Arad County is an administrative division of Romania translated into county in the western part of the country on the border with Hungary in the region of Crișana and few villages in Banat. The administrative center of the county lies in the city of Arad; the Arad County is part of the Danube–Criș–Mureș–Tisa Euroregion. In Hungarian, it is known as Arad megye, in Serbian as Арад / Arad, in German as Kreis Arad; the county was named after Arad. The county has a total area of 7,754 km², representing 3.6% of national Romanian territory. The terrain of Arad County is divided into two distinct units that cover half of the county each; the eastern side of the county has a hilly to low mountainous terrain and on the western side it's a plain zone consisting of the Arad Plain, Low Mures Plain, The High Vinga Plain. Taking altitude into account we notice that it follows a stepped pattern as it drops as we go from the east to the west of the county from 1489 m to below 100 m. In the east there are the Zarand Mountainsnand the Codru Moma Mountains, all subdivisions of the Apuseni Mountains, a major group of the Western Carpathians.
Alba County and Hunedoara County to the East. Hungary to the West - Békés and Csongrád Counties. Bihor County to the North. Timiș County to the South. In terms of climate, the characteristics of Arad county have a typical temperate continental climate with oceanic influences, with a circulation of air masses with a predominantly western ordered direction visible from west to east, with increasing altitude. Average annual temperatures range from 10 °C in the lowlands, the hills and piedmonts 9 °C, 8 °C and 6 °C in the low mountains in the area of greatest height. Average amounts of precipitation fall in values between 565–600 mm annually in the lowlands, 700–800 mm annually in the hills and piedmonts and 800–1200 mm annually in the mountainous area; the hydrographic network is composed of the two main rivers plus their channels. Mureṣ - Corbeasca, Troaş, Bârzava, Cladova Criṣul Alb - Hălmăgel, Valea Leucii, Tăcaşele, Zimbru, Valea Deznei, Valea Monesei, Tălagiu, Honțisor, Chişindia, Cigher Tauț, Seleuș, Rovine, Matca Lakes and Gypsy Pond Matca, Canalul Morilor, Canalul Morilor, Criș Channels In October 31, 2011, it had a population of 409,072 and the population density was 52/km².
The main ethnic composition was, as follows: Romanians - 83.88% Hungarians - 9.06% Roma - 4.04% Along with Timiș County it forms one of the most developed regions in Romania. Due to its proximity to the border, it attracts a great number of foreign investments; the agricultural potential is put into value, Arad plains being considered one of the most important cereal and vegetable producing basins. The predominant industries in the county are: automotive components. Food. Textiles. Natural resources in Arad, are worthy to be taken into account as there are oil and associated gases, points of extraction in the west of the county, molibden mines in the Săvârșin area, marble quarries at Căprioara and Moneasa, mineral waters at Lipova, Dorobanți, Curtici and uranium deposits in the NE part of the county; the main tourist destinations are: The city of Arad The Mureș Natural Floodplain Park Bezdin Monastery Hodoș-Bodrog Monastery Lipova resort and city Șoimoș, Dezna, Șiria stone citadels Moneasa resort The areas around Săvârșin, Petriș, Macea and Pecica.
The Arad County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 33 counselors, with the following party composition: Arad County has 1 municipality, 9 towns and 68 communes with 180 villages. MunicipalitiesArad - capital city. From the religious point of view, 55.8% declared Eastern Orthodox, 26.5% Roman Catholic, 5.5% Reformed, 4.2% Greek Catholic, 3.2% Lutherans, 2.4% Jewish, 1% Baptists, as well as other minorities. In 1930, the county's urban population was 77,181 inhabitants, 39.3% Romanians, 38.8% Hungarians, 9.1% Jews, 7.1% Germans, 1.7% Serbs and Croats, 1.4% Slovaks, as well as other minorities. In the urban area, languages were Hungarian, German, Yiddish, as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view, the urban population was composed of Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Reformed, Greek Catholics, Lutherans, as well as other minorities; the county's capital, was the location of Romania's first automotive factory. During the 1920s, Astra cars and commercial vehicles were made at Arad.
ASTRA Arad manufactured automobiles from 1922 to 1926. The factory had an output of 2 automobiles per working day as of 19
Suceava County is a county of Romania. Most of its territory lies in the southern portion of the historical region of Bukovina, while the remainder forms part of Western Moldavia proper; the county seat is Suceava. In 2011, Suceava County had a population of 634,810, with a population density of 74/km2; the proportion of each ethnic group is displayed as follows: Romanians - 96.14% Romani - 1.92% Ukrainians - 0.92% Lipovans - 0.27% Germans - 0.11% West Slavs as well as other ethnic groups - 0.5% The county lies within the southern part of the historical region of Bukovina, but incorporates territories from Western Moldavia proper. In terms of total area, it covers a surface of 8,553 square kilometres, making it thus the second in Romania in this particular regard, just after Timiș County in Banat; the western side of the county consists of mountains from the Eastern Carpathians group: the Rodna Mountains, the Rarău Mountains, the Giumalău Mountains, the Ridges of Bukovina, the latter with lower heights.
