Captain James Hook is a fictional character, the main antagonist of J. M. Barrie's play Peter Pan; the character is a pirate captain of the brig Jolly Roger. His two principal fears are the sight of his own blood and the crocodile who pursues him after eating the hand cut off by Pan. An iron hook replaced his severed hand. Hook did not appear in early drafts of the play, wherein the capricious and coercive Peter Pan was closest to a "villain", but was created for a front-cloth scene depicting the children's journey home. Barrie expanded the scene, on the premise that children were fascinated by pirates, expanded the role of the captain as the play developed; the character was cast to be played by Dorothea Baird, the actress playing Mary Darling, but Gerald du Maurier playing George Darling, persuaded Barrie to let him take the additional role instead, a casting tradition since replicated in many stage and film productions of the Peter Pan story. According to A. N. Wilson, Barrie "openly acknowledged Hook and his obsession with the crocodile was an English version of Ahab", there are other borrowings from Melville.
Barrie states in the novel. To reveal who he was would at this date set the country in a blaze", he is said to be "Blackbeard's bo'sun" and "the only man of whom Barbecue was afraid". In the play, it is implied that Hook attended Eton College and Balliol College and his final words are "Floreat Etona", Eton's motto. In the novel, Hook's last words are a upper-class "bad form", in disapproval of the way Peter Pan beats him by throwing him overboard; the book relates that Peter Pan began the ongoing rivalry between them by feeding the pirate's hand to a crocodile. After getting a taste of Hook, the crocodile pursues him relentlessly, but the ticking clock it has swallowed warns Hook of its presence. Hook is described as "cadaverous" and "blackavised", with "eyes which were of the blue of the forget-me-not" and long dark curls resembling "black candles". In many pantomime performances of Peter Pan, Hook's hair is a wig and is accompanied by thick bushy eyebrows and moustache; the hook is used as a weapon.
He is described as having a "handsome countenance" and an "elegance of... diction" – "even when he swearing". Barrie describes "an attire associated with the name of Charles II, having heard it said in some earlier period of his career that he bore a strange resemblance to the ill-fated Stuarts". Hook's cigar holder enables him to smoke two cigars at once. Barrie stated in "Captain Hook at Eton" that he was, "in a word, the handsomest man I have seen, though, at the same time slightly disgusting". Although Hook is callous and bloodthirsty, Barrie makes it clear that these qualities make him a magnificent pirate and "not wholly unheroic". In the animated film Peter Pan, Hook is a far more comical villain than the original character: he is seen as a vain coward with a childish temper, prone to crying out in terror. During the film's early development, the story department analysed Hook's character as "a fop... Yet mean, to the point of being murderous; this combination of traits should cause plenty of amusement whenever he talks or acts".
Frank Thomas was the directing animator of Hook. According to Disney's Platinum release bonus features, Hook was modeled after a Spanish King. One director insisted. Actor Hans Conried set the tone for Disney's interpretation of Hook, as he was the original voice for the Captain, as well as, in the tradition of the stage play, Mr. Darling, performed live-action reference for the two characters. In subsequent Disney animation, Hook is voiced by Corey Burton. Hook seeks revenge on Peter Pan for having fed the crocodile his left hand and refuses to leave Neverland prior to this revenge. Throughout the film, Hook is supported by Mr. Smee. After promising Tinker Bell not to lay a finger on Peter Pan, he plants a bomb in Peter's hideout. At the conclusion of the film, Hook is chased by the crocodile into the distance, with the rest of the crew trying to save Hook. Walt Disney insisted on keeping Hook alive, as he said: "The audience will get to liking Hook, they don't want to see him killed."In the sequel Return to Never Land, Hook mistakes Wendy's daughter Jane for Wendy and uses her as bait to lure Peter Pan to his death.
After this fails, he promises to take Jane home if she will help him find the island's treasure, "not to harm a single hair on Peter Pan's head". This last promise is kept when he pulls a single hair from Peter's head, declaring "the rest of him is mine". At the end of the film, he and the crew are pursued into the distance by a giant octopus. In the Disney Junior series Jake and the Never Land Pirates, Hook serves as the series antagonist, with his mother, Mama Hook, herself exclusive to the Disney Junior series, keeping him "honest" if he gets tempted, he stars in the Disney Interactive computer game Disney's Vi
Rumbula is a neighbourhood of Riga located in the Latgale Suburb, on the right bank of the Daugava river. With a population of about 368 inhabitants in 2010, Rumbula's territory covers 6.978 km2. Rumbula is the home of Rumbula Air Base, a defunct airport used by Soviet and Latvian armies. Rumbula is served by the Rumbula Station on the Riga–Daugavpils Railway. Rumbula is best known as a pine forest enclave, in which about 25,000 Jews were massacred during the Rumbula massacre in 1941, part of the Holocaust; the massacre encompasses two incidents on two non-consecutive days in which about 25,000 Jews were killed in or on the way to Rumbula forest near Riga, during the Holocaust. Except for the Babi Yar massacre in Ukraine, this was the biggest two-day Holocaust atrocity until the operation of the death camps. About 24,000 of the victims were Latvian Jews from the Riga Ghetto and 1,000 were German Jews transported to the forest by train; the Rumbula massacre was carried out by the Nazi Einsatzgruppe A with the help of local collaborators of the Arajs Kommando, with support from other such Latvian auxiliaries Official website
Antonio Brucioli was an Italian humanist, religious thinker and writer best known for his translation of the Bible into Italian. Brucioli was born in Florence at an unknown date. In his youth, Brucioli was a frequent attendee and contributor to the circle of humanists and scholars who met in the Orto Oricellari, a large garden in Florence. Among the distinguished thinkers with whom Brucioli developed relationships there, the names of Francesco Cattani da Diacceto, Luigi Alamanni, Niccolò Machiavelli stand out. In 1522 Brucioli, along with several other of the members of the Orto Oricellari, was implicated in a plot to assassinate Cardinal Giulio Medici. Fleeing the city, Brucioli took refuge in Lyon, where he began work on a collection of tracts on moral philosophy, a collection published in Venice in 1526; this body of works formed the core of his Dialogi, which he would expand over the course of the next two decades. During his stay in Lyons, he seems to have absorbed many of the religious ideas of the German reformers, adopting moderately Lutheran theology in his translation of the Bible, a work which some said relied on Martin Bucer.
After the Sack of Rome and the flight of the Medici from Florence in 1527, Brucioli returned to his native city to take part in establishing the Republic of Florence. However, as a political moderate and strict believer that the Dominican friars of San Marco should keep out of state affairs, he fell afoul of the dominant Savonarolan faction, being exiled from the city in 1528. Brucioli spent much of the rest of his life in Venice. Having been first denounced in 1548 and found guilty of disseminating heretical materials, he fled to the tolerant court of Ferrara and the protection of the duchess, Renée of France. From this point to the rest of his life, strictures on his ability to publish caused him great poverty. In 1549, we find him directing overtures to Cosimo I de Medici hoping to be granted a stipend in exchange for regular reports on political activities. In 1555 his Italian translation of the Bible was placed on the Index of Forbiddeen Books by Pope Paul IV. While in Venice he was again tried for heresy and forced to recant.
He spent most of the remainder of his life in extreme poverty. Spini, Giorgio. Tra Rinascimento e Riforma. Florence, 1940