Siege of Kolberg (1807)
The Siege of Kolberg (} took place from March to 2 July 1807 during the War of the Fourth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. The siege was not successful and was lifted upon the announcement of the peace of Tilsit, after Prussia lost the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt in late 1806, French troops marched north into Prussian Pomerania. Fortified Stettin surrendered without battle, and the province occupied by the French forces. During these months, the commander of Kolberg, Lucadou. The French forces commanded by Teuliè, composed primarily of troops from Italy, Napoleon put the siege force under the command of Loison, Frederick William III entrusted Gneisenau with the defense. Other reinforcements came from states of the Confederation of the Rhine, the Kingdom of Holland, with the western surroundings of Kolberg flooded by the defenders, fighting concentrated on the eastern forefield of the fortress, where Wolfsberg sconce had been constructed on Lucadous behalf. Aiding the defense from the nearby Baltic Sea were a British, by late June, Napoleon massively reinforced the siege forces to bring about a decision.
The siege force also concentrated on taking the north of the town. On 2 July, fighting ceased when Prussia had agreed on a peace after her ally Russia suffered a decisive defeat at Friedland. Of the twenty Prussian fortresses, Kolberg was one of the few remaining in Prussian hands until the wars end, the battle became a myth in Prussia and was used by Nazi propaganda efforts. While prior to World War II the city commemorated the defendants, it started to honor the commander of the Polish troops after 1945, within two weeks after the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, Napoleons Grande Armée had pursued the defeated Royal Prussian Army to Pasewalk in Prussian Pomerania. Pierre Thouvenout was appointed French governor of Pomerania and sent his envoy Mestram to accept Kolbergs expected capitulation, on 8 November 1806, Mestram met with the Prussian commander of Kolberg Louis Maurice de Lucadou before its walls. Lucadou ordered the Persante river west of Kolberg to be dammed up to flood the area around the fortress, coordination of these measures with Joachim Nettelbeck, representative of the Kolberg citizens, was however impaired by the latters personal grievances against Lucadou.
Time for preparation was needed since Kolberg lacked sufficient defensive structures, manpower, by early December 1806, the Kolberg garrison numbered 1,576 men, but increased steadily during the next months due to the arrival of Prussian troops and new recruits from nearby areas. Armament shortages were in part relieved by Charles XIII of Sweden, as of late October 1806, a total of 72 guns were mounted on Kolbergs walls,58 metal/iron cannons, six iron howitzers and eight iron mortars, in addition, there were four mobile 3-pounder cannons. Six guns captured by Schills freikorps were sent to Kolberg, with Victor-Perrin captured, the attack on Kolberg was to be led by Pietro Teuliés Italian division, who in February began the march on the fortress from Stettin. Schills freikorps further delayed the French advance by provoking several skirmishes and battles, teulié reached the Kolberg area by early March, and by the mid of the month had cleared the surrounding villages of Schills forces and encircled the fortress.
The suburbs, most notably Geldernerviertel, were burned down as it was customary, the French siege army was reinforced by troops from Württemberg and Saxon states as well as a Polish regiment
Battle of Czarnowo
The attackers, part of Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davouts III Corps, succeeded in crossing the Wkra at its mouth and pressed eastward to the village of Czarnowo. After an all-night struggle, the Russian commander withdrew his troops to the east, Czarnowo is located on the north bank of the Narew River 33 kilometres north-northwest of Warsaw, Poland. Several other actions occurred during the same week, on the 23rd, Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bessières defeated a probe by Prussian troops at Bieżuń. On 24 December, an action occurred at Kołoząb and Sochocin where Marshal Pierre Augereaus VII Corps attempted to cross the Wkra, the French managed to secure a foothold on the east bank, forcing Major General Michael Andreas Barclay de Tollys Russian defenders to retreat. On Christmas Day, part of Marshal Michel Neys VI Corps drove the Prussians from Soldau, the Russians, were full of fight and two sharp battles occurred on 26 December. At the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt on 14 October 1806, Napoleon administered a beating to the principal Prussian armies.
