A car model is the name used by a manufacturer to market a range of similar cars. The way that car manufacturers group their product range into models varies between manufacturers. A model may be referred to as a nameplate when referring to the product from the point of view of the manufacturer a model over time. For example, the Chevrolet Suburban is the oldest automobile nameplate in continuous production, dating to 1934, while the Chrysler New Yorker was the oldest North American car nameplate. "Nameplate" is sometimes used more loosely, however, to refer to a brand or division of larger company, rather than a specific model. Without any equipment and exterior trim is determined by the trim level, the car model defines the styling theme and platform, used; the model defines the body style and engine choice. Some models have only one body style; some models have a single engine/powertrain specification available, while other models have multiple powertrains available. In some cases, a manufacturer has marketed a body style as a separate model — for example the Volkswagen Jetta and the BMW 4 Series, which are based on the Volkswagen Golf and BMW 3 Series platforms respectively.
BMW 3 Series body styles The same car model may be sold by the automaker in different countries under different model names. Examples includeMitsubishi Pajero / Montero, Mazda MX-5 / Miata, Volkswagen Golf / Rabbit and Ford Everest / Endeavour For a particular model, the trim level identifies the level of equipment or special features. Automotive industry Badge engineering Facelift Marque Model year Ship class
Volkswagen Type 2
The Volkswagen Type 2, known as the Transporter, Kombi or Microbus, or, informally, as the Bus or Camper, is a forward control panel van introduced in 1950 by the German automaker Volkswagen as its second car model. Following – and deriving from Volkswagen's first model, the Type 1 – it was given the factory designation Type 2; as one of the forerunners of the modern cargo and passenger vans, the Type 2 gave rise to forward control competitors in the United States in the 1960s, including the Ford Econoline, the Dodge A100, the Chevrolet Corvair 95 Corvan, the latter adapting the rear-engine configuration of the Corvair car in the same manner in which the VW Type 2 adapted the Type 1 layout. European competition included the 1947–1981 Citroën H Van, the 1959–1980 Renault Estafette, the 1953–1965 FR layout Ford Transit. Japanese manufacturers introduced similar vehicles, such as the Nissan Caravan, Toyota LiteAce and Subaru Sambar. Like the Beetle, the van has received numerous nicknames worldwide, including the "microbus", "minibus", because of its popularity during the counterculture movement of the 1960s, "Hippie van/bus" has become its most popular.
Brazil contained the last factory in the world that produced the T2 series of Type 2, which ceased production on 31 December 2013, due to the introduction of more stringent safety regulations in the country. This marked the end of the era of rear-engine Volkswagens manufactured, which originated in 1935 with their Type 1 prototypes; the concept for the Type 2 is credited to Dutch Volkswagen importer Ben Pon. Pon visited Wolfsburg in 1946, intending to purchase Type 1s for import to the Netherlands, where he saw a Plattenwagen, an improvised parts-mover based on the Type 1 chassis, realized something better was possible using the stock Type 1 pan, he first sketched the van in a doodle dated 23 April 1947, proposing a payload of 690 kg and placing the driver at the front. Production would have to wait, however, as the factory was at capacity producing the Type 1; when capacity freed up, a prototype known internally as the Type 29 was produced in a short three months. The stock Type 1 pan proved to be too weak so the prototype used a ladder chassis with unit body construction.
Coincidentally the wheelbase was the same. Engineers reused the reduction gear from the Type 81, enabling the 1.5 ton van to use a 25 hp flat four engine. Although the aerodynamics of the first prototypes were poor, engineers used the wind tunnel at the Technical University of Braunschweig to optimize the design. Simple changes such as splitting the windshield and roofline into a "vee" helped the production Type 2 achieve Cd=0.44, exceeding the Type 1's Cd=0.48. Volkswagen's new chief executive officer Heinz Nordhoff approved the van for production on 19 May 1949 and the first production model, now designated Type 2, rolled off the assembly line to debut 12 November. Only two models were offered: the Kombi, the Commercial; the Microbus was added in May 1950, joined by the Deluxe Microbus in June 1951. In all 9,541 Type 2s were produced in their first year of production. An ambulance model was added in December 1951 which repositioned the fuel tank in front of the transaxle, put the spare tire behind the front seat, added a "tailgate"-style rear door.
