United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is the coastal defense and maritime law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, multi-mission service unique among the U. S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, can be transferred to the U. S. Department of the Navy by the U. S. President at any time, or by the U. S. Congress during times of war; this has happened twice: in 1917, during World War I, in 1941, during World War II. Created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue-Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States; as Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue-Marine, whose original purpose was collecting customs duties in the nation's seaports. By the 1860s, the service was known as the U.
S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue-Marine fell into disuse; the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury; as one of the country's five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. The Coast Guard has 40,992 men and women on active duty, 7,000 reservists, 31,000 auxiliarists, 8,577 full-time civilian employees, for a total workforce of 87,569; the Coast Guard maintains an extensive fleet of 243 coastal and ocean-going patrol ships, tenders and icebreakers called "cutters", 1650 smaller boats, as well as an extensive aviation division consisting of 201 helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. While the U. S. Coast Guard is the smallest of the U. S. military service branches in terms of membership, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the world's 12th largest naval force; the Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions.
The three roles are: Maritime safety Maritime security Maritime stewardshipWith a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself." The eleven statutory missions as defined by law are divided into homeland security missions and non-homeland security missions: Ice operations, including the International Ice Patrol Living marine resources Marine environmental protection Marine safety Aids to navigation Search and rescue Defense readiness Maritime law enforcement Migrant interdiction Ports and coastal security Drug interdiction See National Search and Rescue Committee See Joint Rescue Coordination CentersWhile the U.
S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue is not the oldest search and rescue organization in the world, it is one of the Coast Guard's best-known operations; the National Search and Rescue Plan designates the Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue; the two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators. Located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center is the sole U. S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, radiological and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories.
In addition to gathering and distributing spill/incident information for Federal On Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution and safety incidents in the nation's ports. The National Maritime Center is the merchant mariner credentialing authority for the USCG under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. To ensure a safe and environmentally sound marine transportation system, the mission of the NMC is to issue credentials to qualified mariners in the United States maritime jurisdiction.
The five uniformed services that make up the U. S. Armed Forces are defined in Title 10 of the U. S. Code: The term "armed forces" means the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard; the Coast Guard is further defined by Title 14 of the United States Code: The Coast Guar
A six-star rank was a short-lived 1955 proposal for a special grade superior to a five-star rank, to be worn by a proposed General of the Armies of the United States. The rank was briefly considered near the end of World War II, just prior to the planned invasion of Japan, which would have seen a six-star Admiral of Navy, equal to the also proposed rank of General of the Armies and superior to five-star rank of Fleet Admiral. On 21 January 1955, a draft resolution was proposed to the US Senate to authorize the then-US President Dwight D. Eisenhower to appoint Douglas MacArthur a five-star General of the Army, to the elevated rank of "General of the Armies of the United States in recognition of the great services to his country", with "such appointment to take effect as of the seventy-fifth anniversary of his birth, January 26, 1955." The proposal was never voted on. In books published decades a few authors described this proposed rank as a six-star rank; the rank of General of the Armies had been granted, in 1919, to active-duty four-star General John J. Pershing.
As the five-star rank did not exist at that time, the concept of this being a six-star rank was moot. The markings used to identify Pershing's new ranking as higher than general was a bank of four gold stars; the rank of Admiral of the Navy was created for George Dewey in 1903, out of recognition for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish–American War, the date of rank was made retroactive to 1899. In 1944, the U. S. Navy declared Dewey's rank to be senior to that of the newly created five-star rank of Fleet Admiral. In 1976, as part of commemorations for the US Bicentennial, General George Washington was posthumously promoted to the rank of General of the Armies of the United States. Although the law did not specify the number of stars, some U. S. newspapers and Members of Congress described this as a six-star rank. His appointment had been to serve as "General and Commander in chief of the Army of the united Colonies". Design of US army insignia Heraldic origin of the use of five-pointed star
An officer of one-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-6. The term is used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. One-star officers hold the rank of commodore, flotilla admiral, brigadier general, brigadier, or in the case of those air forces with a separate rank structure, air commodore. Officers of one-star rank are either the most junior of the flag and air officer ranks, or are not considered to hold the distinction at all. In many navies, one-star officers are not considered to be flag officers, although this is not always the case; the army and air force rank of brigadier general is, by definition, a general officer rank. However, the equivalent rank of brigadier is not designated as a general officer; the air force rank of air commodore is always considered to be an air-officer rank. In the Australian Defence Force the following ranks of commissioned officers are awarded one-star ranks: Commodore Brigadier Air commodore Commodore Brigadier-general/brigadier-général The maple leaf appears with St. Edward's crown and crossed sabre and baton.
