American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
Cashiering within military forces, is a ritual dismissal of an individual from some position of responsibility for a breach of discipline. From the Flemish'Kasseren' the phrase entered the English language in the late 16th century, during the wars in the Low Countries. Although the O. E. D. states that the first printed use in this sense appears in Shakespeare's Othello, it appeared in the 1595 tract The Estate of English Fugitives by Lewes Lewkenor,'imploring his help and assistance in so hard an extremity, who for recompence charitably cashiered them all without the receipt of one penny'. It is associated with the public degradation of disgraced military officers. Prior to World War I this aspect of cashiering sometimes involved a parade-ground ceremony in front of assembled troops with the destruction of symbols of status: epaulettes ripped off shoulders and insignia stripped, swords broken, caps knocked away, medals torn off and dashed upon the ground; the term originated in the era when British Army officers bought their commissions.
The commission purchase price was a cash bond for good behaviour, forfeited to the Army's cashiers in the event of cowardice, desertion or gross misbehaviour. Famous victims of cashiering include Francis Mitchell, Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, Alfred Dreyfus, Philippe Pétain. While most associated with Captain Dreyfus, the ceremony of formal degradation occurred several times in the French military under the Third Republic. At least one other army officer and a naval officer were subjected to the ritual of having their swords broken and the insignia and buttons publicly torn from their uniforms, after being found guilty of charges of treason. More a number of NCOs and private soldiers underwent similar punishments for committing various serious offenses, before execution or imprisonment. Demotion Drumming out Dishonorable discharge Military discipline Political rehabilitation Reduction in rank
The Franco-American alliance was the 1778 alliance between the Kingdom of France and the United States during the American Revolutionary War. Formalized in the 1778 Treaty of Alliance, it was a military pact in which the French provided many supplies for the Americans; the Netherlands and Spain joined as allies of France. The French alliance was possible once the Americans captured a British invasion army at Saratoga in October 1777, demonstrating the viability of the American cause; the alliance became controversial after 1793 when Britain and Revolutionary France again went to war and the U. S. declared itself neutral. Relations between France and the United States worsened as the latter became closer to Britain in the Jay Treaty of 1795, leading to an undeclared Quasi War; the alliance was defunct by 1794 and formally ended in 1800. France had been left alarmed by the British success in the Seven Years War which they feared gave the British naval superiority. From 1763 both France, their allies Spain, began to rebuild their navies and prepare for a future war in which they would construct an alliance to overwhelm and invade Britain.
As Britain's troubles with its American colonies intensified during the 1760s and led to open rebellion in 1775, France began to anticipate the American rebels joining such an alliance. In September 1775 the Continental Congress described foreign assistance as "undoubtedly attainable" and began to seek supplies and assistance from European powers hostile to Britain; the French leadership sought the "humiliation of England" and began giving covert aid to the rebels. The American Declaration of Independence was advocated by some as necessary in order to secure European support against Britain. Silas Deane, an American envoy in Paris, proposed a major anti-British alliance and French invasions of Hanover and Portugal which were both British allies; the alliance was promoted in the United States by a Francophile. Based on the Model Treaty of 1776, Jefferson encouraged the role of France as an economic and military partner to the United States, in order to weaken British influence. In 1776, Latouche Tréville transferred ammunition from France to the United States of America.
Numerous French supplies as well as guns of the de Valliere type were used in the American War of Independence the smaller 4-pounder field guns. The guns were shipped from France, the field carriages provided for in the US; these guns played an important role in such battles as the Battle of Saratoga, the Siege of Yorktown. George Washington wrote about the supplies and guns in a letter to General Heath on 2 May 1777: I was this morning favored with yours containing the pleasing accounts of the late arrivals at Portsmouth and Boston; that of the French ships of war, with artillery and other military stores, is most valuable. It is my intent to have all the arms that were not wanted by the Eastern States, to be removed to Springfield, as a much safer place than Portsmouth …. I shall write Congress and press the immediate removal of the artillery, other military stores from Portsmouth. I would have you forward the twenty-five chests of arms arrived from Martinico to Springfield. On 13 June 1777, the Marquis de Lafayette reached America and joined George Washington in the Continental Army as Major General.