These features became standard on the Type 2 from 1955 to 1967. 11,805 Type 2s were built in the 1951 model year. These were joined by a single-cab pickup in August 1952, it changed the least of the Type 2s until all were modified in 1968. Unlike other rear engine Volkswagens, which evolved over time but never saw the introduction of all-new models, the Transporter not only evolved, but was revised periodically with variations retrospectively referred to as versions "T1" to "T5". However, only generations T1 to T3 can be seen as directly related to the Beetle; the Type 2, along with the 1947 Citroën H Van, are among the first'forward control' vans in which the driver was placed above the front roadwheels. They started a trend in Europe, where the 1952 GM Bedford CA, 1958 RAF-977, 1959 Renault Estafette, 1960 BMC Morris J4, 1960 Commer FC used the concept. In the United States, the Corvair-based Chevrolet Corvan cargo van and Greenbrier passenger van adopted the use of the rear-engine layout of the Corvair car in the same manner that the Type 2 had used the rear-engine layout of the Type 1, using the Corvair's horizontally opposed, 6 cylinder air-cooled engine for power.
Except for the Greenbrier and various 1950s–70s Fiat minivans, the Type 2 remained unique in being rear-engined. This was a disadvantage for the early "barndoor" Panel Vans, which could not be loaded from the rear because the engine cover intruded on interior space, but advantageous in traction and interior noise; the Corvair pickup used a folding side panel that functioned as a ramp into the bed when opened, was called the "Rampside". The VW "pickup" in both single and double cab versions had a bed/floor, flat from front to back at the height of the engine compartment cover, which had the advantage of a flat load floor but at a greater height, while the Corvair "pickup" bed/floor stepped
A sports car, or sportscar, is a small two-seater automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. The term "sports car" was used in The Times, London in 1919. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, USA's first known use of the term was in 1928. Sports cars started to become popular during the 1920s. Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious. Sports cars are aerodynamically shaped, have a lower center of gravity than standard models. Steering and suspension are designed for precise control at high speeds. Traditionally sports cars were open roadsters, but closed coupés started to become popular during the 1930s, the distinction between a sports car and a grand tourer is not absolute. Attributing the definition of'sports car' to any particular model can be controversial or the subject of debate among enthusiasts. Authors and experts have contributed their own ideas to capture a definition. A car may be a sporting automobile without being a sports car. Performance modifications of regular, production cars, such as sport compacts, sports sedans, muscle cars, pony cars and hot hatches are not considered sports cars, yet share traits common to sports cars.
Certain models can "appeal to both muscle car and sports car enthusiasts, two camps that acknowledged each other's existences." Some models are called "sports cars" for marketing purposes to take advantage of greater marketplace acceptance and for promotional purposes. High-performance cars of various configurations are grouped as Sports and Grand tourer cars or just as performance cars; the drivetrain and engine layout influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to sports cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, the Chevrolet Corvette. More many such sports cars have a front mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used; the rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, powers only the rear wheels.
Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout. Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-wheel-drive layout; the motor's distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, but the significant mass behind the rear wheels makes it more prone to oversteer in some situations. Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic stability control to counteract these inherent design shortcomings; the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout, the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, modern production cars in general, is not used for sports cars. This layout is advantageous for small, lower power sports cars, as it avoids the extra weight, increased transmission power loss, packaging problems of a long driveshaft and longitudinal engine of FR vehicles. However, its conservative handling effect understeer, the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it.
