Capsaicin is an active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. It is an irritant for mammals, including humans, produces a sensation of burning in any tissue with which it comes into contact. Capsaicin and several related compounds are called capsaicinoids and are produced as secondary metabolites by chili peppers as deterrents against certain mammals and fungi. Pure capsaicin is a hydrophobic, colorless pungent, crystalline to waxy solid compound. Capsaicin is present in large quantities in the placental tissue, the internal membranes and, to a lesser extent, the other fleshy parts of the fruits of plants in the genus Capsicum; the seeds themselves do not produce any capsaicin, although the highest concentration of capsaicin can be found in the white pith of the inner wall, where the seeds are attached. The seeds of Capsicum plants are dispersed predominantly by birds: in birds, the TRPV1 channel does not respond to capsaicin or related chemicals; this is advantageous to the plant, as chili pepper seeds consumed by birds pass through the digestive tract and can germinate whereas mammals have molar teeth which destroy such seeds and prevent them from germinating.
Thus, natural selection may have led to increasing capsaicin production because it makes the plant less to be eaten by animals that do not help it disperse. There is evidence that capsaicin may have evolved as an anti-fungal agent: the fungal pathogen Fusarium, known to infect wild chilies and thereby reduce seed viability, is deterred by capsaicin, which thus limits this form of predispersal seed mortality. In 2006, it was discovered that the venom of a certain tarantula species activates the same pathway of pain as is activated by capsaicin; because of the burning sensation caused by capsaicin when it comes in contact with mucous membranes, it is used in food products to provide added spice or "heat" in the form of spices such as chili powder and paprika. In high concentrations, capsaicin will cause a burning effect on other sensitive areas, such as skin or eyes; the degree of heat found within a food is measured on the Scoville scale. Because some people enjoy the heat, there has long been a demand for capsaicin-spiced products like curry, chili con carne, hot sauces such as Tabasco sauce and salsa.
It is common for people to experience pleasurable and euphoric effects from ingesting capsaicin. Folklore among self-described "chiliheads" attributes this to pain-stimulated release of endorphins, a different mechanism from the local receptor overload that makes capsaicin effective as a topical analgesic. Capsaicin is used as an analgesic in topical ointments and dermal patches to relieve pain in concentrations between 0.025% and 0.1%. It may be applied in cream form for the temporary relief of minor aches and pains of muscles and joints associated with arthritis, backache and sprains in compounds with other rubefacients, it is used to reduce the symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, such as post-herpetic neuralgia caused by shingles. A capsaicin transdermal patch for the management of this particular therapeutic indication was approved as a therapeutic by the U. S. FDA, but a subsequent application for Qutenza to be used as an analgesic in HIV neuralgia was refused. One 2017 review of clinical studies having limited quality found that high-dose topical capsaicin compared with control provided moderate to substantial pain relief from post-herpetic neuralgia, HIV-neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy.
Although capsaicin creams have been used to treat psoriasis for reduction of itching, a review of six clinical trials involving topical capsaicin for treatment of pruritus concluded there was insufficient evidence of effect. There is insufficient clinical evidence to determine the role of ingested capsaicin on several human disorders, including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Capsaicinoids are an active ingredient in riot control and personal defense pepper spray agents; when the spray comes in contact with skin eyes or mucous membranes, it produces pain and breathing difficulty, discouraging protestors and assailants. Capsaicin is used to deter pests mammalian pests. Targets of capsaicin repellants include voles, rabbits, bears and attacking dogs. Ground or crushed dried chili pods may be used in birdseed to deter rodents, taking advantage of the insensitivity of birds to capsaicin; the Elephant Pepper Development Trust claims that using chili peppers as a barrier crop can be a sustainable means for rural African farmers to deter elephants from eating their crops.
Notably, an article published in the Journal of Environmental Science and Health in 2006 states that "Although hot chili pepper extract is used as a component of household and garden insect-repellent formulas, it is not clear that the capsaicinoid elements of the extract are responsible for its repellency."The first pesticide product using capsaicin as the active ingredient was registered with the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1962. Capsaicin is a banned substance in equestrian sports because of its hypersensitizing and pain-relieving properties. At the show jumping events of the 2008 Summer Olympics, four horses tested positive for the substance, which resulted in disqualification. Capsaicin is a strong irritant requiring proper protective goggles and proper hazardous material-hand
There are at least 20 named cemeteries in Madison County, Montana. Some cemeteries are considered historical by the U. S. Board on Geographic Names: Historical Features – Features that no longer exist on the landscape or no longer serve the original purpose. Bear Creek Cemetery, 45°10′27″N 111°35′23″W, el. 5,866 feet Boothill Cemetery, 45°17′44″N 111°56′56″W, el. 5,823 feet Ennis Cemetery, 45°20′01″N 111°42′22″W, el. 4,970 feet Evans Cemetery, 45°20′42″N 111°41′01″W, el. 5,036 feet Harrison Cemetery, 45°43′22″N 111°47′24″W, el. 4,888 feet Laurin Cemetery, 45°21′27″N 112°06′21″W, el. 5,151 feet Madison Valley Cemetery, 45°20′02″N 111°42′20″W, el. 4,970 feet Masonic Cemetery, 45°32′34″N 112°18′47″W, el. 4,692 feet McAllister Cemetery, 45°26′35″N 111°44′32″W, el. 4,984 feet Nevada City Cemetery, 45°18′39″N 111°58′11″W, el. 5,613 feet Point of Rocks Cemetery, 45°24′42″N 112°26′37″W, el. 4,806 feet Pony Cemetery, 45°39′27″N 111°52′53″W, el. 5,502 feet Rochester Cemetery, 45°36′50″N 112°30′39″W, el. 5,853 feet Sheridan Cemetery, 45°26′03″N 112°10′44″W, el. 5,128 feet Silver Star Cemetery, 45°41′28″N 112°17′18″W, el. 4,649 feet South Boulder Cemetery, 45°49′01″N 111°56′20″W, el. 4,655 feet Taylor Cemetery, 45°18′32″N 112°04′44″W, el. 5,256 feet Twin Bridges Cemetery, 45°31′50″N 112°18′53″W, el. 4,692 feet Upper Ruby Cemetery, 45°09′07″N 112°08′46″W, el.
