Tamanend or Tammany or Tammamend, the "affable", was a chief of one of the clans that made up the Lenni-Lenape nation in the Delaware Valley at the time Philadelphia was established. Tamanend is best known as a lover of peace and friendship who played a prominent role in developing amicable relations among the Lenape and the English settlers who settled Pennsylvania, led by William Penn. Referred to as "Tammany", he became a popular figure in 18th-century America in Philadelphia. Called a "Patron Saint of America", Tamenend represented peace and amity. A Tammany society founded in Philadelphia holds an annual Tammany festival. Tammany societies were established across the United States after the American Revolutionary War, Tammany assumed mythic status as an icon for the peaceful politics of negotiation. Tamanend reputedly took part in a meeting between the leaders of the Lenni-Lenape nation, the leaders of the Pennsylvania colony held under a large elm tree at Shakamaxon in the early 1680s.
William Penn and Tamanend continued to sign seven more documents assuring each other, their peoples, of peaceble understanding after the initial one in 1683. Tamanend is recorded as having said that the Lenni-Lenape and the English colonists would "live in peace as long as the waters run in the rivers and creeks and as long as the stars and moon endure." These words have been memorialized on the statue of Tamanend. It is believed that Tamanend died in 1701. Over the next century, many folk legends surrounded Tamanend, his fame assumed mythical proportions among the people of Philadelphia, who began to call him "King Tammany," "Saint Tammany," and the "Patron Saint of America." The people of Philadelphia organized an annual Tammany festival. These traditions soon spread across America. Tammany's popular status was due to the desire by colonists to express a distinct "American" identity, in place of their former European nationalities. Tammany provided an apt symbol for this kind of patriotism; because of Philadelphia's prominence during the American Revolution and subsequent decades, Tammany soon became a national symbol throughout much of the newly formed country.
In 1772, the original Tammany Society was formed in Philadelphia. Soon, Tammany societies were organized in communities from Georgia to Rhode Island, west to the Ohio River; the most famous of these was New York City's Society of St. Tammany, whose members developed an influential political machine known as "Tammany Hall." A white marble statue of Tamanend adorned the façade of the building on East 14th Street that housed Tammany Hall. By the early 1770s, annual Tammany Festivals were being held in Annapolis; the festivals were held on May 1, replacing the May Day traditions of Europe but continuing popular folk traditions. For example, the Saint Tammany Day celebrated on May 1, 1771, in Annapolis had a may pole decorated with ribbons. People danced in American Indian style to music while holding a ribbon and moving in a circle around the pole. On May 1, 1777, John Adams wrote of the Tammany festival in Philadelphia during the American Revolutionary War. Adams, in Philadelphia attending the Second Continental Congress as a delegate from Massachusetts, wrote a letter home to his wife Abigail Adams, which said: This is King Tammany's Day.
Tammany was an Indian King, of this part of the Continent. His court was in this town, he was friendly to Mr. Penn and serviceable to him, he lived here among the first settlers for some time and until old age.... The people here have keep his day. On May 1, 1778, General George Washington and the Continental Army held a Tammany festival while camped at Valley Forge; the "men spent the day in mirth and jollity...in honor of King Tammany". After the end of the Revolutionary War, Tammany celebrations spread throughout the United States, including to Savannah, Georgia. Local societies promoted annual festivals held on May 1. Tammany celebrations were such important events that, in 1785, George Washington appeared at the Tammany festival in Richmond, Virginia with Virginia governor Patrick Henry; the Tammany Society in New York City held its first festival in 1787. Developments since 2003 In 2003, two identical concurrent resolutions were introduced in the United States Congress that sought to establish "St. Tammany Day" on May 1 as a national day of recognition.