The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, Berkeley cars are sports cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had traditionally added a lot of weight. With its improvement in traction in adverse weather conditions, four-wheel drive is no longer uncommon in high-powered sports cars, e.g. Porsche and the Bugatti Veyron. Traditional sports cars were two-seat roadsters. Although the first sports cars were derived from fast tourers, early sporting regulations demanded four seats, two seats became common from about the mid-1920s. Modern sports cars may have small back seats that are really only suitable for luggage or small children. Over the years, some manufacturers of sports cars have sought to increase the practicality of their vehicles by increasing the seating room. One method is to place the driver's seat in the center of the car, which allows two full-sized passenger seats on each side and behind the driver; the arrangement was considered for the Lamborghini Miura, but abandoned as impractical because of the difficulty for the driver to enter/exit the vehicle.
McLaren used the design in their F1. Another British manufacturer, TVR, took a different approach in their Cerbera model; the interior was designed in such a way that the dashboard on the passenger side swept toward the front of the car, which allowed the passenger to sit farther forward than the driver. This gave the rear seat passenger extra room and made the arrangement suitable for three adult passengers and one child seated behind the driver; some Matra sports cars had three seats squeezed next to each other. The definition of a sports car is not precise, but from the earliest first automobiles "people have found ways to make them go faster, round corners better, look more beautiful" than the ordinary models inspiring an "emotional relationship" with a car, fun to drive and use for the sake of driving; the basis for the sports car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars a
A sedan — saloon — is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with separate compartments for engine and cargo. Sedan's first recorded use as a name for a car body was in 1912; the name comes from a 17th century development of a litter, the sedan chair, a one-person enclosed box with windows and carried by porters. Variations of the sedan style of body include: close-coupled sedan, club sedan, convertible sedan, fastback sedan, hardtop sedan, notchback sedan and sedanet/sedanette; the current definition of a sedan is a car with a closed body with the engine and cargo in separate compartments. This broad definition does not differentiate sedans from various other car body styles, but in practice the typical characteristics of sedans are: a B-pillar that supports the roof two rows of seats a three-box design with the engine at the front and the cargo area at the rear a less steeply sloping roofline than a coupé, which results in increased headroom for rear passenger and a less sporting appearance.
A rear interior volume of at least 33 cu ft It is sometimes suggested that sedans must have four doors. However, several sources state that a sedan can have four doors. In addition, terms such as sedan and coupé have been more loosely interpreted by car manufacturers since 2010; when a manufacturer produces two-door sedan and four-door sedan versions of the same model, the shape and position of the greenhouse on both versions may be identical, with only the B-pillar positioned further back to accommodate the longer doors on the two-door versions. A sedan chair, a sophisticated litter, was an enclosed box with windows used to transport one seated person. Porters at the front and rear carried the chair with horizontal poles. Litters date back to long before ancient Egypt and China. Sedan chairs were developed in the 1630s. Reputable etymologists suggest the name of the chair probably came through Italian dialects from the Latin sedere meaning to sit; the same experts report that the first recorded use of sedan for an automobile body occurred in 1912 when a new Studebaker model was described by its manufacturers as a sedan.
The same American dictionary provides this description: "Sedan an enclosed automobile for four or more people, having two or four doors". There were enclosed automobile bodies before 1912. Long before that time the same enclosed but horse-drawn carriages were known as broughams in the United Kingdom, they were berlinas in France and Italy. Both names are still used there for sedans. There is an unsubstantiated claim that the body of a particular 1899 Renault Voiturette Type B was the first motor vehicle, a sedan, it was a two-door two-seater vehicle with an extra external seat for a footman/mechanic. Georgano claims the earliest usage matching a modern definition of a sedan was a 1911 Speedwell sedan manufactured in the United States. In American English and Latin American Spanish, the term sedan is used. In British English, a car of this configuration is called a saloon. Hatchback sedans are known as hatchbacks. Super saloon is used to describe a high performance saloon car where sports saloon would have been used in the past.