He participated to the Battle of Brandywine where he was wounded, served at the Battle of Rhode Island. Lafayette would return to France during the war in order to advocate more support for the American cause; the alliance was formally negotiated by Benjamin Franklin, but it progressed until after news of the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga arrived in France. On February 6, 1778 two treaties were signed; the first, the Franco-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce, recognized the independence of the United States and established commercial relations between them. The alliance gave open support from the French Army and Treasury, spelled that the United States was obligated to guarantee "from the present time and forever, against all other powers the present Possessions of the Crown of France in America", in exchange for a promise not to increase French possessions anymore in America; the combined strength of the Americans and the French guaranteed victory against Great Britain. France supported the American War of Independence, managing to expel the British and obtain recognition of American independence through the intervention of Rochambeau, Lafayette, de Grasse, Suffren.
Naval conflict started in European waters with the First Battle of Ushant in July 1778, continued with the attempted invasion of Britain by the Armada of 1779. In the summer of 1778, French Admiral d'Estaing arrived with a fleet and infantry reinforcements for the war with a fleet of twelve ships of the line and fourteen frigates. After declining to attack Richard Howe's inferior British force outside New York, the French fleet sailed to Rhode Island where they were to take part in an attack on Newport. On 6 July 1779, he fought the Battle of Grenada against Admiral Byron, but failed at the September 1779 Siege of Savannah before returning to France. Actions continued in April 1780 with Guichen against Admiral Rodney in the Battle of Martinique. In 1780, Rochambeau arrived with a fleet and 6,000 French troops to join the Continental army, under George Washington, in the "Expédition Particulière", landing in Newport, Rhode Island, on 10 July. In the Ohio valley, French Americans would combine with
Frederick North, Lord North
Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, better known by his courtesy title Lord North, which he used from 1752 to 1790, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782. He led Great Britain through most of the American War of Independence, he held a number of other cabinet posts, including Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer. North's reputation among historians has swung forth, it reached its lowest point in the late nineteenth century when he was depicted as a creature of the king and an incompetent who lost the American colonies. In the early twentieth century a revisionism emphasised his strengths in administering the Treasury, handling the House of Commons, in defending the Church of England. Whig historian Herbert Butterfield, argued that his indolence was a barrier to efficient crisis management. Lord North was born in London on 13 April 1732, at the family house at Albemarle Street, just off Piccadilly, though he spent much of his youth at Wroxton Abbey in Oxfordshire. North's strong physical resemblance to George III suggested to contemporaries that Prince Frederick might have been North's real father, a theory compatible with the Prince's reputation but supported by little real evidence.
His father, the first Earl, was at the time Lord of the Bedchamber to Prince Frederick, who stood as godfather to the infant. North was descended from the 1st Earl of Sandwich and was related to Samuel Pepys and the 3rd Earl of Bute, he at times had a turbulent relationship with his father Francis North, 1st Earl of Guilford, yet they were close. In his early years the family was not wealthy, though their situation improved in 1735 when his father inherited property from his cousin. Frederick's mother, Lady Lucy Montagu, died in 1734, his father remarried, but his stepmother, Elizabeth North, died in 1745, when Frederick was thirteen. One of his stepbrothers was Lord Dartmouth, he was educated at Eton College between 1742 and 1748, at Trinity College, where in 1750 he was awarded an MA. After leaving Oxford he travelled in Europe on the Grand Tour with Dartmouth, he visited Vienna and Paris, returning to England in 1753. On 15 April 1754, North twenty-two, was elected unopposed as the Member of Parliament for the constituency of Banbury, He served as an MP from 1754 to 1790 and joined the government as a junior Lord of the Treasury on 2 June 1759 during the Pitt–Newcastle ministry.
He soon developed a reputation as a good administrator and parliamentarian, was liked by his colleagues. Although he considered himself a Whig, he did not align with any of the Whig factions in Parliament and it became obvious to many contemporaries that his sympathies were Tory. In November 1763 he was chosen to speak for the Government concerning radical MP John Wilkes. Wilkes had made a savage attack on both the Prime Minister and the King in his newspaper The North Briton, which many thought libelous. North's motion that Wilkes be expelled from the House of Commons passed by 273 votes to 111. Wilkes' expulsion took place in his absence, as he had fled to France following a duel; when a government headed by the Whig magnate Lord Rockingham came to power in 1765, North left his post and served for a time as a backbench MP. He turned down an offer by Rockingham to rejoin the government, not wanting to be associated with the Whig grandees that dominated the Ministry, he returned to office when Pitt returned to head a second government in 1766.
