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A cappuccino is an espresso-based coffee drink that originated in Italy, is traditionally prepared with steamed milk foam. Variations of the drink involve the use of cream instead of milk, flavoring with cinnamon or chocolate powder, it is smaller in volume than a caffè latte, with a thicker layer of microfoam. The name comes from the Capuchin friars, referring to the colour of their habits, in this context referring to the colour of the beverage when milk is added in small portion to dark, brewed coffee; the physical appearance of a modern cappuccino with espresso créma and steamed milk is a result of a long evolution of the drink. The Viennese bestowed the name "Kapuziner" in the 18th century, on a version that included whipped cream and spices of unknown origin; the Italian cappuccino was unknown outside Italy until the 1930s, seems to be born out of Viennese-style cafés in Trieste and other cities in the former Austria in the first decades of the 20th century. The drink can be found at a number of establishments.

Outside of Italy, cappuccino is a coffee drink that today is composed of double espresso and hot milk, with the surface topped with foamed milk. Cappuccinos are most prepared with an espresso machine; the double espresso is poured into the bottom of the cup, followed by a similar amount of hot milk, prepared by heating and texturing the milk using the espresso machine steam wand. The top third of the drink consists of milk foam. In a traditional cappuccino, as served in Europe and artisan coffee houses in the United States, the total of espresso and milk/foam make up between 150 and 180 ml. Commercial coffee restaurant chains in the US more serve the cappuccino as a 360 ml drink or larger. In Italy, a cappuccino consists of 25 ml of espresso. Outside of Italy, the ratios of espresso and foam equal 1/3 each. Cappuccino is traditionally small with a thick layer of foam. Caffè latte is served in a large glass. Cappuccino traditionally has a layer of textured milk microfoam exceeding 1 cm in thickness.

As a result, the microfoam will remain on top of the mug when the espresso is poured in as well as mix well with the rest of the cappuccino. The World Barista Championships have been arranged annually since 2000, during the course of the competition, the competing barista must produce—for four sensory judges—among other drinks four cappuccinos, defined in WBC Rules and Regulations as a coffee and milk beverage that should produce a harmonious balance of rich, sweet milk and espresso The cappuccino is prepared with one single shot of espresso, textured milk and foam. A minimum of 1 centimeter of foam depth A cappuccino is a beverage between 150 ml and 180 ml in total volume'Cappuccino' comes from Latin Caputium borrowed in German/Austrian and modified into kapuziner, it is the diminutive form of cappuccio in Italian, meaning "hood" or something that covers the head, thus cappuccino means "small capuchin". It is believed Marco d'Aviano, was the inspiration for this beverage; the coffee beverage has its name not from the hood but from the colour of the hooded robes worn by monks and nuns of the Capuchin order.

This colour is quite distinctive, capuchin was a common description of the colour of red-brown in 17th century Europe. The Capuchin monks chose the particular design of their orders' robes both in colour and shape of the hood back in the 16th century, inspired by Francis of Assisi's preserved 13th century vestments; the long and pointed hood was characteristic and soon gave the brothers the nickname "capuchins". It was, the choice of red-brown as the order's vestment colour that, as early as the 17th century, saw "capuchin" used as a term for a specific colour. While Francis of Assisi humbly used uncoloured and un-bleached wool for his robes, the Capuchins coloured their vestments to differ from Augustinians, Benedictines and other orders; the word cappuccino, in its Italian form, is not known in Italian writings until the 20th century, but the German language kapuziner is mentioned as a coffee beverage in the 18th century in Austria, is described as, "coffee with sugar, egg yolks and cream", in dictionary entries from 1800 onwards.

Kapuziner was by the First World War a common coffee drink in cafés in the parts of northern Italy which at that time still belonged to Austria. The use of fresh milk in coffee in cafés and restaurants is a newer phenomenon, introduced when refrigeration became common; the use of full cream is known much further back in time, as this was a product more stored and used in cooking and baking. Thus, a kapuziner was prepared with a small amount of cream to get the capuchin colour. Today, kapuziner is still served in Viennese traditional cafés, comprising still black coffee with only a few drops of cream; the consumption of coffee in Europe was based on the traditional Ottoman preparati

Heather Reid (sports administrator)

Heather Lynne Reid AM is an Australian football administrator and an advocate for gender equity and inclusion in sport in the world game of football. In 2018, she was elected to the Football Federation Australia Board. Reid was born in Goulburn, New South Wales in 1956, her parents emigrated from Edinburgh, Scotland to Australia in 1955 with her elder brother and sister. She grew up in Cooma and Talbingo due to her Scottish father working on the Snowy Mountains Scheme. Reid attended Tumut High School where she was school captain in 1973. In 1974, she moved to Canberra to undertake a secretarial course at the TAFE college. In 1980, Reid commenced a bachelor of sports administration degree at the Canberra College of Advanced Education, she was one of the inaugural graduates of the course that started due to the establishment of the Australian Institute of Sport in 1981. After completing the sports administration degree in 1983, Reid was employed as CEO of ACT Touch Football. Reid returned to the University of Canberra as a lecturer in sport management in 1999 and continued to convene and deliver undergraduate and graduate units through to 2004.