On a single day, the French captured 25,000 Prussian soldiers,200 guns, in subsequent operations the French inflicted crippling defeats on their adversaries at Erfurt, Prenzlau, Stettin, Lübeck and Hamelin. In early November, Davout sent General of Division Marc Antoine de Beaumonts 2,500 dragoons to scout east of the Oder River, Napoleon ordered his brother General of Division Jérôme Bonaparte to protect his southern flank by operating against Glogau in Prussian-held Silesia. Wishing to deny Warsaw to the approaching Russian army, Napoleon decided to secure a position on the east bank of the Vistula River before winter forced an stop to the campaigning season. In December, the Prussians were able to field only 6,000, plus the garrisons of Danzig and Graudenz. Field Marshal Mikhail Kamensky led the Russian army in Poland, which numbered about 90,000 men in two wings led by Generals Levin August, Count von Bennigsen and Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden. By now, Kamensky was showing signs of his mental and physical unfitness to command.
Buxhöwdens divisions were veterans of the Battle of Austerlitz on 2 December 1805 and were under strength, in total, his wing had 29,000 infantry,7,000 cavalry,1,200 gunners, and 216 artillery pieces. The nominal strength of Bennigsens force was 49,000 infantry,11,000 regular cavalry,4,000 Cossacks,2,700 artillerymen,900 pioneers, of these, between 55,000 and 60,000 were available for mobile operations. The Russians fielded an army of 18 divisions in 1806, with 14-gun foot batteries and 12-gun horse batteries, each Russian division theoretically controlled 82 field pieces. The heavy batteries were made up of eight 12-pound cannons, four heavy howitzers. The light batteries were similarly mustered but with 6-pound instead of 12-pound cannons, horse batteries were exclusively made up of 6-pound cannons. Five divisions under General Johann Michelson faced the Ottoman Turks in Moldavia, the 1st Imperial Guard Division of Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia was stationed at Saint Petersburg, while four additional divisions formed a reserve army in the interior
Battle of Heilsberg
The Battle of Heilsberg took place on 10 June 1807, during the Napoleonic Wars. On 24 May 1807, the Siege of Danzig ended when Prussian General Friedrich Adolf, with Danzig secured, Napoleon was now free to turn against Bennigsens army. Yet it was the Russian who struck first when he ordered his columns to converge on Marshal Michel Neys exposed VI Corps on 2 June. Outnumbered 63,000 to 17,000, Ney fought a brilliant rear guard action at the Battle of Guttstadt-Deppen on 5 and 6 June. Within two days, Napoleon ordered his 190, 000-man army to close in on the 100,000 Russians and 15,000 Prussians, detecting the approaching avalanche, Bennigsen ordered his troops to retreat on Lidzbark Warmiński. The Russian army took up defensive positions around the town. The French army, under Marshals Murat and Lannes, attacked on 10 June, Bennigsen repelled several attacks, resulting in huge French casualties, but had to withdraw towards Friedland the following day. Four days later, the decisive Battle of Friedland occurred, ending the War of the Fourth Coalition with the passing of the Treaty of Tilsit, the Battle of Heilsberg was fought on the Alle river, known today as the Lyna.
The Teutonic Castle being the point of the battle was held by Russian control. Defensively, the castle was supported by its bridges and walls, the land surrounding the Teutonic Castle acted as an obstacle for the French army due to the increase of elevation from the base of the river to the castles foundation. The Prussian 21st Fusiliers, commanded by Ludwig August von Stutterheim, was garrisoned there, although the terrain was punishment enough for the French, weather took a toll on their abilities and health. During the day, on top of the weight being carried in regards to supplies and armory, temperatures reached dangerously hot, the dampness and bitter cold of the night played a significant role by providing little opportunity for rest. The French were initially outnumbered by the Russians, and knowing this, at the beginning of the battle, French army men were separating amongst their own divisions. This tactic was thought to help block Russian sights in terms of all the French positioning and flanking, although the woods surrounding the French had provided a perimeter of camouflage, the shrubbery did not extend to the barren field in front of the castle.
