bronson created mills which contributed to the prosperity and growth of Ottawa. The sawed lumber industry benefited from transportation improvements, first the Rideau Canal linking Ottawa with Kingston, Ontario on Lake Ontario, much railways that began to be created between Canadian cities.
Shortly after 1900, the last raft went down the Ottawa River. Supplies of pine were dwindling and there was a decreased demand. By this time, the United Kingdom was able to resume its supply from the Baltic Region and their policies the reduction in protectionism of their colonies led to a decrease in markets in the U. K. Shipbuilding turned towards steel. Before 1950 many operations began to discontinue, many mills were removed and the spoiled land began to be restored in Urban Renewal policies in Ottawa; the industry had contributed to population increases and economic growth of Ontario and Quebec. Upper and Lower Canada's major industry in terms of employment and value of the product was the timber trade; the largest supplier of square red and white pine to the British market originated from the Ottawa River and the Ottawa Valley had "rich red and white pine forests" Bytown, was a major lumber and sawmill centre of Canada. In 1806, Napoleon ordered a blockade to European ports, blocking Britain's access to timber required for the navy from the Baltic Sea.
The British naval shipyards were in need of lumber. British tariff concessions fostered the growth of the Canadian timber trade; the British government instituted the tariff on the importation of foreign timber in 1795 in need of alternate sources for its navy and to promote the industry in its North American colonies. The "Colonial Preference" was first 10 shillings per load, increasing to 25 in 1805 and after Napoleon's blockade ended, it was increased to 65 in 1814. In 1821 the tariff was reduced to 55 shillings and was abolished in 1842; the United Kingdom resumed its trade in Baltic timber. The change in Britain's tariff preferences was a result of Britain moving to Free Trade in 1840; the 1840s saw a gradual move from protectionism in Great BritainWhen the Ottawa River first began to be used for floating timber en route to markets, squared timber was the preference by the British for resawing, it "became the main export". Britain imported 15,000 loads of timber from Canada in 1805, from the colonies, 30,000 in 1807, nearly 300,000 in 1820.
The reciprocity treaty of 1854 allowed for duty-free export of Ottawa Valley's lumber into the United States. Both the market was changing, as well as the entrepreneurs running the businesses. An American September 30, 1869 statement showed that lumber was, by far Canada's biggest export to the U. S. Here are the top 3: lumber: 424,232,087 feet, $4,761,357. Iron, pig: 26,881 do, $536,662 sheep: 228,914, $524,639 Also in 1869, about a third of the lumber manufactured at Ottawa was shipped to foreign countries, the area employed 6000 men in cutting and rafting logs, about 5,500 in the preparation of squared timber for European markets, about 5,000 at the mills in Ottawa. Somewhere between 1848 and 1861, a large increase in the number of sawmills in "the town" had occurred: 1845: 601 houses and 3 saw mills 1848: 1019 houses and 2 saw mills 1861: 2104 dwellings and 12 saw millsHere is the production of some companies in 1873, M feet of lumber and number of employees and their 1875 address listed, where available.
J. R. Booth, 40, 400, Albert Island, Chaudier Bronsons & Weston, 40, 400, Victoria Island Gilmour & Co. 40, 500-1000, 22 Bank E. B. Eddy, 40, 1700 Perley
Senate of Canada Building
The Senate of Canada Building is a government building in downtown Ottawa, Canada, located at 2 Rideau Street. It is situated at the intersection of Wellington Street and the Rideau Canal, across the street from the Parliament buildings and Confederation Square, across the street from the Château Laurier hotel, completed around the same time. Before 1966 the building served as Ottawa Union Station. Before the turn of the twentieth century, several railway companies had run lines into the city and had begun to build railway stations. In chronological order: New Edinburgh: Bytown and Prescott Railway Broad Street: Canada Central Railway, QMO&O: 1870, 1881, 1896, 1900 Elgin Street: Canada Atlantic Railway: early 1880s Nicholas Street at Mann Avenue: Ottawa and New York Railway: 1895Broad Street, in the Lebreton Flats area, was the site of several stations including the first Union station, which perished by fire in 1896 and again in 1900 and was rebuilt each time; the last one closed in 1920. Broad Street was near the Prince of Wales Bridge, the link to Montreal via the north shore of the Ottawa River.
Broad Street itself no longer exists, erased as part of the National Capital Commission's efforts at improving the capital area. Ottawa became part of the Canadian Pacific Railway's transcontinental rail service on June 28, 1886, when the first Pacific Express arrived at Broad Street from Montreal via Lachute and Hull, Quebec, on its way to Sudbury, Winnipeg and Port Moody, B. C, it used the existing Prince of Wales Bridge to cross the Ottawa River near the site of the present-day O-Train Bayview Station, west of Parliament Hill. This rail bridge had been built in 1880 by the Quebec, Montreal and Occidental Railway and was transferred to Canadian Pacific in 1882. However, there was no centrally located station through efforts of John Rudolphus Booth. Booth was a Canadian lumber baron known for creating Canada's largest sawmill right in Ottawa, near Chaudière Falls, his mill's capacity exceeded the distribution infrastructure, he looked to rail as a solution. Booth had built a central depot in 1895 just south of Rideau Street, on the east side of the canal and reachable by way of a covered stairway from Sappers Bridge.