The bills were referred for review to the Subcommittee on Civil Service and Agency Organization, a subcommittee of the House Committee on Government Reform. As of December 2006, the Subcommittee has yet to take any action on the bill. In 1794, Ann Julia Hatton's opera, Tammany: The Indian Chief premiered on Broadway and became popular, it featured the first major opera libretto written in the United States that had an American theme, it was the earliest drama about ethnic Americans. The opera premiered at the John Street Theatre, New York, on March 3, 1794, featuring English actress and'grande dame' of American theatre, Charlotte Melmoth. Melmoth refused to speak the opera's epilogue; the New York Journal called on the public to boycott the opera as long as Melmoth was still in the cast. In 1826, Tammany was featured in the conclusion of The Last of the Mohicans, a novel by James Fenimore Cooper which became popular in the antebellum United States; the novel was part of his Leatherstocking Tales, a series of works that explored the colo
The Last of the Mohicans (1920 American film)
The Last of the Mohicans is a 1920 American film adapted from James Fenimore Cooper's novel of the same name. Clarence Brown and Maurice Tourneur directed an adaption by Robert Dillon — a story of two English sisters meeting danger on the frontier of the American colonies, in and around the fort commanded by their father; the adventure film stars Barbara Bedford, Lillian Hall and Alan Roscoe. The film was well received at the time of its release. Film historian William K. Everson considers The Last of the Mohicans to be a masterpiece. In 1995, this film was deemed "culturally significant" by the Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. In 1757, in the midst of the French and Indian War, three French divisions and their Huron Indian allies are advancing on Fort William Henry, a British stronghold south of Lake George in the colony of New York. Chingachgook sends his son Uncas, the last living warrior of the Mohican tribe, to warn the fort's commander, Colonel Munro, of the imminent danger.
Uncas is admired by Munro's daughter Cora, much to the displeasure of Captain Randolph. Upon receiving Munro's plea for assistance, General Webb dispatches a relief force of 3000 men to Fort William Henry with the Munro sisters, but with the aid of an Indian runner named Magua, the sisters and Major Heyward take a shortcut through the wilderness. Magua, a Huron sympathizer pretends to lose his way. In the forest they encounter Uncas and the hunter and scout Hawkeye, accompanied by an eccentric preacher named David Gamut; when Heyward asks for directions to Fort Edward, the men become suspicious of Magua who, like all Indians in the area, should have an intimate knowledge of the terrain. Their fears of treachery are confirmed. Uncas and Hawkeye conceal Heyward and the women in a cave, but Magua and his men find the hiding place, after a fierce firefight the women are captured. Magua offers to spare "Golden Hair". Although they leave Magua for dead, he is uninjured; the hostages and their rescuers arrive at Fort William Henry at the same time as the column of troops, but the situation is still dire.
The only thing keeping the besiegers at bay is a formidable gun emplacement on the left rampart. The cowardly Captain Randolph informs Montcalm, the French commander, that the rampart guns are nonfunctional, leaving Munro no choice but to surrender the fort. Though promised safe passage for the women and children, the Hurons, under the influence of French-supplied whiskey, slaughter the civilians and torch the fort. Magua flees. Uncas and Hawkeye pursue him; the dispute is taken before a Delaware council of three. To save her sister, Cora offers to take her place. Uncas vows; that night, Cora is pursued by Magua to the edge of a precipice. She threatens to jump if he approaches, so Magua waits patiently for her to fall asleep; when she does, he grabs her arm. She flings herself off the cliff; when Uncas appears, the situation is reversed: Cora tries to save herself, but Magua uses his knife to pry her fingers loose, she falls to her death. In the ensuing fight, Magua stabs Uncas. With his final, dying strength, Uncas takes Cora's hand in his.
Magua flees when Chingachgook and Hawkeye arrive. At Cora and Uncas's burial ceremony, Munro becries the passing of his daughter and Chingachgook mourns for his son, the last of the Mohicans. Wallace Beery as Magua Barbara Bedford as Cora Munro Lillian Hall as Alice Munro Alan Roscoe as Uncas Harry Lorraine as Hawkeye Henry Woodward as Major Heyward James Gordon as Colonel Munro George Hackathorne as Captain Randolph Nelson McDowell as David Gamut Theodore Lorch as Chingachgook Jack McDonald as Tamenund Sydney Deane as General Webb Boris Karloff as Indian The Last of the Mohicans on IMDb The Last of the Mohicans at the TCM Movie Database The Last of the Mohicans at Rotten Tomatoes The Last of the Mohicans is available for free download at the Internet Archive
The Leatherstocking Tales is a series of five novels by American writer James Fenimore Cooper, set in the eighteenth century era of development in the former Iroquois areas in central New York. Each novel features Natty Bumppo, a frontiersman known to European-American settlers as "Leatherstocking", "The Pathfinder", "the trapper". Native Americans call him "Deerslayer", "La Longue Carabine", "Hawkeye"; the story dates are derived from dates given in the tales and span the period of 1740–1806. They do not correspond with the actual dates of the historical events described in the series, which discrepancies Cooper introduced for the sake of convenience. For instance, Cooper manipulated time to avoid making Leatherstocking 100 years old when he traveled to the Kansas plains in The Prairie; the Natty Bumppo character is believed to have been inspired, at least in part, by the historic explorer Daniel Boone or the lesser known David Shipman. Critic Georg Lukacs likened Bumppo to Sir Walter Scott's "middling characters.