Saloon has been used by British car manufacturers in the United States, for example, the Rolls-Royce Park Ward. In Australia and New Zealand sedan is now predominantly used, they were simply cars. In the 21st century saloon is still found in the long-established names of particular motor races. In other languages, sedans are known as berlina though they may include hatchbacks; these names, like sedan, all come from forms of passenger transport used before the advent of automobiles. In German sedans are berlines or limousines and limousines are stretch-limousines. In the United States notchback sedan distinguishes models with a horizontal trunklid; the term is only referred to in the marketing when it is necessary to distinguish between two sedan body styles of the same model range. Several sedans have a fastback profile, but instead of a trunk lid, the entire back of the vehicle lifts up. Examples include the Chevrolet Malibu Maxx, Audi A5 Sportback and Tesla Model S; the names "hatchback" and "sedan" are used to differentiate between body styles of the same model.
Therefore the term "hatchback sedan" is not used, to avoid confusion. There have been many sedans with a fastback style. Hardtop sedans were a popular body style in the United States from the 1950s to the 1970s. Hardtops are manufactured without a B-pillar leaving uninterrupted open space or, when closed, glass along the side of the car; the top was intended to look like a convertible's top but it was fixed and made of hard material that did not fold. All manufacturers in the United States from the early 1950s into the 1970s provided at least a 2-door hardtop model in their range and, if their engineers could manage it, a 4-door hardtop as well; the lack of side-bracing demanded a strong and heavy chassis frame to combat unavoidable flexing. The fashion may have delayed the introduction of unibody construction. In 1973 the US government passed Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 creating a standard roof strength test to measure the integrity of roof structure in motor vehicles to come into effect some years later.
Barchetta, which translates as "little boat" in Italian, is a term used by Italian car manufacturers for two-seat sports cars with either an open top or convertible roof. The term was used for lightweight open-top racing cars of the late 1940s through the 1950s. Since the 1950s, the name barchetta has been revived on several occasions for cars with convertible roofs that are not intended for racing; the first use of the term "barchetta" was by the editor of the Italian sporting newspaper La Gazzetta dello Sport, Giovanni Canestrini, to describe the new Ferrari 166MM displayed at the 1948 Turin Auto Show. The name barchetta has been associated with the 166MM model since; the 166MM barchetta won the 1948 and 1949 Mille Miglia, the 1949 24 Hours of Le Mans and the Targa Florio, the only car to win all three races in the same year. It won the 1949 Spa 24 Hours. Motor Trend Classic rated the 166MM barchetta sixth out of the ten "greatest Ferraris of all time". Other barchetta versions of Ferraris include the Ferrari 212 Inter and the Ferrari 250 MM.
In 1948, the Maserati brothers released the O. S. C. A. MT4, a 1452 cc, 130 bhp barchetta. In 1953, Moretti Motor Company began producing a barchetta version of the Moretti 750; some barchettas have no windscreen, while others have a racing-type screen. In 1966, Abarth released the Abarth 1000SP Barchetta, which had a successful racing careerThe Fiat Barchetta was produced from 1995 to 2005, it is a mass-produced two-seat convertible, intended as a road car, rather than for motor racing. In 1991, the Maserati Barchetta was released as a racing car for a single-make racing series. Seventeen cars were produced. Ferrari revived the name in 2001 for their 550 Barchetta Pininfarina, which marked Pininfarina’s 70th anniversary; the car was first shown at the 2001 Salon de l'Automobile and 448 examples were built. It is "n many ways...the legitimate successor to such legendary open Ferraris as the 166MM..." Designed as a roadster for use on public roads and not as a full-bred racing car, the 550 Barchetta has a rudimentary convertible top "whose mechanism is said to require strength and patience."
The top is intended only for emergency use in a sudden downpour and the manufacturer advises against using it at speeds above 70 mph. The top "doesn't look as if it would survive the sacrilege of an automatic car wash."Bachetta concept cars include the 2005 Lamborghini Murcielago Barchetta, the 2001 Aston Martin DB4 GT Zagato Barchetta and the 2007 Bertone Barchetta Concept. "Red Barchetta" is a song by rock band Rush from their album Moving Pictures
A station wagon called an estate car, estate or wagon, is a car body style which has a two-box design, a large cargo area and a rear tailgate, hinged to open for access to the cargo area. The body style is similar to a hatchback car, however station wagons are longer and are more to have the roofline extended to the rear of the car to maximize the cargo space; the names "station wagon" and "estate car" are a result due to the initial purpose of the car being to transport people and luggage between a country estate and the nearest train station. The first station wagons, produced in the United States around 1910, were wood-bodied conversions of an existing passenger car. During the 1930s, the car manufacturers in the United States, United Kingdom and France began to produce station wagons models, by the 1950s the wood rear bodywork had been replaced by an all-steel body. Station wagon models sold well from the 1950s to the 1970s, however since sales have declined as minivans and SUVs have increased in popularity.