P&O Stena Line was formed in 1998 after the merger of P&O European Ferries Ltd and the Dover and Newhaven operations of Stena Line. The idea for a joint service was put forward in July 1996 and in October of the same year signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the merger of their ferry interests on the Short Sea routes; the go ahead was given to the merger towards the end of 1997 by UK, French and EU authorities and the new company began on 10 March 1998 with joint livery being unveiled the day before. Ownership of the new company was 60/40 in favour of P&O with all shore and sea management performed by P&O. Voting rights between the two companies was 50/50. Both P&O and Stena put various building assets into the merger. An example of, P&O Stena Lines "Central Preparation" kitchens in the western docks, their training centre. Channel House, P&O's Dover headquarters were leased from P&O Corporate in London to P&O Stena Line; the Newhaven-Dieppe service was closed in early 1999. P&O Stena was replaced on the route by Transmanche Hoverspeed.
In April 2002, P&O announced its intention to buy out the 40% stake in P&O Stena Line owned by Stena and this was completed by August. P&O Stena Line became part of P&O Ferries. On completion of the merger, P&O European Ferries volunteered 8 vessels into the newly formed group: Pride of Bruges Pride of Burgundy Pride of Calais Pride of Dover Pride of Kent European Highway European Pathway European SeawayThe first five being ROPAX ships sailing Dover to Calais, the last three being dedicated Freight only RORO vessels sailing Dover to Zeebrugge. Stena Line volunteered 6 vessels into the newly formed group: Stena Antrim Stena Cambria Stena Empereur Stena Fantasia Stena Invicta Stena Lynx IIIThe first two vessels were sailing on the Newhaven to Dieppe route, the following three vessels on Dover to Calais, the fastcraft Lynx 3 was a multipurpose HSC craft operating from Newhaven, but capable having done so in the past operating from Dover, it was decided due to the freight capacity of the Stena Invicta that she would be unviable in a service that had to cut its tonnage down as part of the merger agreements, so she was laid up in France awaiting Charter and never saw active service with P&OSL.
There was speculation that she would return to service with the company during the annual drydocking periods to serve as a relief vessel, but this never happened. Stena Antrim was withdrawn and was laid up until being sold; the P&O Stena Line fleet was made up of 12 active vessels, these were:- Multi-purpose vessels Pride of Bruges P&OSL Picardy Pride of Burgundy P&OSL Burgundy Pride of Calais P&OSL Calais Pride of Dover P&OSL Dover Pride of Kent P&OSL Kent Stena Cambria Stena Empereur P&OSL Provence Stena Fantasia P&OSL CanterburyFreight Ferries European Seaway European Pathway European HighwayFastcraft EliteWhile all Dover vessels kept their pre-merger names, they were changed during each vessels annual refit and the P&OSL prefix was adopted in 1999 replacing Pride of and Stena prefixes. As a result, Stena Fantasia and Stena Empereur received new names of P&OSL Canterbury and P&OSL Provence respectively. At Newhaven the Stena Lynx III was renamed Elite in advance of the merger, Stena Cambria kept its name until the closure of the Newhaven-Dieppe service at the start of 1999.
The Elite fastcraft was returned to Stena Line and regained its original name, the Stena Cambria was sold. It was intended that P&OSL Picardy would transfer to POSL's Newhaven-Dieppe route, it was planned that a central loading ramp between the upper and lower vehicle decks would be fabricated and fitted, as Dover vessel operate with two loading ramps, whilst many other ports only operate with one. However this did not occur and the planned transfer never took place; the P&OSL Picardy remained on the Dover-Calais route until 2001, spent several months laid up in France before being sold to a smaller rival firm operating from Ramsgate - TEF Shipping. Today she is the only one of the original three Spirit Class vessel still sailing in UK waters; the other active sister ship, P&OSL Kent is now sailing for a Greek operator. The third vessel was the ill-fated Herald of Free Enterprise that capsized off the port of Zeebrugge in the late 1980s. During 1998, P&O Stena chartered Stena Royal for use on the Dover-Zeebrugge freight service.
The ship was renamed and refitted P&OSL Aquitaine. The fleet remained the same until the purchase of Stena Line's share in the company by P&O in 2002. An announcement was made that the Dover-Zeebrugge service would close but the actual closure occurred under P&O Ferries management in December 2002 P&O Stena introduced the Brand World concept now found on many of the current P&O Ferries fleet. Finnegan Consultancy Group developed and implemented the original Brand World strategy which brought about a standard image across the fleet; the brands were:- Club ClassExecutive quiet lounge, not found on the former Stena Line vessels. Langan's BrasserieReplaced the waiter service restaurants on the Dover fleet. Harbour Coffee CompanyCaféNYC DeliSandwich OutletFirst Base BurgersFast Food Outlet/Burger BarInternational Food CourtSelf-service restaurant. Silverstones BarA Formula 1 based Sports Lounge. Features large scale models of F1 cars and general F1 memorabilia from Silverstone Circuit. Horizon LoungeLounge area with a bar or Harbour Coffee Company outlet.