She completed a Graduate Diploma in Sports Management at University of Canberra in 2007 and in 2012 completed the Australian Institute of Company Directors program. In 2015, Reid was awarded an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Canberra. Whilst working at the Australian National University, Reid was involved in forming the ANU Women's Soccer Club in 1978 and the ACT Women's Soccer Association in 1979, a member of the Australian Women's Soccer Association. Whilst involved in the ACT Association, Reid held several positions, including President, she pioneered improvements to the administration and promotion of women's football competitions as well as established state representative teams and coached the first ACT Under 15 team in 1983. Reid began her career as a paid football administrator in 1986 when appointed National Executive Director of Australian Women's Soccer Association, she held this position until 1992. Whilst in this position, Reid was part of an informal international alliance that lobbied for the establishment of a FIFA women's world cup and soon after lobbied for the inclusion of a soccer competition for women in the Olympic Games.

During the late 1990s Reid maintained a voluntary and coaching role in community football and returned to professional football administration in 2004 when she was the first woman appointed as CEO of a State football federation, at the ACT Football Federation. Whilst CEO of Capital Football she played a major role in developing new participation and player development programs, promoting the Kanga Cup as a world leading international youth football tournament and obtaining the licence for Canberra United FC in 2008 to compete in the Westfield W-League. In 2013, Reid was appointed to the Local Organising Committee of the 2015 AFC Asian Cup with games played in Canberra, Newcastle and Melbourne. Reid retired as CEO Capital Football in 2016. In November 2016, Reid won a defamation case against Stan Dukic who wrote Facebook posts over a two-year period alleging she was incompetent and had misappropriated money. Reid was appointed as a mentor on FIFA's women's leadership program and an administration instructor in 2016.

In November 2018, she was elected to the Football Federation of Australia Board with over 90 per cent of ballots cast in her favour. In January 2019, Reid took indefinite leave as FFA Vice-President whilst undergoing chemotherapy treatment. In May 2019 Reid apologised "unreservedly" to Alen Stajcic for comments she made to journalists in the aftermath of his sudden dismissal as head coach of the Australia women's national soccer team the previous January. Reid had incorrectly implied that Stajcic had been sacked for misconduct, but apologised when the FFA distanced itself from her remarks. Reid has been women in sport and mentoring, she has held various volunteer roles as well as the following professional positions: Director and CEO of the ACT Association for Women in Sport and Recreation and National Executive Director of Womensport Australia. She wrote a guide for facilitating mentoring relationships and subsequently delivered Mentor as Anything programs across Australia. Reid was a consultant and project officer at the Australian Sports Commission between 1999 and 2003 working on strategies and programs related to women in sport, harassment free sport, Play by the Rules and Active Australia.

Reid was a member and chair of the ACT Advisory Council on Women and Sport and was a member of the ACT Sport and Recreation Council. 1986 – Life Member, ACT Women's Soccer Association 1998 – Life Member and Recreation ACT 2000 – ACT Sport Star of the Year in the administrator category 2001 – Australian Sports Medal 2003 – ACT Women's Soccer, Cathy McCallum Award for outstanding contribution 2004 – Life Member, ACT Football Federation 2006 – Australian Sports Commission's Margaret Pewtress Memorial Award for her contribution to women in sport 2007 – Inducted into the Australian Football Federation Hall of Fame 2013 – Awarded the'Edna Award' for her work in women's sport and football and appointed Ambassador for Australian Womensport and Recreation Association 2014 – ACT Honour Walk Recipient 2015 – Member of the Order of Australia for significant service to sport administration football, in the Canberra region, as an advocate for gender equity in sport 2017 – Honorary doctorate from the University of Canberra for distinguished service to sport administration, football and as an advocate for gender equality Landmark women: Heather Reid AM, Na

Ullage motor

Ullage motors are small, independently fueled rocket engines that may be fired to accelerate the rocket prior to main engine ignition, when the vehicle is in a zero-g situation. Cryogenic-liquid-fueled rockets keep their propellants in insulated tanks; these tanks are never filled to allow for expansion. In micro-gravity conditions the cryogenic liquids are without a free surface existing in a slushy state between solid and gas. In this mixed state, ullage gases may be sucked into the engines, undesirable, as it displaces useful propellant, reduces efficiency, may damage the engines. Small rocket engines, called "ullage motors", are sometimes used to settle the propellant prior to the main engine ignition to allow the formation of a temporary free surface; these motors provide acceleration that moves the main engine liquid propellants to the bottom of their tanks, so they can be pumped into the engine plumbing. The Agena-A was one of the first vehicles to make use of an ullage system in preparation for ignition after separating from its Thor booster.