The county's elevation decreases with the lowest height in the Siret River valley. The rivers crossing the county are the Siret River with its tributaries: the Moldova and Bistrița rivers; the county of Suceava is bordered by the following other territorial units: Ukraine to the north - Chernivtsi Oblast. Mureș County, Harghita County, Neamț County to the south. Botoșani County and Iași County to the east. Maramureș County and Bistrița-Năsăud County to the west. In the Kingdom of Romania, between the early 20th century up to the end of the 1940s, the county had a smaller size and population; the contemporary Suceava county is the result of the merger of other smaller former Romanian counties from the historical province of Bukovina that were functional throughout the interwar period. The present-day Suceava County incorporates part of Baia County; as per the administrative reform of 1938 under King Carol II, the whole counties which divided Bukovina in the Kingdom of Romania were united into a bigger land called Ținutul Suceava.
As for the historical interwar Suceava County, this administrative unit was located in the northern part of Greater Romania and in the southern part of the historical region of Bukovina respectively. Its territory is situated within the borders of the current Suceava County, constituting thus the central-eastern part of the contemporary namesake county. During the interwar period, it was the smallest county of Greater Romania by area, covering 1,309 square kilometres, it is bordered on the east by the counties of Dorohoi and Botoșani, to the north by Rădăuți County, to the west by Câmpulung County, to the south by Baia County. As of 1930, the county was administratively subdivided into three districts: Plasa Arbore, headquartered at Arbore Plasa Dragomirna, headquartered at Dragomirna Plasa Ilișești, headquartered at IlișeștiIn 1938, the county was administratively reorganized into the following districts: Plasa Arbore, headquartered at Solca Plasa Bosancea, headquartered at Bosancea Plasa Ilișești, headquartered at Ilișești According to the 1930 census data, the county population was 121,327, ethnically divided among Romanians, Jews, Ukrainians, as well as other ethnic minorities.
By language the county was divided among Romanian, Ukrainian, Polish, as well as other languages. From the religious point of view, the population consisted of Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Evangelical Lutheran, Greek Catholic, as well as other minor religions; the county's urban population consisted of 19,850 inhabitants, ethnically divided among Romanians, Germans, Poles, as well as other ethnic minorities. As a mother tongue in the urban population, Romanian predominated, followed by German, Ukrainian, Polish, as well as other minor spoken languages. From the religious point of view, the urban population consisted of 60.6% Eastern Orthodox, 18.8% Jewish, 15.3% Roman Catholic, 2.0% Greek Catholic, 1.7% Evangelical Lutheran, 0.7% Baptist, as well as other confessional minorities. The predominant industries/economic sectors in the county are as follows: Lumber - producing the greatest land mass of forests in Romania Food and Cooking Mechanical components Construction materials Mining Textile and leatherSuceava occupies the first place among the Romanian cities with most the commercial spaces per inhabitant.
Notable supermarket chains correlated with the aforementioned economic areas: Metro, Auchan, Selgros and Lidl. Suceava has been designated "European destination of excellence" by the European Commission. Suceava is ranked 3rd in Romania regarding the tourist accommodation capacity; the main touristic attractions of the county are: The city of Suceava with its medieval fortifications.
The Banat Mountains are a number of mountain ranges in Romania, considered part of the Western Romanian Carpathians mountain range. The Banat Mountains consist of: the Banat Mountains per se, which include: the Semenic Mountains the Locva Mountains the Anina Mountains and the Dognecea Mountains Almăj Mountains the Timiş-Cerna Gap, incl. Almăj Depression, which divide the Banat Mountains from the Southern Carpathians Caraş Hills
The Karaš or Caraș is a 110-kilometre long river in the Banat region of Vojvodina and Romania and a left tributary of the Danube. In Roman times the river was known as Apo, from a Thracian word meaning "water"; the Caraș originates in the Anina Mountains, northeast of the town of Anina, close to the sources of the Bârzava and Nera rivers. It runs through Romania for 50 kilometres, flowing to the north in its early reaches before turning southwest at the town of Carașova where it receives many short tributaries, most notably, the left tributary of the Lișava passes many villages including before it enters the Serbian province of Vojvodina. Right after crossing the border, the Karaš receives its two major tributaries, the Borugu from the right, the Vicinic from the left, it passes the villages of Kuštilj, Dobričevo, Straža and Jasenovo and reaches the eastern side of the Deliblatska Peščara and Dumača hill, the easternmost side of the Hills of Zagajica. From this point, the Karaš is channeled and incorporated into the last part of the Danube-Tisa Canal.