Natty Bumppo is the protagonist of the series: an Anglo-American raised in part by Native Americans, a near-fearless warrior. He and his Mohican "brother" Chingachgook are constant companions, he is known as "Deerslayer" in The Deerslayer, "Hawkeye" and "La Longue Carabine" in The Last of the Mohicans, "Pathfinder" in The Pathfinder, "Leatherstocking" in The Pioneers, "the trapper" in The Prairie. The novels recount significant events in Natty Bumppo's life from 1740-1806. Chingachgook is a Mohican companion of Bumppo, he is present in all the books except for The Prairie. Uncas, son of Chingachgook, "last of the Mohicans", grew to manhood, but was killed in a battle with the hostile scout Magua. In actual history, a man named. Though only a prominent figure in The Last of the Mohicans, he is mentioned as a boy at the end of The Deerslayer, only once by name in The Pathfinder, several times in The Prairie. Several films have been adapted from one or more of this series of Cooper's novels; some used one of Bumppo's nicknames, most Hawkeye, to identify this character, e.g. in: The serial film Leatherstocking The Last of the Mohicans the 1992 film is based on the screenplay of this film.
The Last of the Mohicans, in which Hawkeye's surname was changed from Bumppo to Poe The Pathfinder, where he is known chiefly as Pathfinder, but his birth name of Nathaniel is mentionedTwo Canadian TV series were based on the character of Leatherstocking: In Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans, Natty Bumppo's name was changed to Nat Cutler, but he was referred to as Hawkeye The series Hawkeye is set around the fictional Fort Bennington during the French and Indian War Bumppo is featured in the comic book series Jack of Fables, along with Slue-Foot Sue, as trackers hired to capture other "Fables". In Alan Moore's comic series The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, Natty Bumppo is featured as a member of the group assembled by Lemuel Gulliver, alongside other literary characters including Dr Syn, Fanny Hill, The Scarlet Pimpernel, Orlando. In J. R. Moehringer, The Tender Bar: A Memoir, among the men Moehringer gets to know is Bud, who refers to Bumppo in the following quote: "Don't think of fear as the villain.
Think of fear as your guide, your pathfinder - your Natty Bumppo." Lukacs, Georg. The Historical Novel. Penguin Books. Cooper, James Fenimore; the Complete Leatherstocking Tales, Vol. I. Ex Fontibus Company. ISBN 978-1514721759. Cooper, James Fenimore; the Complete Leatherstocking Tales, Vol. II. Ex Fontibus Company. ISBN 978-1514721803. Cooper, James Fenimore & Nevins, Allan; the Leatherstocking Saga. Pantheon Books. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Pickering, James H. & Test, George A.. "Cooper's Otsego Heritage: The Sources of The Pioneers". James Fenimore Cooper: His Country and His Art. Pp. 11–39. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Rans, Geoffrey. Cooper's Leather-Stocking Novels: A Secular Reading. University of North Carolina Press. White, Craig. Student Companion to James Fenimore Cooper. Greenwood Publishing. Pp. 59–185. ISBN 0313334137. Mark Twain, "Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offences".
Nathaniel "Natty" Bumppo is a fictional character and the protagonist of James Fenimore Cooper's pentalogy of novels known as the Leatherstocking Tales. Natty Bumppo, the child of white parents, grew up among Delaware Indians and was educated by Moravian Christians. In adulthood, he is a near-fearless warrior skilled in many weapons, chiefly the long rifle, he is most shown alongside his Mohican foster brother Chingachgook and nephew Uncas. Bumppo is featured in a series of novels by James Fenimore Cooper collectively called the Leatherstocking Tales; the novels in the collection are as follows: The tales recount significant events in Natty Bumppo's life from 1740 to 1806. Before his appearance in The Deerslayer, Bumppo went by the aliases "Straight-Tongue", "The Pigeon", the "Lap-Ear". After obtaining his first rifle, he gained the sobriquet "Deerslayer", he is subsequently known as "Hawkeye" and "La Longue Carabine" in The Last of the Mohicans, as "Pathfinder" in The Pathfinder, or The Inland Sea, as "Leatherstocking" in The Pioneers, as "the trapper" in The Prairie.