Reflecting the original purpose of transporting people and luggage between country estates and train stations, the body style is called an "estate car" or "estate" in the United Kingdom, "station wagon" in American, New Zealand and African English. In the United States, early models with exposed wooden bodies became known as woodies. In Germany, the term "Kombi" is used, short for Kombinationskraftwagen. Station wagons have been marketed using the French term "break de chasse", which translates as "hunting break", due to shared ancestry with the shooting-brake body style. Manufacturers may designate station wagons across various model lines with a proprietary nameplate. Examples include "Avant", "Caravan", "Kombi", "Sports Tourer", "Sports Wagon, "Tourer", "Touring" and "Variant". Station wagons and hatchbacks have in common a two-box design configuration, a shared interior volume for passengers and cargo and a rear door, hinged at roof level. Folding rear seats are common on both station wagons and hatchbacks.
Distinguishing features between hatchbacks and station wagons are: D-pillar: Station wagons are more to have a D-pillar. Cargo volume: Station wagons prioritize passenger and cargo volume — with windows aside the cargo volume. Of the two body styles, a station wagon roof more extends to the rearmost of the vehicle, enclosing a full-height cargo volume — a hatchback roof might more rake down steeply behind the C-Pillar, prioritizing style over interior volume, with shorter rear overhang and with smaller windows aside the cargo volume. Other differences are more variable and can include: Cargo floor contour: Favoring cargo capacity, a station wagon may prioritize a fold-flat floor, whereas a hatchback would more allow a cargo floor with pronounced contour. Seating: Station wagons may have two or three rows of seats, while hatchbacks may only have one or two; the rearmost row of seating in a station wagon is located in the cargo area and can be either front-facing or rear-facing. Rear suspension: A station wagon may include reconfigured rear suspension for additional load capacity and to minimize intrusion in the cargo volume.
Rear Door: Hatchbacks feature a top-hinged liftgate for cargo access, with variations ranging from a two-part liftgate/tailgates to a complex tailgate that can function either as a full tailgate or as a trunk lid. Station wagons have enjoyed numerous tailgate configurations. Hatchbacks may be called Liftbacks when the opening area is sloped and the door is lifted up to open. A design director from General Motors has described the difference as "Where you break the roofline, at what angle, defines the spirit of the vehicle", he said. "You could have a 90-degree break in the back and have a station wagon."It has become common for station wagons to use a shared platform with other body styles, resulting in many shared components being used for the wagon and hatchback variants of the model range. Many modern station wagons have an upward-swinging, full-width, full-height rear door supported on gas springs — where the rear window can swing up independently. Wagons have employed numerous designs; the earliest common style was an upward-swinging window combined with a downward swinging tailgate.
Both were manually operated. This configuration prevailed from the earliest origins of the wagon body style in the 1920s through the 1940s, it remained in use through 1960 on several models offered by Ford, including the 1957-58 Del Rio two-door wagon. This style was adopted on aftermarket camper shells for pickup trucks, seeing that pickup trucks had a bottom half tailgate as an OEM feature. In the early 1950s, tailgates with hand-cranked roll-down rear windows began to appear. In the decade, electric power was applied to the tailgate window—it could be operated from the driver's seat, as well as by the keyhole in the rear door. By the early 1960s, this arrangement was common on both compact wagons. Side hinge: A side hinged tailgate that opened like a door was offered on three-seat wagons to make it easier for the back row passengers to enter and exit their rear-facing seats; this was supplanted by the dual-hinged tailgate. These have a retractable rear roof section as well as a conventional rear tailgate which folded