It was because of the forest density, that dodging the Russian artillery and infantry fire was difficult to maneuver around. In the midst of war, French cavalry leaders Murat and Lannes had segregated their troops from the greater unit, after such separation, the smaller units within the reserves had refused orders to flank and attack stronger sides of the Russian armies. This was partly because orders being issued by reserves of the infantry, rather than Marshalls. Despite both sides losing a significant number of men, each refused to withdrawal their armies and this truce was signaled when both sides focused solely on the health of wounded soldiers rather than that of offensive tactics
Eisenach is a town in Thuringia, Germany with 42,000 inhabitants, located 50 kilometres west of Erfurt,70 km southeast of Kassel and 150 km northeast of Frankfurt. It is the urban centre of western Thuringia and bordering northeastern Hessian regions. A major attraction is Wartburg castle, which has been a UNESCO world heritage site since 1999, Eisenach was an early capital of Thuringia in the 12th and 13th centuries. St. Elizabeth lived at the court of the Ludowingians here between 1211 and 1228, Martin Luther came to Eisenach and translated the Bible into German. In 1685, Johann Sebastian Bach was born here, during the early-modern period, Eisenach was a residence of the Ernestine Wettins and was visited by numerous representatives of Weimar classicism like Johann Wolfgang Goethe. In 1869, the SDAP, one of the two precursors of the Social Democratic Party of Germany was founded in Eisenach, car production is an important industry in Eisenach. The Automobilwerk Eisenach was founded in 1896, in the German Democratic Republic, the Wartburg was produced here.
Eisenach is situated on the Hörsel river, a tributary of the Werra between the Thuringian Forest in the south, the Hainich mountains in the north-east and the East Hesse Highlands in the north-west, Eisenachs origin and early history is unknown. An 8th century Frankish settlement near Petersberg hill is regarded as the nucleus of Eisenach, there are no written sources about that early period. According to legend, Louis the Springer began in 1067 to establish Wartburg castle above the settlement, in 1080, the castle was first mentioned in a Saxon chronicle. Eisenach itself followed in a document dating to 1150 where it was referred to as Isinacha, during the 1180s, the town was established by the construction of three independent market settlements around the Saturdays market, the Wednesdays market and the Mondays market. During the second half of the 12th century, the walls were erected and Eisenach got a planned grid of streets. In 1207, the legendary Sängerkrieg supposedly took place at Wartburg castle, in 1221, St.
Elizabeth married Landgrave Louis IV and she lived in Eisenach or at Wartburg castle until 1228. Later, she became the patroness of Thuringia and Hesse, in 1247, the Ludowingians died out which led to the War of the Thuringian Succession between the Wettins and Duchess Sophie of Brabant. As a consequence, the landgraviate was divided and the eastern parts went to the Wettins and Kassel and the western parts went to Sophie. Eisenach kept a position among the Wettins Thuringian cities by becoming their Oberhof, so that their law had to be derived from Eisenachs municipal law. The confident citizens of Eisenach fought against the Wettins rule to become an imperial city between 1306 and 1308, but lost. In the 14th century various crises followed, in 1342, a big fire destroyed all the buildings
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
William I of the Netherlands
William I was a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg. In Germany, he was ruler of the Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda from 1803 until 1806 and of the Principality of Orange-Nassau in the year 1806, in 1813 he proclaimed himself Sovereign Prince of the United Netherlands. He proclaimed himself King of the Netherlands and Duke of Luxembourg on 16 March 1815, in the same year on 9 June William I became the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and after 1839 he was furthermore the Duke of Limburg. After his abdication in 1840 he styled himself King William Frederick, King William Is parents were the last stadtholder William V, Prince of Orange of the Dutch Republic, and his wife Wilhelmina of Prussia. Until 1806, William was formally known as William VI, Prince of Orange-Nassau, in Berlin on 1 October 1791, William married his first cousin Wilhelmina, born in Potsdam. She was the daughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia, after Wilhelmina died in 1837, William married Countess Henriette dOultremont de Wégimont, created Countess of Nassau, on 17 February 1841, in Berlin.
