Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Geography of Taiwan
Taiwan known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia. It has an area of 36,104 km2; the East China Sea lies to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east, the Luzon Strait directly to the south and the South China Sea to the southwest. The island makes up 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China, known as "Taiwan". Taiwan is a tilted fault block, characterized by the contrast between the eastern two-thirds, consisting of five rugged mountain ranges parallel to the east coast, the flat to rolling plains of the western third, where the majority of Taiwan's population reside. There are several peaks over 3,500 m, the highest being Yu Shan at 3,952 metres, making Taiwan the world's fourth-highest island; the tectonic boundary that formed these ranges is still active, the island experiences many earthquakes, a few of them destructive. There are many active submarine volcanoes in the Taiwan Straits; the climate ranges from tropical in the south to subtropical in the north, is governed by the East Asian Monsoon.
The island is struck by an average of four typhoons in each year. The eastern mountains are forested and home to a diverse range of wildlife, while land use in the western and northern lowlands is intensive; the total area of the island is 36,104 km2, making it intermediate in size between Belgium and the Netherlands. It has a coastline of 1,139 km; the ROC claims a territorial sea of 12 nmi. The main island of the archipelago is the island of Taiwan, 394 km long, 144 km wide and has an area of 35,887 km2; the shape of the main island is similar to a sweet potato oriented in a south-to-north direction, therefore Taiwanese the Min Nan speakers call themselves "children of the Sweet Potato". The northernmost point of the island is Cape Fugui in New Taipei's Shimen District; the central point of the island is in Nantou County. The southernmost point on the island is Cape Eluanbi in Pingtung County; the island of Taiwan is separated from the southeast coast of China by the Taiwan Strait, which ranges from 220 km at its widest point to 130 km at its narrowest.
Part of the continental shelf, the Strait is no more than 100 m deep, has become a land bridge during glacial periods. To the south, the island of Taiwan is separated from the Philippine island of Luzon by the 250 km -wide Luzon Strait; the South China Sea lies to the southwest, the East China Sea to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east. Smaller islands of the archipelago include the Penghu islands in the Taiwan Strait 50 km west of the main island, with an area of 127 km2, the tiny islet of Xiaoliuqiu off the southwest coast, Orchid Island and Green Island to the southeast, separated from the northernmost islands of the Philippines by the Bashi Channel; the islands of Kinmen and Matsu near the coast of Fujian across the Taiwan Strait have a total area of 180 km2. The island of Taiwan was formed 4 to 5 million years ago at a complex convergent boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. In a boundary running the length of the island and continuing southwards in the Luzon Volcanic Arc, the Eurasian Plate is sliding under the Philippine Sea Plate.
Most of the island comprises a huge fault block tilted to the west. The western part of the island, much of the central range, consists of sedimentary deposits scraped from the descending edge of the Eurasian Plate. In the northeast of the island, continuing eastwards in the Ryukyu Volcanic Arc, the Philippine Sea Plate slides under the Eurasian Plate; the tectonic boundary remains active, Taiwan experiences 15,000 to 18,000 earthquakes each year, of which 800 to 1,000 are noticed by people. The most catastrophic recent earthquake was the magnitude-7.3 Chi-Chi earthquake, which occurred in the center of Taiwan on 21 September 1999, killing more than 2,400 people. On 4 March 2010 at about 01:20 UTC, a magnitude 6.4 earthquake hit southwestern Taiwan in the mountainous area of Kaohsiung County. Another major earthquake occurred on 6 February 2016, with a magnitude of 6.4. Tainan was damaged the most, with 117 deaths, most of them caused by the collapse of a 17-story apartment building; the terrain in Taiwan is divided into two parts: the flat to rolling plains in the west, where 90% of the population lives, the rugged forest-covered mountains in the eastern two-thirds.