Failure of the Agena's internal timer was blamed for premature ignition of this ullage system in the failed launch of "Discoverer Zero" on January 21, 1959. Such motors were used by Soviet engineers for the Molniya interplanetary launch vehicle in 1960; the firing of the ullage motors is used during stage separation of rocket and/or stabilization of a rocket when there are brief reductions in acceleration which could allow the liquid propellant to float away from the engine intakes. Ullage motors are commonly employed on deep-space missions where a liquid rocket needs to start a burn after traveling in micro-gravity; the second stage of the Saturn V rocket used in the American Apollo program used four ullage motors located on the aft interstage skirt. In the S-IVB third stage, there was an Auxiliary Propulsion System that had ullage functions. Ullage is a secondary function of the reaction control system such as on the Apollo Lunar Module. In his book Lost Moon, Jim Lovell recounted a description of a course-correction burn of the LEM's main descent engine to re-enter a free return trajectory to Earth during the successful recovery of the Apollo 13 capsule: When the ship had stabilized in the proper attitude for firing, Lovell would deploy the LEM's landing gear, extending its four spidery legs to get them out of the way of the descent engine.

Next the computer, relying on other instructions Haise typed into it, would fire four of Aquarius's attitude jets for 7.5 seconds. This procedure, known as ullage, was intended to jolt the spacecraft forward and force the descent engine fuel to the bottom of its tanks, eliminating bubbles and air pockets. After that, the main descent engine would ignite automatically firing at 10 percent thrust for 5 seconds

Polynesian (horse)

Polynesian was an American Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. He was owned by Gertrude T. Widener, of the prominent Widener family of Philadelphia, bred by her father-in-law Joseph E. Widener at his Elmendorf Farm in Lexington, Kentucky, he was trained by Morris H. Dixon. At age two, Polynesian lost his first three races bucked his shins. Back in training at age three, Polynesian won five of his next seven starts, one of, a division of the Sagamore Stakes. In the Experimental Free Handicap he came in third to Jeep and Greek Warrior, fourth in a division of the Wood Memorial won by Hoop Jr.. He skipped the Kentucky Derby. Polynesian took the mile and three sixteenths second leg of the U. S. Triple Crown series, the Preakness Stakes, in a front running victory; because of its demanding one and a half miles, Polynesian was not entered in the third leg of the Triple Crown, the Belmont Stakes. That year he won the Saranac Handicap. Polynesian developed into a champion sprinter, winning a number of important sprint races in 1946 and in 1947 and was named the U.

S. Champion Sprint Horse. In his last year of racing, he went through a streak of five wins, 10 seconds, 10 thirds. Retired to stud duty, Polynesian sired 37 stakes winners including one of the greatest horses in American racing history, Native Dancer; some of Polynesian's offspring were: Barbizon - American Champion Two-Year-Old Colt, 1956 Imbros - multiple stakes winner who set or equaled five track records including setting a world record for 7 furlongs Native Dancer - U. S. Racing Hall of Fame, rated No. 7 in the Blood-Horse magazine List of the Top 100 U. S. Racehorses of the 20th Century, sired Raise a Native, damsire of Northern Dancer, damsire of Ruffian Polly's Jet - won Christiana Stakes, National Stallion Stakes, Saratoga Special Stakes, etc. Damsire of Right Tack. Polynesian was the damsire of 1963 Kentucky Derby winner Chateaugay and 1978 Kentucky Broodmare of the Year Primonetta. At age seventeen, Polynesian died in 1959 from colic and was buried at Gallaher Farm in Lexington, Kentucky.

Polynesian's pedigree and partial racing stats

HMS Indefatigable (1784)

HMS Indefatigable was one of the Ardent class 64-gun third-rate ships-of-the-line designed by Sir Thomas Slade in 1761 for the Royal Navy. She was built as a ship-of-the-line, but most of her active service took place after her conversion to a 44-gun razee frigate, she had a long career under several distinguished commanders, serving throughout the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. She took some 27 prizes, alone or in company, the Admiralty authorised the issue of four clasps to the Naval General Service Medal in 1847 to any surviving members of her crews from the respective actions, she was broken up in 1816. Indefatigable was ordered on 3 August 1780, her keel was laid down in May 1781 at the Bucklers Hard shipyard in Hampshire owned by Henry Adams, she was launched in early July 1784 and completed from 11 July to 13 September of that year at Portsmouth Dockyard as a 64-gun two-decked third rate for the Royal Navy. She had cost £25,210 4s 5d to build. By that time, she was anachronistic for the role of a ship of the line as the French only built the more powerful 74-gun ships, was never commissioned in that role.