Like his younger brother Prince Frederick of Orange-Nassau he was tutored by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler and they were both tutored in the military arts by general Prince Frederick Stamford. After the Patriot revolt had been suppressed in 1787, he in 1788-89 attended the academy in Brunswick which was considered an excellent military school. In 1790 he visited a number of foreign courts like the one in Nassau and the Prussian capital Berlin, William subsequently studied briefly at the University of Leiden. As such he commanded the troops took part in the Flanders Campaign of 1793-95. He took part in the battles of Veurne and Wervik in 1793, the siege of Landrecies, which surrendered to him. In May 1794 he had replaced general Kaunitz as commander of the combined Austro-Dutch forces on the instigation of Emperor Francis II who apparently had an opinion of him. But the French armies proved too strong, and the allied leadership too inept, the French first entered Dutch Brabant which they dominated after the Battle of Boxtel.
When in the winter of 1794-95 the rivers in the Rhine delta froze over, the French breached the southern Hollandic Water Line, in many places Dutch revolutionaries took over the local government. After the Batavian Revolution in Amsterdam on 18 January 1795 the stadtholder decided to flee to Britain, the next day the Batavian Republic was proclaimed. However, the neutral Prussian government forbade this, in 1799, William landed in the current North Holland as part of an Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland. The local Dutch population, was not pleased with the arrival of the prince, one local Orangist was even executed. The hoped-for popular uprising failed to materialise, after several minor battles the Hereditary Prince was forced to leave the country again after the Convention of Alkmaar
Battle of Friedland
Napoleon and the French obtained a decisive victory that routed much of the Russian army, which retreated chaotically over the Alle River by the end of the fighting. The battlefield is located in modern-day Kaliningrad Oblast, near the town of Pravdinsk, the engagement at Friedland was a strategic necessity after the Battle of Eylau earlier in 1807 had failed to yield a decisive verdict for either side. The battle began when Bennigsen noticed the seemingly isolated corps of Marshal Lannes at the town of Friedland, Lannes held his ground against determined Russian attacks until Napoleon could bring additional forces onto the field. By late afternoon, the French had amassed a force of 80,000 troops on the battlefield, relying on superior numbers, Napoleon concluded that the moment had come and ordered a massive assault against the Russian left flank. The sustained French attack pushed back the Russian army and pressed them against the river behind, unable to withstand the pressure, the Russians broke and started escaping across the Alle, where an unknown number of them died from drowning.
The Russian army suffered casualties at Friedland–losing over 40% of its soldiers on the battlefield. Napoleons overwhelming victory was enough to convince the Russian political establishment that peace was necessary, Friedland effectively ended the War of the Fourth Coalition, as Emperor Alexander I reluctantly entered peace negotiations with Napoleon. The lands lost by Prussia were converted into the new Kingdom of Westphalia, Tilsit gave France control of the Ionian Islands, a vital and strategic entry point into the Mediterranean Sea. Some historians regard the political settlements at Tilsit as the height of Napoleons empire because there was no longer any continental power challenging the French domination of Europe, prior to Friedland, Europe had become embroiled in the War of the Third Coalition in 1805. Following the French victory at the Battle of Austerlitz in December 1805, franco-Prussian tensions gradually increased after Austerlitz. Napoleon insisted that Prussia should join his economic blockade of Great Britain and this adversely affected the German merchant class.
Napoleon aimed to win the war by destroying the Prussian armies before the Russians could arrive,180,000 French troops began to cross the Franconian forest on October 2,1806, deployed in a bataillon-carré system designed to meet threats from any possible direction. On October 14 the French won decisively at the large double-battle of Jena-Auerstedt, a famous pursuit followed, and by the end of the campaign the Prussians had lost 25,000 killed and wounded,140,000 prisoners, and more than 2,000 cannon. A few Prussian units managed to cross the Oder River into Poland, Russia now had to face France alone. By November 18 French forces under Louis Nicolas Davout had covered half the distance to Warsaw, Augereaus men had neared Bromberg, when the French arrived in Poland, the local people hailed them as liberators. The Russian general Bennigsen worried that French forces might cut him off from Buxhoevdens army, so he abandoned Warsaw, on November 28,1806, French troops under Murat entered Warsaw.