The eastern part of the island is dominated by five mountain ranges, each running from north-northeast to south-southwest parallel to the east coast of the island. As a group, they extend 330 km from north to south and average about 80 kilometres from east to west, they include more than two hundred peaks with elevations of over 3,000 m. The Central Mountain Range extends from Su'ao in the northeast to Eluanbi at the southern tip of the island, forming a ridge of high mountains and serving as the island's principal watershed; the mountains are predominantly composed of hard rock formations resistant to weathering and erosion, although heavy rainfall has scarred the sides with gorges and sharp valleys. The relative relief of the terrain is extensive, and
Fort Napoleon, Ostend
Fort Napoleon in Ostend is a polygonal fort built in the Napoleonic era. It has been restored and is open to the public. France had occupied the Austrian Netherlands during 1792 and 1793 in the Flanders Campaign of the French Revolutionary Wars. During the War of the Fifth Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte expected a British assault from the sea on the port of Ostend, the fort was constructed in the sand dunes close to the mouth of the harbour in 1811; the British attack never materialised and the fort was used as for troop accommodation and as an arsenal until the end of the French occupation in 1814 when it was abandoned. During World War I, the fort was used as accommodation for a German headquarters, decorated with murals by German soldier Heinrich Otto Pieper; the heavy coastal artillery battery "Hindenburg" was stationed nearby. It was captured by the Belgian army in 1918; the fort was used as German artillery headquarters during World War II. After the war, it served as a museum and a children's playground before falling into decay.
In 1995, the fort came into the care of Erfgoed Vlaanderen vzw and following a five year restoration programme, was opened to the public in April 2000. Website in Dutch and French. History in Dutch by the Flemish Heritage Institute
Southsea Castle also known as Chaderton Castle, South Castle and Portsea Castle, is an artillery fort constructed by Henry VIII on Portsea Island, Hampshire, in 1544. It formed part of the King's Device programme to protect against invasion from France and the Holy Roman Empire, defended the Solent and the eastern approach to Portsmouth; the castle had a square central keep, two rectangular gun platforms to the east and west, two angled bastions to the front and rear, was an early English example of the trace italienne-style of fortification popular on the Continent. The Cowdray engraving of the Battle of the Solent in 1545 depicted Henry VIII visiting the castle. Despite several serious fires, it remained in service and saw brief action at the start of the English Civil War in 1642 when it was stormed by Parliamentary forces; the castle was expanded in the 1680s by Sir Bernard de Gomme and, after a period of neglect in the 18th century, was redesigned again in 1814 during the Napoleonic Wars.
After a brief period of use as a military prison in the 1840s, the fortification was expanded in the 1850s and 1860s with additional gun batteries on the east and west sides. The defences were upgraded throughout the century due to the fears of a French invasion and formed part of the plan for defending Portsmouth during the First World War. In the interwar years some of the fortifications were stood down, but the castle saw service again in the Second World War, when it was involved in Operation Grasp, the seizure of French naval vessels in Portsmouth harbour. In 1960, Southsea Castle, by now obsolete, was sold to Portsmouth City Council, it was restored to its pre-1850 appearance and opened as a tourist attraction, receiving over 90,000 visitors from 2011–12. Southsea Castle was built as a consequence of international tensions between England and the Holy Roman Empire in the final years of the reign of King Henry VIII. Traditionally the Crown had left coastal defences to local lords and communities, only taking a modest role in building and maintaining fortifications, while France and the Empire remained in conflict, maritime raids were common but an actual invasion of England seemed unlikely.
Modest defences based around simple blockhouses and towers existed in the south-west and along the Sussex coast, with a few more impressive works in the north of England, but in general the fortifications were limited in scale. In 1533, Henry broke with Pope Paul III over the annulment of his long-standing marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Catherine was the aunt of Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, who took the annulment as a personal insult; this resulted in France and the Empire declaring an alliance against Henry in 1538, the Pope encouraging the two countries to attack England. An invasion of England appeared certain. In response, Henry issued an order, called a "device", in 1539, giving instructions for the "defence of the realm in time of invasion" and the construction of forts along the English coastline; the immediate threat passed, but resurfaced in 1544, with France threatening an invasion across the Channel, backed by her allies in Scotland. Henry therefore issued another device to further improve the country's defences along the south coast.
The castle was built on the southern end of Portsea Island to protect a deep-water channel running through the Solent to the royal naval base at Portsmouth. Work began in early 1544, under the overall direction of Sir Anthony Knyvett, the Governor of Portsmouth, supported by Richard Cawarden, the Dean of Chichester, John Chatterton, the captain of the Porstmouth garrison, it is uncertain who designed the castle, although Knyvett described it as being "of his Majesty's own device", which indicated that the King had taken a personal role. The design abandoned the earlier use of semi-circular bastions, which could not be covered by flanking fire from the supporting walls, instead used an angular design, forming an early, if imperfect, adoption of the trace italienne-style of fortification in use in Continental Europe; the work was carried out due to the risk of a French attack, by July two brass saker guns were mounted on the site. It cost at least £3,100, £1,300 of which came from the proceeds of the Dissolution of the Monasteries, with chalk and timber being brought across from the neighbouring Isle of Wight.