Before unification in 1968, the rank of air commodore was the one-star rank equivalent for the Royal Canadian Air Force, brigadier for the Canadian Army. Army and Air Force: Brigadegeneral Generalarzt Generalapotheker Navy: Flottillenadmiral Admiralarzt Admiralapotheker Air commodore Brigadier Commodore Deputy inspector-general Brigadir Jendral - Indonesian Army, Indonesian Marine Corps and Indonesian National Police one-star rank Laksamana Pertama - Indonesian Navy and Indonesian Maritime Security Agency one-star rank Marsekal Pertama - Indonesian Air Force one-star rank Air commodore Brigadier Commodore Deputy Inspector General of Police Deputy Inspector General of Prisons Brigadier General Brigadier General Commodore Commodore Police Chief Superintendent Fire Chief Superintendent Jail Chief Superintendent Commodore Brigadier Air commodore Rear admiral Brigadier general In the modern naval services of Belgium, Denmark and Sweden, the one-star rank is flotilla admiral. Ranks and insignia of NATO Two-star rank
Company (military unit)
A company is a military unit consisting of 80–150 soldiers and commanded by a major or a captain. Most companies are formed of three to six platoons, although the exact number may vary by country, unit type, structure. Several companies are grouped as a battalion or regiment, the latter of, sometimes formed by several battalions. Independent or separate companies are organized for special purposes, such as the 1st Air Naval Gunfire Liaison Company or the 3rd Force Reconnaissance Company; these companies are not organic to a battalion or regiment, but rather report directly to a higher level organization such as a Marine Expeditionary Force headquarters. The modern military company became popularized during the reorganization of the Swedish Army in 1631 under King Gustav II Adolph. For administrative purposes, the infantry was divided into companies consisting of 150 men, grouped into regiments of eight companies. Tactically, the infantry companies were organized into battalions and grouped with cavalry troops and artillery batteries to form brigades.
From ancient times, some armies have used a base administrative and tactical unit of around 100 men. An organization based on the decimal number system might seem intuitive. To the Romans, for example, a unit of 100 men seemed sufficiently large to efficiently facilitate organizing a large body of men numbering into the several thousands, yet small enough that one man could reasonably expect to command it as a cohesive unit by using his voice and physical presence, supplemented by musical notes and visual cues. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that humans are best able to maintain stable relationships in a cohesive group numbering between 100 and 250 members, with 150 members being the common number. Again, a military unit on the order of no more than 100 members, ideally fewer, would present the greatest efficiency as well as effectiveness of control, on a battlefield where the stress, fear, noise and the general condition known as the “fog of war” would present the greatest challenge to an officer to command a group of men engaged in mortal combat.
Until the latter half of the 19th century, when infantry troops still fought in close order and firing shoulder-to-shoulder in lines facing the enemy, the company remained at around 100, or fewer, men. The advent of accurate, long-range rifle fire, repeating rifles, machine guns necessitated dispersed combat formations. This, coupled with radio communication, permitted small numbers of men to have much greater firepower and combat effectiveness than possible. Companies, continue to remain within the general range of 100–250 members validating the premise that men fight best in organizations of around 150 members, more or less. While companies were grouped into battalions or regiments, there were certain sub-units raised as independent companies that did not belong to a specific battalion or regiment, such as Confederate States of America state local militia companies. However, upon activation and assimilation into the army, several of these independent companies would be grouped together to form either a battalion or a regiment, depending upon the number of companies involved.