Bumppo has been portrayed most in adaptions of The Last of the Mohicans. He was portrayed by Harry Lorraine in the 1920 film version, by Harry Carey in the 1932 film serial version, by Randolph Scott in the 1936 film version, by Kenneth Ives in the 1971 BBC serial, by Steve Forrest in the 1977 TV movie and by Daniel Day-Lewis in the 1992 film version. Day-Lewis received a BAFTA Film Award nomination for Best Actor in 1993, won an Evening Standard British Film Award for Best Actor in 1993, won an ALFS Award for British Actor of the Year in 1993 for his interpretation of the character. In the 1992 film, the character's name is changed from "Natty" Bumppo to Nathaniel Poe, he is portrayed as the adopted son of Chingachgook and brother of Uncas. Adaptions of The Deerslayer have seen Bumppo played by Emil Mamelok in the 1920 film The Deerslayer and Chingachgook, by Bruce Kellogg in the 1943 film, by Lex Barker in the 1957 film, by Steve Forrest in the 1978 TV movie. Adaptions of The Pathfinder have seen Bumppo played by Paul Massie in the 1973 5-part BBC mini-series and Kevin Dillon in the 1996 TV movie.
Additionally he was portrayed by George Montgomery in the 1950 movie The Iroquois Trail, by John Hart in the 1957 TV series Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans, by Hellmut Lange in the 1969 German TV series Die Lederstrumpferzählungen, by Cliff DeYoung in the 1984 PBS mini-series The Leatherstocking Tales, by Lee Horsley in the 1994 TV series Hawkeye. FictionBumppo appears as a character in John Myers Myers' novel Silverlock Thomas King's novel Green Grass, Running Water satirizes Natty Bumppo's character by renaming him Nasty Bumppo and having him shoot himself The character Hawkeye Pierce, from M*A*S*H, takes his nickname from the Native American name given to Natty Bumppo. In both the TV series and MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors, it is stated that The Last of the Mohicans is the only book Pierce's father had read. Bumppo is known as Dan'l "Hawkeye" Bonner in Sara Donati's novel series, beginning with Into The Wilderness, meant as a sequel to The Leatherstocking books; the series centers around Cora's son, Nathaniel Bonner.
Bumppo is featured in the comic book series Jack of Fables, both in name and as "Hawkeye", along with Slue-Foot Sue. Bumppo is referred to in the graphic novel series The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen as being part of the 18th-century incarnation of the league. Near the end of Mississippi Jack, the fifth in the best-selling Bloody Jack series of female adventures by L. A. Meyer, an adopted white Shawnee called Lightfoot, a rifleman who always travels with his native Shawnee "brother", reveals his white surname to be "Bumpus" in an obvious tribute to Cooper's Natty Bumppo. Thinly veiled or unveiled characters from the history and culture of the time of the Leatherstocking novels is a repeating feature of the Bloody Jack book series; the Marvel Comics character Hawkeye takes his name from Natty Bumppo, whom he portrayed during his time as a carnival marksman before becoming a superhero. The character Gus Brannhard adopts a Fuzzy and names him Natty Bumppo in H. Beam Piper's novel Fuzzies and Other People ISBN 0-441-26176-0 Song of the Mohicans, written by Paul Block in 1995, is a direct sequel to Last of the Mohicans.