The castle was completed by October and formed a fortification with a square keep, rectangular gun platforms to the east and west, angled bastions to the front and rear. Chatterton was appointed the new captain, with a team of eight soldiers, twelve gunners and a porter; the castle was well-armed, with seven brass artillery pieces - a culverin, demi-culverin and demi-cannon - and eight iron guns. The French invasion emerged in 1545, when Admiral Claude d'Annebault crossed the Channel and arrived off the Solent with 200 ships on 19 July, landing troops on the Isle of Wight. Henry's fleet made a brief sortie, resulting in the Battle of the Solent, in which the English flagship, the Mary Rose, was lost, before retreating safely behind the protective fortifications. Henry was present in Portsmouth at the time and the Cowdray engraving of the battle depicts him visiting Southsea Castle; the French expedition moved further on along the coast on 25 July, bringing an end to the immediate invasion threat, but Henry gave orders for additional improvements to the fortification to be made that summer, including the construction of stone flankers and timber caponiers, to guard against a potential infantry attack.
Edward VI spent a night at the castle in 1552 while inspecting the defences of Portsmouth. In the early 1600s, England was at peace with France and Spain and as a result the coastal de
Fort Hamilton is a United States Army installation in the southwestern corner of the New York City borough of Brooklyn, surrounded by the communities of Bay Ridge and Dyker Heights. It is one of several posts that are part of the region, headquartered by the Military District of Washington, its mission is to provide the New York metropolitan area with military installation support for the Army National Guard and the United States Army Reserve. The original fort was completed with major additions made in the 1870s and 1900s. However, all defenses except about half of the original fort have been buried. On July 4, 1776, a small American battery on the site of today's Fort Hamilton fired into one of the British men-of-war convoying troops to suppress the American Revolution. HMS Asia suffered damage and casualties, but opposition to the immense fleet could be little more than symbolic. However, this significant event marked one of the earliest uses of the site for military purposes; the War of 1812 underscored the importance of coastal defense and helped to promote a new round of fort building.
The new forts, including Fort Hamilton, were termed the third system of US seacoast forts. The cornerstone for Fort Hamilton was set in place by its designer, Simon Bernard, on June 11, 1825. Bernard was a French military engineer under Napoleon, who had joined the US Army after Napoleon's defeat in 1815. Six years and a half million dollars the fort was ready to receive its garrison Battery F of the 4th US Artillery. Fort Hamilton was designed as a landward defense for Fort Lafayette, although it had a sea-facing front as well. Fort Lafayette was offshore on Hendricks Reef, was demolished in the 1960s to make room for the eastern tower of the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge. Fort Hamilton was in the shape of a trapezoid, with the wide side facing the Narrows and the narrow side facing inland, it had two tiers of cannon all around: a casemated tier inside the fort and a barbette tier on the roof. Loopholes for muskets were provided on the three landward sides. A dry ditch protected these three sides. A caponier, a rare feature in US forts, projected into the ditch to defend it against attack.
Two smaller caponiers enclosed the ends of the ditch. The fort's sally port was in the middle of this front. A square redoubt with its own ditch was located behind the fort to provide an initial landward defense position. Though references to the structure as Fort Hamilton occur as early as 1826, it was not named for the former Senior Officer of the United States Army and first Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, until the twentieth century. In 1839 the Federal government gave permission to New York State's 27th Regiment to drill at the fort, thus qualifying it as the nation's first National Guard training camp; the following year, it allocated $20,000 to improve the fort's armaments, Captain Robert E. Lee an officer of the Army Corps of Engineers, was assigned the task of improving the defenses of the fort as well as those of other military installations in the area. Lee served as Fort Hamilton's post engineer from 1841 to 1846 and is credited with the initial design of several subsequent New York-area forts, notably the rebuilt Fort Richmond and Fort Tompkins, along with the Fort at Willets Point and the Fort at Sandy Hook.