More recent examples of separate companies would be the divisional support companies of a U. S. Army, Korean War-era infantry division and the divisional aviation company of a U. S. Army "Pentomic" infantry division; these companies were not organic to any intermediate headquarters, but rather reported directly to the division headquarters. Rifle companies consist of a company headquarters. Company-sized organisations in units with a horse-mounted heritage, such as the Household Cavalry, Royal Armoured Corps, Royal Engineers, Royal Corps of Signals, Army Air Corps, Special Air Service, Honourable Artillery Company and Royal Logistic Corps, use the term squadron instead of company, in the Royal Artillery they are called batteries; until after the Second World War, the Royal Engineers and Royal Signals had both squadrons and companies depending on whether the units were supporting mounted or foot formations. The British Army infantry identifies its rifle companies by letter within a battalion with the addition of a headquarters company and a support/heavy weapons company.
Some units name their companies after regimental battle honours. The foot guards regiments use traditional names for some of their companies, for example Queen's Company, Left Flank, Prince of Wales's Company etc. Royal Marines companies are designated by a letter, unique across the corps, not just within their command; the Intelligence Corps, Royal Army Medical Corps, Royal Military Police and Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers all have companies uniquely numbered across their corps. The defunct Royal Army Service Corps, Royal Pioneer Corps and Royal Army Ordnance Corps had companies.
An officer of three-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-8. The term is used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. Three-star officers hold the rank of vice admiral, lieutenant general, or in the case of those air forces with a separate rank structure, air marshal. In the Australian Defence Force the following ranks of commissioned officers are awarded three-star ranks: Vice admiral Lieutenant general Air marshal Official rank insignia for Australian'three-star' officers do not use stars in the same fashion as the United States; the RAN does incorporate stars into the hardboard rank insignia for flag-rank officers but this is in conjunction with other devices. Unofficial star rank insignia are sometimes worn when serving with or visiting other military organisations in order to facilitate equivalent rank recognition; the Chiefs of all three services within the Australian Defence Force hold three-star rank as well as three joint positions: Vice Chief of Defence Force, Chief of Joint Operations and Chief Capability Development Group.
Inspector general of Police Lieutenant general Vice admiral Air marshal Vice Almirante General de Divisão Major Brigadeiro The three-star rank in Brazil is the second rank in a general career. The officers in this position are divisional commanders. Vice admiral / vice-amiral Lieutenant-general / lieutenant-général Three maple leaves appear with St. Edward's crown and crossed sabre and baton. Prince Charles holds the rank of vice-admiral in an honorary capacity. Before unification, the rank of air marshal was the three-star equivalent for the RCAF; the equivalent modern German three-star ranks of the Bundeswehr are as follows: Generalleutnant and Vizeadmiral Generaloberstabsarzt and AdmiraloberstabsarztNot to be confused with the Generalleutnant and Vizeadmiral of the Wehrmacht until 1945 or the National People's Army until 1990. Air marshal Lieutenant general Vice admiral Director general Letnan Jendral - Indonesian Army and Indonesian Marine Corps three-star rank Laksamana Madya - Indonesian Navy and Indonesian Maritime Security Agency three-star rank Marsekal Madya - Indonesian Air Force three-star rank Komisaris Jenderal - Indonesian National Police three-star rank Inspector-General of the Police Lieutenant-General Air-Marshal Vice-Admiral Lieutenant general Lieutenant general Vice admiral Vice admiral Deputy Commissioner Police Deputy Director General Vice admiral Lieutenant general Air marshal Vice admiral Lieutenant general A vice admiral commands a numbered fleet, responsible for all naval ships within its area of responsibility.
An Army or Marine Corps lieutenant general commands a corps-sized unit, while an Air Force lieutenant general commands a large Numbered Air Force consisting of several wings. Additionally, lieutenant generals and vice admirals of all services serve as high-level staff officers at various major command headquarters and the Pentagon as the heads of their departments. In the Russian and Soviet armies, the three-star rank is full admiral; this is a title. Most Warsaw Pact and Soviet-aligned countries adopted this rank; the rank is held by commanders of the ground forces, chiefs of military academies and commanders of military districts. Colonel general is considered a stepping stone to the rank of general of the army, itself essential to achieving the high rank of marshal of the Russian Federation; this title applies to three star officers of the air force, MVD, police and militia, internal troops, FSB/KGB, border guards and some others. In the navy, the three star rank is admiral. Corps general Ranks and insignia of NATO Four-star rank Two-star rank
The Juris Doctor degree known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. The Juris Doctor is earned by completing law school in Australia, the United States, some other common law countries, it has the academic standing of a professional doctorate in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada. The degree was first awarded in the United States in the early 20th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree. Originating from the 19th-century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law, it is a degree that in most common law jurisdictions is the primary professional preparation for lawyers, it involves a three-year program in most jurisdictions. To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a given state in the United States, the majority of individuals holding a J. D. degree must pass a bar examination. The state of Wisconsin, permits the graduates of its two law schools to practice law in that state, in its state courts, without having to take its bar exam—a practice called "diploma privilege"—provided they complete the courses needed to satisfy the diploma privilege requirements.