In 1794, she was razéed. The original intention was to retain her twenty-six 24-pounder guns on her gundeck, to mount eight 12-pounder guns on her quarterdeck and a further four on her forecastle, which would have rated her as a 38-gun vessel. However, it was at this time that the carronade was becoming more popular in the Navy, her intended armament was altered on 5 December 1794 with the addition of four 42-pounder carronades to go on her quarterdeck and two on her forecastle. Indefatigable was thereafter rated as a 44-gun fifth-rate frigate, along with Magnanime and Anson, which were converted at about the same time; the work was carried out at Portsmouth from September 1794 to February 1795 at a cost of £8,764. On 17 February 1795, a further two 12-pounder guns were added to her quarterdeck, though her official rating remained unchanged. Indefatigable was first commissioned in December 1794 under Captain Sir Edward Pellew, he commanded her until early 1799. On 9 March 1795, Indefatigable and Jason captured numerous French prizes: Temeraire, Gentille, a brig and sloop of unknown names.

In October, the Dutch East Indiaman Zeelilee was wrecked in the Isles of Scilly with the loss of 25 of her 70 crew. Indefatigable rescued the survivors. On 20 March 1796, Indefatigable and her squadron chased three French corvettes, of which the Volage of 26 guns ran ashore under a battery at the mouth of the Loire. Volage lost her masts in running ashore, but the French were able to refloat her, her two consorts Sagesse and Eclatant escaped into the river. In this action, Amazon had four men wounded; the squadron captured or sank a number of merchant vessels between 11 and 21 March. Favorite Sultana, laden with salt—captured; the vessels sharing in the prize money were: Indefatigable, Concorde, Révolutionnaire, Amazon and the hired armed cutter Dolly and hired armed lugger Duke of York. On 13 April 1796, Indefatigable was in pursuit of a French frigate. Pellew signalled to Revolutionnaire to cut her off from the shore. Revolutionnaire captured the French frigate Unite after having fired two broadsides into her.

Unite had 11 wounded. The Royal Navy took the frigate into service as HMS Unite. On the morning of 20 April 1796, Indefatigable sighted the French 44-gun frigate Virginie off the Lizard. Indefatigable and Concorde chased Virginie, with Indefatigable catching her just after midnight on 21 April after a chase of 15 hours and 168 miles. After an hour and three quarters of fighting, she still had not struck and had somewhat outmaneuvered Indefatigable when Concorde arrived. Seeing that she was outnumbered, Virginie struck. Virginie carried 44 guns, 18 and 9-pounders, had a crew of 340 men under the command of Citizen Bergeret, Capitaine de Vaisseau, she had 14 or 15 men killed, 17 badly wounded, 10 slightly. She had four feet of water in her hold from shot holes. Indefatigable had no casualties. Pellew sent Virginie into Plymouth under the escort of Concorde, followed the next day with Amazon, which had sustained some damage; the Royal Navy took Virginie into service as Virginie. In July 1796, there was an initial distribution of £20,000 of prize money for the capture of Unite and Virginie.

Indefatigable shared this with Amazon, Revolutionnaire and Argo. Duke of York shared in some or all of the prize money. In 1847, the Admiralty authorised the issue of the Naval General Service Medal with clasp "Indefatigable 20 Apl. 1796". On 12 June, Amazon, Concorde and Phoebe took two French brigs off Ushant – the Trois Couleurs and the Blonde – after a chase of 24 hours. Trois Couleurs carried 10 guns and a crew of 70. Blonde had a crew of 95 men; each was under the command of an ensign de vaisseau and both vessels had left Brest two days earlier for a six-week cruise, but had not yet taken any prizes. In September 1796, Phoebe and Amazon captured five Spanish ships. On 1 October, Amazon, Revolutionnaire and Jason shared in the capture o

Shoja Azari

Shoja Azari is an Iranian-born visual artist and filmmaker based in New York City. He is known for films such as, Women Without Men, Windows and K based on 3 of Franz Kafka's short stories. Azari was born in Iran, he is ethnically Persian, despite the last name. Azari trained as a filmmaker in New York in the 1970s before returning to Iran for the Revolution in 1979, he permanently returned to the U. S. In 1997, he first met artist Shirin Neshat when she was assembling a team to create her first video “Turbulent”. Azari and Neshat became romantic partners. Azari's film and multimedia installations have been showcased in galleries and museums around the world, his first solo exhibition in New York occurred in 2010 at the Leila Taghinia-Milani Heller Gallery. He is divorced and has one son, Johnny B. Azari, a musician. "Noire Contemporary Art Gallery Artists". Retrieved June 16, 2014