Lieutenant Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson served at Fort Hamilton, Captain Abner Doubleday served as the post commander in 1861, shortly after serving at Fort Sumter during the bombardment that started the Civil War. During the Civil War, Fort Hamilton's garrison expanded. A ship barrier across the Narrows assisted Fort Hamilton and its sister forts on Staten Island, now called Fort Wadsworth, in protecting the harbor against the possibility of Confederate raiders; the forts provided troops to help put down the New York Draft Riots of 1863. Fort Hamilton served as a prisoner-of-war camp, an exterior "New Battery" of guns was added. Rifled cannon made vertical-walled masonry fortifications obsolete during the Civil War; the first response of the US coast defense forces to this was a series of new batteries, with guns in open positions behind low earth walls and brick magazines with heavy earth cover between the guns. Most of these were located near existing forts. In 1871 construction began at Fort Hamilton on an 8-gun water battery and a 15-gun mortar battery, but the latter was never completed or armed.
Money for these projects ran out in the late 1870s, US coast defense languished, with few improvements completed for nearly 20 years. The 1885 Board of Fortifications, chaired by Secretary of War William C. Endicott and called the Endicott Board, recommended sweeping improvements to US coast defenses, with a new generation of modern breech-loading rifled guns and numerous new gun batteries. Most of the Board's recommendations were adopted as the Endicott program, that included major changes and improvements for Fort Hamilton. More than half of the old fort was demolished to make room for new concrete gun batteries. Fort Hamilton became part of the Artillery District of New York, renamed in 1913 as the Coast Defenses of Southern New York; the following table shows the gun batteries completed at Fort Hamilton from 1898 to 1905. In most cases references do not indicate the precise model of gun or carriage at a particular battery, or the batteries' namesakes: Several batteries were directly in front of the remains of the old fort, with Battery Griffin in front of and below the others.
The other batteries extended in a line southeast
Coalhouse Fort is an artillery fort in the eastern English county of Essex. It was built in the 1860s to guard the lower Thames from seaborne attack, it stands at Coalhouse Point on the north bank of the river, at a location near East Tilbury, vulnerable to raiders and invaders. It was the last in a series of fortifications dating back to the 15th century and was the direct successor to a smaller mid-19th century fort built on the same site. Constructed during a period of tension with France, its location on marshy ground caused problems from the start and led to a lengthy construction process; the fort was equipped with a variety of large-calibre artillery guns and the most modern defensive facilities of the time, including shell-proof casemates protected by granite facing and cast-iron shields. Its lengthy construction and the rapid pace of artillery development at the time meant that it was obsolete for its original purpose within a few years of its completion; the fort's armament was revised several times during its 70 years of military use, as its role evolved in the river's defensive system.
It was a front-line fortification, supported by Shornemead Fort and Cliffe Fort located to the south and east on the Kent shore. Over time, as batteries and forts further downriver became the front line of the Thames defences, Coalhouse Fort was stripped of its main weapons and it was altered to support smaller quick-firing guns intended to be used against fast-moving surface and aerial targets, its last military use was as a training facility for a few years after the Second World War. Decommissioned in 1949, the fort was used as a storehouse for a shoe factory before it was purchased by the local council; the surrounding land was developed into a public park, but the fort itself fell into dereliction despite its historical and architectural significance. Since 1985 it has been leased to a voluntary preservation group, the Coalhouse Fort Project, working to restore the fort and use it for heritage and educational purposes, it can be visited by the public on regular open days. It houses small military museums and open-air displays of military equipment.
Funding for its restoration has been provided in part by the Heritage Lottery Fund and the Warner Bros. film studio, which used the fort as a location for the opening scenes of the 2005 film Batman Begins. East Tilbury, which stands at the western end of the section of the Thames known as Lower Hope Reach, was fortified long before the building of Coalhouse Fort due to its vulnerability to seaborne attackers. Settlements on both sides of the Thames were raided by the French in 1379 during the second phase of the Hundred Years' War; the attack prompted the building of Cooling Castle on Kent's Hoo Peninsula between 1380 and 1385 but there was no corresponding move to improve the defences of East Tilbury. Appeals from the local people led to the Crown agreeing in July 1402 to build an earthen rampart and towers to protect the settlement; the site of these early defences is not known but might have been near where St Catherine's Church now stands. A ditch of unknown date in that vicinity may represent a fragment of the medieval defences.