The French pursued the fleeing Russians and a significant battle developed around Pułtusk on December 26. The result remained in doubt, but Bennigsen wrote to the Tsar that he had defeated 60,000 French troops, at this point, Marshal Ney began to extend his forces to procure food supplies
War of the Fourth Coalition
The Fourth Coalition against Napoleons French Empire was defeated in a war spanning 1806–1807. Coalition partners included Prussia, Saxony, several members of the coalition had previously been fighting France as part of the Third Coalition, and there was no intervening period of general peace. On 9 October 1806, Prussia joined a coalition, fearing the rise in French power after the defeat of Austria. Prussia and Russia mobilized for a campaign, and Prussian troops massed in Saxony. Napoleon decisively defeated the Prussians in a campaign that culminated at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt on 14 October 1806. French forces under Napoleon occupied Prussia, pursued the remnants of the shattered Prussian Army and they advanced all the way to East Prussia and the Russian frontier, where they fought an inconclusive battle against the Russians at the Battle of Eylau on 7–8 February 1807. Napoleons advance on the Russian frontier was briefly checked during the spring as he revitalized his army, Russian forces were finally crushed by the French at the Battle of Friedland on 14 June 1807, and three days Russia asked for a truce.
By the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, France made peace with Russia, these acquisitions were incorporated into his brother Jérôme Bonapartes new Kingdom of Westphalia, and established the Duchy of Warsaw. The end of the war saw Napoleon master of almost all of western and central continental Europe, except for Spain, Austria, despite the end of the Fourth Coalition, Britain remained at war with France. Hostilities on land resumed in 1807 when a Franco-Spanish force invaded Britains ally Portugal, a further Fifth Coalition would be assembled when Austria re-joined the conflict in 1809. The Fourth Coalition of Prussia, Saxony, despite the death of William Pitt in January 1806, Britain and the new Whig administration remained committed to checking the growing power of France. Peace overtures between the two early in the new year proved ineffectual due to the still unresolved issues that had led to the breakdown of the Peace of Amiens. One point of contention was the fate of Hanover, a German electorate in personal union with the British monarchy that had been occupied by France since 1803, dispute over this state would eventually become a casus belli for both Britain and Prussia against France.
This issue dragged Sweden into the war, whose forces had deployed there as part of the effort to liberate Hanover during the war of the previous coalition. The path to war seemed inevitable after French forces ejected the Swedish troops in April 1806, there was an escalation in the ongoing economic warfare between the two powers. With Britain still retaining its dominance of the seas, Napoleon looked to break this dominance with his issuance of the Berlin Decree, Britain retaliated with its Orders in Council several months later. In the meantime, Russia spent most of 1806 still licking its wounds from the years campaign. Napoleon had hoped to establish peace with Russia and a peace treaty was signed in July 1806, but this was vetoed by Tsar Alexander I
General of the Infantry (Germany)
General of the Infantry is a former rank of German Ground forces. Present it is an appointment or position to an OF-6 rank officer, responsible for affairs of training. General of the Infantry was a rank of General of the branch OF8 in the German land forces and in the Prussian Army. It was the third-highest General officer rank, subordinate only to Colonel General and it is equivalent to a three-star rank today. The same rank was adopted by the Finnish Army between the world wars, German cavalry officers of equivalent rank were called General der Kavallerie and those in the artillery corps were General der Artillerie. In 1935 the Wehrmacht added the ranks of General der Panzertruppe, General der Gebirgstruppen, General der Fallschirmtruppen, in the Luftwaffe, the equivalent rank was General der Flieger. The rank was generally referred to only in the form of General, in the modern German armed forces, the Bundeswehr, the rank of Generalleutnant corresponds to the traditional rank of General der Infanterie.