The station seemed to not be serving the needs of the railway companies, since it was built for the interests of the Canada Atlantic Railway. CPR's Royal Alexandra Interprovincial Bridge built in 1901 became the second railway bridge to cross the Ottawa River between Ottawa and Hull, it led to Booth's central depot. In 1905, Booth sold the Canadian Atlantic Railway to the Grand Trunk Railway. In 1910, the Grand Trunk was apportioned part of the Rideau Canal in order to build a new station and hotel; the hotel would become the famous Chateau Laurier, the station would become Ottawa's Union Station. The building was opened by the Grand Trunk Railway in 1912 as Ottawa's central railway station, the hotel was built across the street to serve travellers. Over the course of the following years, passenger services of other railways moved to this station, thereby clarifying and unifying passenger travel in the city; when the last Canadian Pacific trains moved from the old Union Station on Booth Street to Grand Trunk Central station on January 4, 1920, the old station was closed and the Grand Trunk station became Ottawa Union Station.
The June 1912 opening of the Union Station and the Chateau Laurier was not met with much fanfare, since Grand Trunk Railway general manager Charles Melville Hays had just perished in the Titanic disaster two months previously. The Doric Roman Revival multi pillar Union station was designed by New York-based architect Bradford Lee Gilbert, dismissed due to concerns of mismanagement; the Montreal firm of Ross and MacFarlane took over the project, making many design changes to the station. Ross and MacFarlane took over the design of the Château Laurier and built Toronto's Union Station. Both Canadian National Railways and Canadian Pacific Railway operated scheduled passenger trains through the facility until it ceased operations on July 31, 1966. Several tracks which originated from the main railway infrastructure in Ottawa ran adjacent to the Rideau Canal and led northward into the city, they approached Union Station through several sheds. From the sheds, emerged two tracks, continued along, proceeding under the bridge where Wellington Street crosses the canal.
They ran adjacent to the west side of Chateau Laurier, in a structure, used for a time in a converted form, by the Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography. The track continued, where there ran to the Alexandra Bridge. Once in Hull, there was the possibility to continue to other parts of Quebec, or to return to Ottawa by making a turn and returning over the Prince of Wales Bridge; some of the pathways in present-day Gatineau are on locations where rails had once made this possible. In 1966, the National Capital Commission decided to remove the tracks along the east side of the Canal, replacing them with a scenic drive, a new Ottawa station was built just south of Ottawa's downtown area. While the NCC had planned to tear down the structure, it was spared, becoming the centre of Canada's centenary celebrations in 1967. After sitting empty for many years, it was turned into the Government Conference Centre. A new entrance and canopy at the rear of the building was built to provide greater security for the Commonwealth Prime Minist
A movie theater, cinema, or cinema hall known as a picture house or the pictures, is a building that contains an auditorium for viewing films for entertainment. Most, but not all, theaters are commercial operations catering to the general public, who attend by purchasing a ticket; some movie theaters, are operated by non-profit organizations or societies that charge members a membership fee to view films. The film is projected with a movie projector onto a large projection screen at the front of the auditorium while the dialogue and music are played through a number of wall-mounted speakers. Since the 1970s, subwoofers have been used for low-pitched sounds. In the 2010s, most movie theaters are equipped for digital cinema projection, removing the need to create and transport a physical film print on a heavy reel. A great variety of films are shown at cinemas, ranging from animated films to blockbusters to documentaries; the smallest movie theaters have a single viewing room with a single screen.
In the 2010s, most movie theaters have multiple screens. The largest theater complexes, which are called multiplexes—a design developed in the US in the 1960s—have up to thirty screens; the audience members sit on padded seats, which in most theaters are set on a sloped floor, with the highest part at the rear of the theater. Movie theaters sell soft drinks and candy, some theaters sell hot fast food. In some jurisdictions, movie theaters can be licensed to sell alcoholic drinks. A movie theater may be referred to as a movie theatre, movie house, film house, film theater or picture house. In the US, theater has long been the preferred spelling, while in the UK, Australia and elsewhere it is theatre. However, some US theaters opt to use the British spelling in their own names, a practice supported by the National Association of Theatre Owners, while apart from North America most English-speaking countries use the term cinema, alternatively spelled and pronounced kinema; the latter terms, as well as their derivative adjectives "cinematic" and "kinematic" derive from Greek κινῆμα, κινήματος —"movement", "motion".
In the countries where those terms are used, the word "theatre" is reserved for live performance venues. Colloquial expressions applied to motion pictures and motion picture theaters collectively, include the silver screen and the big screen. Specific to North American term is the movies, while specific terms in the UK are the pictures, the flicks and for the facility itself the flea pit. A screening room is a small theater a private one, such as for the use of those involved in the production of motion pictures or in a large private residence; the etymology of the term "movie theater" involves the term "movie", a "shortened form of moving picture in the cinematographic sense", first used in 1896 and "theater", which originated in the "...late 14c. "open air place in ancient times for viewing spectacles and plays". The term "theater" comes from the Old French word "theatre", from the 12th century and "...directly from Latin theatrum'play-house, theater. The use of the word "theatre" to mean a "building where plays are shown" dates from the 1570s in the English language.
The earliest precursors to movies were magic lantern shows. Magic lanterns used a glass lens, a shutter and a powerful lamp to project images from glass slides onto a white wall or screen; these slides were hand-painted. The invention of the Argand lamp in the 1790s, limelight in the 1820s and the intensely bright electric arc lamp in the 1860s increased the brightness of the images; the magic lantern could project rudimentary moving images, achieved by the use of various types of mechanical slides. Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. Still photographs were used on after the widespread availability of photography technologies after the mid-19th century.
Magic lantern shows were given at fairs or as part of magic shows. A magic lantern show at the 1851 World's Fair caused a sensation among the audience; the next significant step towards movies was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828, when Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "persistence of vision". Roget showed that when a series of still images are shown in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement, an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device which spun a disk with an image on its surface at a high rate of speed. The French Lumière brothers' first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. From 1894 to the late 1920s, movie theaters showed silent films, which were films with no synchronized recorded sound or dialogue.