North became a Privy Counsellor. As Pitt was ill, the government was run by the Duke of Grafton, with North as one of its most senior members. In December 1767, he succeeded Charles Townshend as Chancellor of the Exchequer. With the resignation of the secretary of state Henry Seymour Conway in early 1768, North became Leader of the Commons as well, he continued to serve. When the Duke of Grafton resigned as Prime Minister, North formed a government on 28 January 1770, his ministers and supporters tended to be known as Tories, though they were not a formal grouping and many had been Whigs. He took over with Great Britain in a triumphant state, following the Seven Years' War, which had seen the First British Empire expand to a peak by taking in vast new territories on several continents. Circumstances forced him to keep many members of the previous cabinet in their jobs, despite their lack of agreement with him. In contrast to many of his predecessors, North enjoyed a good relationship with George III based on their shared patriotism and desire for decency in their private lives.
North's ministry had an early success during the Falklands Crisis in 1770 in which Great Britain faced down a Spanish attempt to seize the Falkland islands, nearly provoking a war. Both France and Spain had been left unhappy by Great Britain's perceived dominance following the British victory in the Seven Years War. Spanish forces seized the British settlement on the Falklands and expelled the small British garrison; when Britain opposed the seizure, Spain sought backing from France. However, Louis XV did not believe his country was ready for war and in the face of a strong mobilisation of the British fleet the French compelled the Spanish to back down. Louis dismissed Choiseul, the hawkish French Chief Minister, who had advocated war and a large invasion of Great Britain by the French; the British government's prestige and popularity were enormously boosted by the
Sint Eustatius known affectionately to the locals as Statia, is an island in the Caribbean. It is a special municipality of the Netherlands; the island lies in the northern Leeward Islands portion of the West Indies, southeast of the Virgin Islands. Sint Eustatius is to the northwest of Saint Kitts, to the southeast of Saba; the regional capital is Oranjestad. The island has an area of 21 square kilometres. In the 2001 census, the population was recorded as 3,543 inhabitants, with a population density of 169 inhabitants per square kilometre; as of 2015, the population was estimated at 3,877. The official language is Dutch, but English is the "language of everyday life" on the island and education is in English. A local English-based creole is spoken informally. Travellers to the island by air arrive through F. D. Roosevelt Airport. Part of the Netherlands Antilles, Sint Eustatius became a special municipality within the Netherlands on 10 October 2010; the name of the island, “Sint Eustatius”, is the Dutch name for Saint Eustace, a legendary Christian martyr, known in Spanish as San Eustaquio and in Portuguese as Santo Eustáquio or Santo Eustácio.
The island was claimed by many different nations. From the first European settlement, in the 17th century until the early 19th century, St. Eustatius changed hands twenty-one times. In 1636, the chamber of Zeeland of the Dutch West India Company took possession of the island, reported to be uninhabited; as of 1678, the islands of St. Eustatius, Sint Maarten and Saba fell under direct command of the Dutch West India Company, with a commander stationed on St. Eustatius to govern all three. At the time, the island was of some importance for the cultivation of sugar. In the 18th century, St. Eustatius' geographical placement in the middle of Danish, British and Spanish territories—its large harborage and status from 1756 as a free port with no customs duties were all factors in it becoming a major point of transhipment of goods, a locus for trade in contraband, its economy developed by ignoring the monopolistic trade restrictions of the British and Spanish islands. St. Eustatius's economy, under the Dutch, flourished.
The island became known as The Golden Rock. Edmund Burke said of the island in 1781: It has no produce, no fortifications for its defense, nor martial spirit nor military regulations... Its utility was its defense; the universality of its use, the neutrality of its nature was its safeguard. Its proprietors had, in the spirit of commerce, made it an emporium for all the world.... Its wealth was prodigious, arising from the nature of its commerce; the island sold arms and ammunition to anyone willing to pay. It was one of the few places; the good relationship between St. Eustatius and the United States resulted in the noted "First Salute". On November 16, 1776, Captain Isaiah Robinson of the 14-gun American brig Andrew Doria, sailed into the anchorage below St. Eustatius' Fort Oranje. Robinson announced his arrival by firing a thirteen gun salute, one gun for each of the thirteen American colonies in rebellion against Britain. Governor Johannes de Graaff replied with an eleven-gun salute from the cannons of Fort Oranje.
International protocol required a two gun less acknowledgment of a sovereign flag. The Andrew Doria flew the Continental Colors of the fledgling United States, it was the first international acknowledgment of American independence. The Andrew Doria had arrived to purchase munitions for the American Revolutionary forces, she was carrying a copy of the Declaration of Independence, presented to Governor De Graaff. An earlier copy had been captured on the way to Holland by the British, it was wrapped in documents. In reality the documents were written to Jewish merchants in Holland. U. S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt came to St. Eustatius in 1939 to recognize the importance of the 1776 "First Salute", he presented a large brass plaque to St. Eustatius, displayed today under a flagpole atop the walls of Fort Oranje. President Roosevelt visited the island for 2 hours on February 1939 on the USS Houston; the plaque reads: "In commemoration to the salute to the flag of the United States, Fired in this fort November 16.