There was no equivalent rank in the army of East Germany, in the Bundeswehr, the position of an infantry officer responsible for certain questions of troop training and equipment, usually with the rank of Brigadier Generals. The position of general of the infantry is connected with that of commander of the infantry school, corresponding service positions exist for other branches of the army. Since in this usage it refers to a not a rank. The form of address is usually Herr General and/or Herr Oberst, note that a number of these officers may have gone on to higher ranks during their careers. General Comparative officer ranks of World War II
Siege of Hamelin
In the Siege of Hameln or Siege of Hamelin, First French Empire forces captured the fortress of Hamelin from its garrison composed of troops from the Kingdom of Prussia. The siege was begun by the VIII Corps under French Marshal Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier, the marshal initially left General of Division Jean-Baptiste Dumonceau in charge of operations. General of Division Anne Jean Marie René Savary soon arrived to conduct negotiations with the Prussian commander General Karl Ludwig von Lecoq, the operation from the War of the Fourth Coalition was a blockade because a formal siege never took place. Hamelin is located 36 kilometers southwest of Hanover, after Emperor Napoleon I smashed the main Prussian armies at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt on 14 October, his victorious Grande Armée chased his enemies across the Elbe River. This left the Prussian force defending the former Electorate of Hanover strategically isolated west of the river, while Napoleons Grande Armée hunted down Prussian forces between the Elbe and the Oder River, subsidiary forces invaded Hanover and Hesse-Kassel.
The defenders withdrew into the fortresses of Hamelin and Nienburg where they were blockaded and captured, in September 1806, when King Frederick William III mobilized the Prussian armies, a substantial force assembled in or near the former Electorate of Hanover. Lieutenant General Gebhard von Blücher concentrated 16 battalions of infantry and 17 squadrons of cavalry to the west at Paderborn, Osnabrück, Leer, in Hanover proper were 20 battalions and 28 squadrons at Celle and Braunschweig. This body became the westernmost field army and its 30,000 troops were placed under the command of General of Infantry Ernst von Rüchel and Blücher. The Prussian high command understood that Napoleons major thrust must come from the south, General-Major Christian Alexander von Hagken and General-Major Karl Friedrich von Brüsewitz were left behind to defend against a French offensive from the Kingdom of Holland and the lower Rhine. Taken together with the garrisons of Hamelin and Nienburg, the entire Prussian strength in the area numbered about 12,000 soldiers, the small mobile forces were assembled near Münster and placed under the command of General Karl Ludwig von Lecoq.
Opposing the Prussians were King Louis Bonaparte in Holland and Marshal Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier at Mainz, Louis deployed a 5,000 to 6, 000-man division near Wesel and another similar-sized division at Utrecht, while Wesel itself was well-defended. Napoleon planned to hold Louis and Mortier in place until he defeated the Prussian main army, at time they would seize Hesse-Kassel. On 9 October and Hagken began advancing west in separate columns, the march was slow and on 19 October, the Prussians received news of the catastrophe of Jena-Auerstedt. Lecoq and Hagken immediately fell back on Hamelin, arriving on 23 October, from there, Lecoq set out the next day for the Elbe. Hearing a report that French forces already blocked his path, he halted his march on the 27th and returned to Hamelin where he began acquiring food and supplies to sustain a siege. He sent Oberst Christian Friedrich von der Osten with one regiment and one infantry battalion across the Elbe. After hearing of Jena-Auerstedt, General-Major Karl Anton Ernst von Bila left Hanover on 20 October with one battalion, the treasure, and he managed to get safely across the Elbe but his small force was caught in the French sweep that followed the Capitulation of Stettin.
On 17 October, Napoleon dispatched orders to Louis and Mortier, the King of Holland was supposed to capture Paderborn and Münster, while the marshal was to seize Fulda and come into contact with General of Division Henri Jacques Guillaume Clarke at Erfurt