Henry VIII ordered the construction of an artillery blockhouse at East Tilbury in 1539–40 as part of a major scheme to fortify the coastline of England and Wales. It followed his break from the Pope and the Catholic Church, which led to fears that the Catholic powers of Europe would seek to invade so as to reimpose Papal authority. Five blockhouses were built along the Thames between Gravesend and Higham – two on the north bank at Tilbury and East Tilbury and three on the south bank at Gravesend and Higham; the East Tilbury Blockhouse was built with stone taken from St Margaret's Chapel in Tilbury, dissolved in 1536. Its form is not known but it consisted of a brick and stone structure in a D-shape, with a rampart and ditch to enclose its landward side, it was recorded as having fifteen iron and brass cannon of various calibres in 1540. It had a small permanent garrison, consisting of a commander and his deputy, a porter, two soldiers and four gunners; the blockhouse may have been altered in 1545 but in 1553 it was disarmed.
Although the corresponding blockhouse at Gravesend continued in use and that at Tilbury was incorporated into Tilbury Fort between 1670 and 1683, the one at East Tilbury seems to have been abandoned before the end of the 16th century. By 1735 it was in ruins, its site by the shoreline has since been eroded away by tidal action, though it is possible that remains from the blockhouse may still survive under the river mud. The June 1687 Raid on the Medway by the Dutch fleet during the Second Anglo-Dutch War exposed the weaknesses of the Thames defences, it took another hundred years for the defences on Gravesend Reach to be improved, in the form of new works at Gravesend and Tilbury built in the 1780s, but then the potential of forward defence – to prevent enemies accessing the lower Thames – continued to be neglected. It was not until the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars that the need for effective forward defence was addressed. Lieutenant Colonel Hartcup of the Royal Engineers carried out a survey of the Thames in 1794 in which he recommended building a triangle of artillery batteries to guard the entrance to Gravesend Reach and the next reach of the river, Lower Hope Reach.
Two of the batteries would be located on the south bank at Shornemead, about 1.5 miles north-west of Higham.
Newhaven Fort is a Palmerston fort built in the 19th century to defend the harbour at Newhaven, on the south coast of England. It was the largest defence work built in Sussex and is now open as a museum. A new fort to defend the port of Newhaven was a recommendation of the 1859 Royal Commission on the Defence of the United Kingdom, during the administration of Lord Palmerston; the design of the fort commenced in 1862 and was overseen by 22-year-old Anglo-Irish Lieutenant John Charles Ardagh, working from an office in Brighton. The site selected was on cliffs overlooking the harbour called Castle Hill, occupied by a battery which originated in the mid-16th century. Instead of levelling the site, as was customary, Ardagh designed the fort to conform to the existing contours. A 40 foot wide moat protected the northern and western sides of the fort, which were lined with concrete, the first time this material had been used to any extent in a British fortification; the junction of the northern and western arms of the moat was protected by a counterscarp gallery and a sally port.
The eastern side overlooking the harbour was protected by a short wet moat and by the embankment of the harbour. A caponier at the foot of the chalk cliffs was reached by a tunnel from within the fort; the garrison was to be housed in casemated barracks built into the western ramparts. The main entrance at the north east angle was accessed by an "Equilibrium Bridge" designed and patented by Ardagh himself. Work commenced with a workforce of 250 men and three steam engines. Shingle for the concrete was taken from the beach and clay for the six million bricks required was found nearby. Work was completed in the summer of 1871 and the guns were emplaced in 1873; the fort proper was armed on the eastern side in the 1870s with two 9-inch rifled muzzle-loading guns on Moncrieff disappearing carriages, the only such arrangement in the UK. From about 1906 the armament consisted of two modern 6-inch Mark VII breechloading naval guns, two modern light QF 12-pounder guns for defence against torpedo boats.
The main 6-inch Mark VII guns were replaced in 1941 by a battery of BL 6-inch Mk 24 coastal guns, which were located west of the fort. During the Second World War it was manned by Royal Artillery; the army vacated the fort in 1962. Restoration began in 1982 following a failed commercial redevelopment venture, 6-inch Mk VII guns have been re-installed in the fort to approximate the 1906 - 1941 armament; the fort is maintained by Lewes District Council as Newhaven Fort. In 2015 the fort's network of tunnels was featured extensively in the British horror film,' The Cutting Room'. In the BBC TV programme Great British Railway Journeys, Michael Portillo visited Newhaven Fort. Eastbourne Redoubt Pevensey Castle Newhaven Fort: official website Victorian Forts data sheet Redoubt Fortress Museum Eastbourne Redoubt The Royal Sussex Living History Group