1776, By order of Johannes de Graaff, Governor of Saint Eustatius, In reply to a National Gun-Salute, Fired by the United States Brig of War Andrew Doria, Under Captain Isaiah Robinson of the Continental Navy, Here the sovereignty of the United States of America was first formally acknowledged to a national vessel by a foreign official. Presented by Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President of the United States of America" The recognition provided the title for Barbara W. Tuchman's 1988 book The First Salute: A View of the American Revolution; the British took the incident seriously. Britain protested bitterly against the continuous trade between the United Colonies and St. Eustatius. In 1778, Lord Stormont claimed in Parliament that, "if Sint Eustatius had sunk into the sea three years before, the United Kingdom would have dealt with George Washington". Nearly half of all American Revolutionary military supplies were obtained through St. Eustatius. Nearly all American communications to Europe first passed through the island.
The trade between St. Eustatius and the United States was the main reason for the Fourth
Saint Martin is an island in the northeast Caribbean Sea 300 km east of Puerto Rico. The 87-square-kilometre island is divided 60/40 between the French Republic and the Kingdom of the Netherlands, but the two parts are equal in population; the division dates to 1648. The southern Dutch part comprises Sint Maarten and is one of four constituent countries that form the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the northern French part comprises the Collectivity of Saint Martin and is an overseas collectivity of France. Only the French part of the island is part of the European Union. On 1 January 2009, the population of the whole island was 77,741 inhabitants, with 40,917 living on the Dutch side, 36,824 on the French side. Collectively, the two territories are known as "St-Martin / St Maarten", or sometimes "SXM", the IATA identifier for Princess Juliana International Airport, the island's main airport. St. Martin received the ISO 3166-1 code MF in October 2007; the Dutch part changed in status to a country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 2010 and was given the code SX.
Saint Martin has a land area of 87 km2, 53 km2 of, under the sovereignty of France, 34 km2 under the sovereignty of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. This is the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the main cities are Marigot. The Dutch side is more populated; the largest settlement on the entire island is Lower Prince's Quarter, on the Dutch side. The highest hilltop is the Pic Paradis in the centre of a hill chain on the French side. Both sides are hilly with large mountain peaks; this forms a valley. There are no rivers on the island, but many dry gullies. Hiking trails give access to the dry forest covering slopes; the island is located south of Anguilla, separated from the British territory by the Anguilla Channel. Saint Martin is northwest of Saint Barthélemy, separated from the French territory by the Saint-Barthélemy Channel, it is one of the Renaissance Islands. In 1493, explorer Christopher Columbus, embarked on his second voyage to the New World on behalf of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella I of Spain.
According to legend, Columbus sighted and anchored at the island of Saint Martin on November 11, 1493, the feast day of Saint Martin of Tours. In his honour, Columbus named the island "San Martin"; this name was translated to "Sint Maarten", "Saint-Martin" and "Saint Martin" in English. At Columbus' time, St. Martin was populated, by Carib amerindians; the former Arawaks had been chased by the Caribs coming from the north coast of South America a short time before the arrival of the Spaniards who followed in Columbus' wake. The Arawaks were agricultural people who fashioned pottery and whose social organization was headed by hereditary chieftains who derived their power from personal deities called zemis; the Caribs' territory was not conquered until the mid-17th century when most of them perished in the struggle between the French, Dutch and Spanish for control of the West Indies islands around the Caribbean Sea. The Dutch first began to ply the island's ponds for salt in the 1620s. Still at war with the Dutch, the Spaniards captured St. Martin in 1633.
One year they built a fort and another artillery battery at Pointe Blanche to assert their claim and control access to Great Bay salt pond. A massive influx of African slaves took place in the 18th century with the development of sugarcane plantations by the French and Dutch. Slavery was abolished in the first half of the 19th century. On some of their territories the British imported Chinese and South Asians to take the place of slaves. Thus, St. Martin and the other islands are populated by a mixture of Amerindian, African and Asian peoples. On 23 March 1648, the Kingdom of France and the Dutch Republic agreed to divide the island between their two territories, with the signing of the Treaty of Concordia. Folklore surrounds the history of the once ever-changing border division between St. Martin and Sint Maarten, a popular story among locals narrates that "to divide the island into two sections, the inhabitants were told to choose two walkers, one chosen by the French-dominated community and the other one by the Dutch-dominated community, who were put back to back in one extreme of the island, making them walk in opposite directions while stuck to the littoral line, not allowing them to run.