It runs alongside the villages of Dupljaja, Grebenac and Banatska Palanka before it ends its 60-kilometre course through Serbia, emptying into the Danube near the village of Stara Palanka, across from the tourist resort of Ram. The Karaš drains an area of 1,400 square kilometres and although it has been channeled it is not navigable. In Romania: Caraşova, Ticvaniu Mare, Grădinari, Vărădia, Vrani In Serbia: Kuštilj, Dobričevo, Straža, Dupljaja, Kajtasovo, Banatska Palanka, Stara Palanka The following are tributaries of the Karaš: Left: Buhui, Raicovacea, Șereniac, Gârliște, Jitin, Lișava, Vicinic Right: Izvoru Mare, Jervanu Mare, Gelug, Barcheș, Ciornovăț, Borugu Krašovani or Karašani, are people of South Slavic origin, settled around the town of Caraşova in the river's upper course. Known as good farmers and craftsmen with an estimated number of 20,000 after World War II. Mala Prosvetina Enciklopedija, Third edition. Marković: Enciklopedijski geografski leksikon Jugoslavije.
Hungarians in Romania
The Hungarian minority of Romania is the largest ethnic minority in Romania, consisting of 1,227,623 people and making up 6.1% of the total population, according to the 2011 census. Most ethnic Hungarians of Romania live in areas that were, before the 1920 Treaty of Trianon, parts of Hungary. Encompassed in a region known as Transylvania, the most prominent of these areas is known as Székely Land, where Hungarians comprise the majority of the population, comprising Harghita and Covasna counties and parts of Mureș county. Transylvania includes the historic regions of Banat, Crișana and Maramureș. There are forty-one counties of Romania; the Hungarian tribes originated in the vicinity of the Ural Mountains, arrived in the territory formed by present-day Romania during the 9th century from Etelköz or Atelkuzu. Due to various circumstances, the Magyar tribes crossed the Carpathians around 895 AD and occupied the Carpathian Basin without significant resistance from the local populace; the precise date of the conquest of Transylvania is not known.
While the Kingdom of Hungary emerged around 1000 AD the conquest of Transylvania was not completed until the late 12th century according to a historical theory. In 1526, at the Battle of Mohács, the forces of the Ottoman Empire annihilated the Hungarian army and in 1571 Transylvania became an autonomous state, under the Ottoman suzerainty; the Principality of Transylvania was governed by its parliament. The Transylvanian Diet consisted of three Estates: the Hungarian nobility. With the defeat of the Ottomans at the Battle of Vienna in 1683, the Habsburg Empire began to impose their rule on the autonomous Transylvania. From 1711 onward, after the conclusion of Rákóczi's War for Independence, Habsburg control over Transylvania was consolidated, the princes of Transylvania were replaced with Habsburg imperial governors. In 1765 the Grand Principality of Transylvania was proclaimed, consolidating the special separate status of Transylvania within the Habsburg Empire, established by the Diploma Leopoldinum in 1691.
The Hungarian historiography sees this as a mere formality. Within the Habsburg Empire, Transylvania was administratively part of Kingdom of Hungary. After quashing the 1848 revolution, the Habsburg Empire imposed a repressive regime on Hungary and ruled Transylvania directly through a military governor. Habsburgs granted citizenship to ethnic Romanians. However, in the compromise of 1867, which established the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the special status of Transylvania ended and it became a province under the control of the Kingdom of Hungary. Hungarian becomes the official language and a policy of Magyarization was applied to the various ethnic groups in Transylvania. Following defeat in World War I, Austria-Hungary disintegrated; the ethnic Romanian majority in Transylvania elected representatives, who proclaimed Union with Romania on 1 December 1918. With the conclusion of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles, formally signed in June 1919, recognized the sovereignty of Kingdom of Romania over Transylvania as a historic fact.
The Treaties of St. Germain and Trianon further elaborated the status of Transylvania and defined the new border between the states of Hungary and Romania; as a result, the more than 1.5 million Hungarian minority of Transylvania found itself becoming a minority group within Romania. In August 1940, during the Second World War, the northern half of Transylvania was annexed to Hungary by the second Second Vienna Award. Historian Keith Hitchins summarizes the situation created by the award: Some 1,150,000 to 1,300,000 Romanians, or 48 per cent to over 50 per cent of the population of the ceded territory, depending upon whose statistics are used, remained north of the new frontier, while about 500,000 Hungarians continued to reside in the south; the Treaty of Paris after the end of the Second World War overturned the Vienna Award, the territory of northern Transylvania was returned to Romania. The post-World War II borders with Hungary agreed on at the Treaty of Paris were identical with those set out in 1920.