Taking up the story a few days after Uncas' death and burial, it recounts the adventures of Hawkeye and Chingachgook as they travel north to discover the connection between an Oneida brave and the Mohican tribe, whether a sachem holds the key to the ultimate fate of the Mohicans. Natty Bumppo is featured in the Marvel comic Deadpool Killustrated, as part of a group of time travelling heroes, intent on stopping Deadpool from killing all literary characters. Tinker, a major character in Amor Towles' novel, "Rules of Civility", wants to be Natty Bumppo for the day. There is an intelligent dog named Natty Bumppo in John Brunner's novel "Shockwave Rider". Natty Bumppo appears as a character in Diana Gabaldon's eighth Outlander series novel, Written In My Own Heart's Blood. MascotsUniversity of Iowa's mascot, the Hawkeye was taken from The Last of the Mohicans novel. MusicNatty Bumppo was the name of several pop music bands in the 1970s, including bands from Dayton and central Utah. PeopleNatty Bumppo is the name of the author of The Columbus Book Of Euchre and House Of EvilPostage stampsIn 1989, the Soviet Union issued a series of postage stamps depicting themes of
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
The Ohio River is a 981-mile long river in the midwestern United States that flows southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illinois. It is the second largest river by discharge volume in the United States and the largest tributary by volume of the north-south flowing Mississippi River that divides the eastern from western United States; the river flows through or along the border of six states, its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes several states of the southeastern U. S, it is the source of drinking water for three million people. The lower Ohio River just below Louisville is obstructed by rapids known as the Falls of the Ohio where the water level falls 26ft. in 2 miles and is impassible for navigation. The McAlpine Locks and Dam, a shipping canal bypassing the rapids, now allows commercial navigation from the Forks of the Ohio at Pittsburgh to the Port of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi on the Gulf of Mexico.
The name "Ohio" comes from the Ohi: yo', lit. "Good River". Discovery of the Ohio River may be attributed to English explorers from Virginia in the latter half of the 17th century. In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated: "The Ohio is the most beautiful river on earth, its current gentle, waters clear, bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted." In the late 18th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory. It became a primary transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S; the river is sometimes considered as the western extension of the Mason–Dixon Line that divided Pennsylvania from Maryland, thus part of the border between free and slave territory, between the Northern and Southern United States or Upper South. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement.
The Ohio River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical and humid continental climate areas. It is inhabited by flora of both climates. In winter, it freezes over at Pittsburgh but farther south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohio's confluence with the Mississippi, it is ice-free year-round; the name "Ohio" comes from the Seneca language, Ohi:yo', a proper name derived from ohiːyoːh, therefore translating to "Good River". "Great river" and "large creek" have been given as translations. Native Americans, including the Lenni Lenape and Iroquois, considered the Ohio and Allegheny rivers as the same, as is suggested by a New York State road sign on Interstate 86 that refers to the Allegheny River as Ohi:yo'. An earlier Miami-Illinois language name was applied to the Ohio River, Mosopeleacipi. Shortened in the Shawnee language to pelewa thiipi, spelewathiipi or peleewa thiipiiki, the name evolved through variant forms such as "Polesipi", "Peleson", "Pele Sipi" and "Pere Sipi", stabilized to the variant spellings "Pelisipi", "Pelisippi" and "Pellissippi".
Applied just to the Ohio River, the "Pelisipi" name was variously applied back and forth between the Ohio River and the Clinch River in Virginia and Tennessee. In his original draft of the Land Ordinance of 1784, Thomas Jefferson proposed a new state called "Pelisipia", to the south of the Ohio River, which would have included parts of present-day Eastern Kentucky and West Virginia; the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major trading route, its waters connected communities. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley, such as Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indiana, as well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast; the Osage, Omaha and Kaw lived in the Ohio Valley, but under pressure from the Iroquois to the northeast, migrated west of the Mississippi River in the 17th century to territory now defined as Missouri and Oklahoma.
The discovery and traversal of the Ohio River by Europeans admits of several possibilities, all in the latter half of the 17th century. Virginian Englishman Abraham Wood's trans-Appalachian expeditions between 1654 and 1664; the first person to traverse the length of the river, from the headwaters of the Allegheny to its mouth on the Mississippi, was a Dutch trader from New York, Arnout Viele, in 1692. In 1749, Great Britain established the Ohio Company to trade in the area. Exploration of the territory and trade with the Indians in the region near the Forks brought British colonials from both Pennsylvania and Virginia across the mountains, both colonies claimed the territory; the movement across the Allegheny Mountains of British settlers and the claims of the area near modern day Pittsburgh led to conflict with the French, who had forts in the Ohio River Valley. This conflict was called the Indian War. In 17
The Last of the Mohicans (1992 film)
The Last of the Mohicans is a 1992 American epic historical drama film set in 1757 during the French and Indian War. It was written and directed by Michael Mann and was based on James Fenimore Cooper's 1826 novel The Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757 and George B. Seitz's 1936 film adaptation, owing more to the film than the novel; the film stars Daniel Day-Lewis, Madeleine Stowe, Jodhi May, with Russell Means, Wes Studi, Eric Schweig, Steven Waddington in supporting roles. The soundtrack features music by Trevor Jones and Randy Edelman, the song "I Will Find You" by Clannad; the main theme of the film is taken from the tune "The Gael" by Scottish singer-songwriter Dougie MacLean. Released on September 25, 1992 in the United States, The Last of the Mohicans was met with positive reviews and commercial success during its box-office run; the story takes place in 1757, during the French and Indian War in the Adirondack Mountains, in the British colony of New York. British Army Major Duncan Heyward arrives in Albany.