The point where they met was set as the other extreme of the island, the subsequently created line was chosen as the frontier, dividing Saint-Martin from Sint Maarten. The French walker had walked more than his Dutch counterpart; the French locals' explanation for this discrepancy is that, as the first man chose wine as his stimulant prior to the race, while the latter chose Jenever, the difference between such beverages' lightness was said to be the cause of the territorial differences. The Dutch locals instead accuse the French walker of running." Under the Köppen climate classification, the island has a tropical monsoon climate with a dry season from January to April and a rainy season from August to December. The precipitation patterns are due to the movement of the Azores high during the year. With the wind direction predominantly from the east or the northeast, northeasterly trades, temperatures
Action of 30 May 1781
The Action of 30 May 1781 was a naval battle fought between two frigates of the Royal Navy and two of the Dutch Republic off the Barbary Coast. In the Netherlands it is known as the zeegevecht bij Kaap Sint-Marie. In a battle lasting more than two hours, Captain William Peere Williams-Freeman of the Flora, compelled Captain Pieter Melvill's Castor to strike her colours. Shortly after, Captain Gerardus Oorthuys of den Briel compelled Thomas Pakenham to strike Crescent. However, Flora came to Crescent's rescue before Oorthuys could board her, forced him to retreat. During the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War a flee from the Dutch East Indies left the Mediterranean, escorted by the 36-gun frigates Castor under captain Pieter Melvill van Carnbee and the Den Briel under captain Gerardus Oorthuys, they did not pass Gibraltar unnoticed and were intercepted by two British frigates, the 36-gun Flora under captain William Peere Williams-Freeman and the 36-gun Crescent under captain Thomas Pakenham. The Dutch frigates reached the Atlantic and fired a salvo at their pursuers, frightening them off, but Carnbee decided not to pursue the faster British ships but to proceed with their primary objective of escorting the merchantmen.
The Dutch ships thus turned south under cover of darkness to reach the Canary Islands. On the morning of 30 May 1781 the Dutch saw the British ships following them; the British opened fire and Carnbee and Oorthuys tried and failed to get one of the British ships between them. The battle became a ship-to-ship action between the Den Briel and the Crescent in one case and the Castor and the Flora in the other; the Castor was a 23-year-old ship with low calibre guns and a maximum salvo of 372 pounds, thus proving no match for the modern Flora with its 720-pound salvo. The Castor soon became unmanageable, with her sails and rigging destroyed, holes below the waterline, five feet of water in her hold, most of her guns out of action, 30 of her 230-man crew killed and 40 wounded. Carnbee hoisted a white flag, he and his crew were taken on board the Flora and the sinking Castor was taken in tow as a prize ship; the battle between Den Briel and the Crescent was a mirror image of the defeat of the Castor.
The guns of the Den Briel brought down the main-mast and mizzen-mast of the Crescent for only 12 dead and 44 wounded, compared to the toll on the Crescent of 27 dead and 65 wounded. Both ships were badly damaged however and an hour after the Crescent surrendered the mast of the Den Briel fell overboard; the Dutch ship did not have any boats left in a seaworthy condition to take the Crescent as a prize. The Crescent managed to get taken in tow by the Flora and Oorthuys had to watch his prize escape. Using makeshift sails Oorthuys reached the port of Cadiz on 2 June, whilst the fleet he was escorting reached Spain without being attacked by the British. With two badly damaged ships in tow, Pakenham met two French frigates in the English Channel and was defeated, though the Flora escaped. Pakenham had refused to resume the command of the Crescent, maintaining that by his surrender to the Den Briel his commission was cancelled, that when recaptured the ship was on the same footing as any other prize.
The Castor thus became Carnbee and the Dutch prisoners were repatriated. The battle became major news back in the Netherlands, with Carnbee and Oorthuys compared to earlier naval heroes Michiel de Ruyter and Maarten Tromp. In Britain, Pakenham was tried by court-martial for the loss of his ship but honourably acquitted, it being proved that he did not strike the flag till, by the fall of her masts and the disabling of her guns, further resistance was impossible. Dirks, Jacobus Johannes Backer. De nederlandsche zeemagt in hare verschillende tijdperken geschetst, Volume 3 The United Service Magazine, Part 2 Gerrits, Gerrit Engelberts. Fastes de la marine hollandaise, tr. par F. Douchez Oorthuys' captain's log'Part 1','Part 2'