In the United States, passing an additional bar exam is not required of lawyers authorized to practice in at least one state to practice in the national courts of the United States, courts known as "federal courts". Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the federal court before they are authorized to practice in that court. Admission to the bar of a federal district court includes admission to the bar of the related bankruptcy court. In the United States, the professional doctorate in law may be conferred in Latin or in English as Juris Doctor and at some law schools Doctor of Law, or Doctor of Jurisprudence. "Juris Doctor" means "Teacher of Law", while the Latin for "Doctor of Jurisprudence"—Jurisprudentiae Doctor—literally means "Teacher of Legal Knowledge". The J. D. is not to be confused with Doctor of Legum Doctor. In institutions where the latter can be earned, e.g. Cambridge University and many other British institutions, it is a higher research doctorate representing a substantial contribution to the field over many years, beyond that required for a PhD and well beyond a taught degree such as the J.
D. The LL. D. is invariably an honorary degree in the United States. The first university in Europe, the University of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 11th century who were students of the glossator school in that city; this served as the model for other law schools of the Middle Ages, other early universities such as the University of Padua. The first academic degrees may have been doctorates in civil law followed by canon law. While Bologna granted only doctorates, preparatory degrees were introduced in Paris and in the English universities; the nature of the J. D. can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England. The teaching of law at Cambridge and Oxford Universities was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practice law; the universities only taught civil and canon law but not the common law that applied in most jurisdictions. Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court, but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.
However, because of the lack of standardisation of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world. In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system; the original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation. By the fifteenth century, the Inns functioned like a university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though specialized in purpose. With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, the demand for lawyers grew. Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only.
The apprenticeship program for solicitors thus emerged and governed by the same rules as the apprenti
An officer of two-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-7. The term is used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. Two-star officers hold the rank of rear admiral, counter admiral, major general, or in the case of those air forces with a separate rank structure, air vice-marshal. In the Australian Defence Force the following ranks of commissioned officers are awarded two-star ranks: Rear admiral Major general Air vice-marshal General de Brigada Contra Almirante Brigadeiro The two-star rank in Brazil is the first rank in a general career; the officers in this position are brigade commanders. Rear-admiral Major general Rather than stars, the Canadian Forces insignia use maple leaves; the maple leaves crossed sabre and baton. Before unification, air vice marshal was the two-star rank for the RCAF; the equivalent modern German two-star ranks of the Bundeswehr are as follows: Generalmajor and Konteradmiral Generalstabsarzt and AdmiralstabsarztNot to be confused with Generalmajor and Vizeadmiral of the Wehrmacht until 1945 and of the National People's Army of East Germany until German reunification in 1990.
Air vice-marshal Major-general Rear admiral Inspector-general Major Jendral - Indonesian Army and Indonesian Marine Corps two-star rank Laksamana Muda - Indonesian Navy and Indonesian Maritime Security Agency two-star rank Marsekal Muda - Indonesian Air Force two-star rank Inspektur Jenderal - Indonesian National Police two-star rank Major-general Air vice-marshal Rear admiral Additional inspector general of police Inspector General of Prisons, Additional inspector general of police Air vice-marshal Major-general Rear admiral Major General Major General Rear Admiral Rear Admiral Police Director Fire Director Jail Director Rear admiral Major general Air vice marshal Rear admiral Major general In the Russian and Soviet armies, the rank wearing two stars is lieutenant-general, however the general in charge of a unit equivalent to the one led by a NATO two-star general is major-general. This applies to the air force, MVD, police, FSB and some others, is caused by a Russian brigades being commanded by colonel, with the smallest unit commanded by a general being a division.
In the navy, the equivalent rank is kontr-admiral. Ranks and insignia of NATO Three-star rank One-star rank