He has been sent to serve under the commander of Fort William Henry. Heyward is given the task of escorting the colonel's two daughters and Alice, to their father, he in love with Cora. He proposes to her before they leave. Major Heyward, the two women, a troop of British soldiers march through a rugged countryside, guided by Magua, a Huron warrior. Magua leads the party into an ambush. Heyward and the women are rescued by the timely intervention of the Mohican chief Chingachgook, his son Uncas, his white, adopted son "Hawkeye", who kill all of the ambushers except Magua, who escapes; the rescuers agree to take Heyward to the fort. During the fight, Hawkeye noticed that Magua asks Duncan if he knows why. During the trek and Hawkeye are attracted to each other, as are Uncas and Alice; when the party nears the fort, they find it under siege by their Huron allies. The party manages to sneak in and are greeted by Colonel Munro, who asks Major Heyward about the requested needed reinforcements. While there and Hawkeye share a passionate kiss, Heyward becomes jealous.
In response, Cora tells him that she will not marry him. When Munro refuses to allow the militiamen to sneak away to defend their own families and homes, as he had earlier promised, Hawkeye arranges it anyway, he stays, is condemned to be hanged for sedition. Before that can happen, during a parley, French general Louis-Joseph de Montcalm shows Munro an intercepted message which states that no reinforcements have been sent. Montcalm offers keeping their weapons. Munro has little choice. However, Magua, a French ally, is furious at this arrangement, he harbors great hatred for Munro, blaming him for past wrongs done to his family. The following day, Colonel Munro, his soldiers, their women and children leave the fort. Magua and his Huron warriors ambush them. During the battle, Magua kills Munro by cutting out his heart. Hawkeye and Chingachgook fight their way out and lead Cora and Heyward to temporary safety. However, Magua captures the major and the women. Magua addresses its sachem, he is interrupted by Hawkeye.
The sachem rules. To redress the wrongs done to Magua, Alice is given to him, Cora is to be burned alive. Hawkeye, for his great bravery, is allowed to go in peace. Hawkeye tells Heyward, serving as translator, to offer his own life for Cora's. Instead, Heyward takes Cora's place himself. Once Hawkeye and Cora are safely away, Hawkeye mercifully shoots Heyward as he is being burned at the stake. Chingachgook and Hawkeye set out after Magua's party to free Alice. Uncas races ahead and slays several Huron warriors before engaging Magua in personal combat, only to have his throat slit and be thrown off the cliff. Alice chooses to commit suicide by stepping off the cliff to her death rather than go with the beckoning Magua. Hawkeye and Chingachgook slay several more of Magua's men. Hawkeye holds the remaining Hurons at bay with his musket while Chingachgook duels and kills Magua, avenging his son. In the final scene and Cora watch as Chingachgook prays to the Great Spirit to receive Uncas, proclaiming himself "the last of the Mohicans."
Much care was taken with recreating accurate props. American Bladesmith Society master bladesmith Daniel Winkler made the tomahawks used in the film and knifemaker Randall King made the knives. Wayne Watson is the maker of Hawkeye's "Killdeer" rifle used in the film; the gunstock war club made for Chingachgook was created by Jim Yellow Eagle. Magua's tomahawk was made by Fred A. Mitchell of Odin Fabrication. Costumes were designed by multiple Academy Award winner James Acheson, but he left the film and had his name removed because of artistic differences with Mann. Designer Elsa Zamparelli was brought in to finish. Despite the film taking place in upstate New York, according to the film credits, it was filmed in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. Locations used include Chimney Rock Park and The Biltmore Estate; some of the waterfalls that were used in the movie include Hooker Falls, Triple Falls, Bridal Veil Falls, High Falls, all located in the DuPont State Recreational Forest. Another of these falls was Linville Falls, in the mountains of North Carolina.
Scenes of Albany were shot in NC at The Manor on Charlotte Street. The film was released theatrically in September 25, 1992 at a length of 112