After the war, in 1952, a Magyar Autonomous Region was created in Romania by the communist authorities. The region was dissolved in 1968, when a new administrative organization of the country replaced regions with counties; the communist authorities, after Nicolae Ceaușescu's regime came to power, restarted the policy of Romanianization. Today, "Transylvania proper" is included within the Romanian counties of Alba, Bistrița-Năsăud, Brașov, Covasna, Hunedoara, Mureș, Sălaj and Sibiu. In addition to "Transylvania proper", modern Transylvania includes part of the Banat. In the
Romtelecom was the largest telecommunications company in Romania. The Romanian state had a minority stake of 45.99% in the company. The company had a monopoly for the provision of fixed telephony services until January 1, 2003. According to the OTE Group 2006 1st Quarter Results Press Release, Romtelecom has 3,835,647 fixed telephony lines, down from 4,279,038 at the end of 1st quarter 2005; as of 24 March 2013 when Zapp network operating on CDMA was closed down, Romtelecom remained with the only CDMA network in the country until 1 January 2015 when the network was shut down, putting an end to CDMA technology in the country. In 1930, Societatea Anonimă Română de Telefoane was founded, more than 90% of its value being a foreign investment from ITT. During this period, SART commissioned a historic building in Bucharest. Although the building has suffered from several earthquakes and a bombardment, it is still standing, has undergone a process of reconstruction and reconsolidation. In 1949, SART was nationalised and turned into a division of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications.
The slow pace of technological development that ensued was in accordance with a more general trend in the country during the Communist period, which lasted until 1989. In December 1989, ROM-POST-TELECOM was created as a post and telecommunications operator, independent of the Ministry; the current name of Romtelecom was given after a reorganization in July 1991, when the state-owned company was given the monopoly for basic telecommunications services. In 1997 a share of 35% was sold the Greek company OTE. A corruption case arose around details of this privatisation, but no measures were taken. OTE has since acquired an additional 18% of the shares and has thus become the majority share holder of the company. In April 2009 Romtelecom launched first CDMA 420 MHz network in the country under the brand "Clicknet Mobile". Romtelecom owns 30% of the Cosmote România mobile phone operator, as well as 100% of the internet provider "Clicknet.ro", the television digital satellite platform Dolce and CyberHost data center facilities.
Official website S. A. R de T. Embossing on glass insulator of telephone lines. S. A. R. de T. company's and CFR's old openwire telephone network. Photos, historical information
Alba County is a county of Romania, in Transylvania, its capital city being Alba-Iulia with a population of 63,536. "Alba", meaning "white" in Latin and Romanian, is derived from the name of the city of Alba Iulia. In Hungarian, the county is known as Fehér megye, in German as Kreis Karlsburg. In October 31, 2011, it had a population of 327,224 and the population density was 52/km². Romanians - 89.9% Hungarians - 4.8% Romani - 4.7% Germans - 0.2% This county has a total area of 6,242 km², with mountains occupying about 59% of its surface. In the northwestern part there are the Apuseni Mountains, in the southern part there is the northeastern side of the Parâng group - Șureanu and Cindrel Mountains. In the east there is the Transylvanian Plateau with wide valleys; the three main elements are separated by the Mureș River valley. The main rivers are the Mureș River and its tributaries, the Târnava, the Sebeș and the Arieș. Sibiu County and Mureș County in the East. Bihor County and Arad County in the West.
Cluj County in the North. Hunedoara County in the South-West; the predominant industries in the county are: Food industry. Textile industry. Wood industry. Mechanical components. Paper and packaging materials industry. Chemical industry; the mineral resources exploited in Alba county are metals and construction materials: marble, etc. The main tourist attractions in the county are: The city of Alba Iulia; the Apuseni Mountains. Scărișoara Karst Complex. Maidens' Fair on the Găina Mountain. "The Hill With Snails" west of Vidra. Barren Detunata and Shaggy Detunata The Câlnic Castle and the Castle of Gârbova; the Towns and Churches of Sebeș and Aiud. The Ocna Mureș Resort; the Țara Moților ethnographical area. Situated in the Apuseni Mountains, Țara Moților is a region with strong Romanian traditions. Rosia Montana Mining Cultural Landscape - Mining began 2000 years ago on Mt. Kirnik, with well-preserved Roman galleries. A Canadian company attempted an open-pit mine, but abandoned the project around 2007. Roșia Montană is a famous locality among mineral collectors for fine native gold specimens.
The Alba County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 33 counselors, with the following party composition: Alba County has 4 municipalities, 7 towns and 67 communes. Municipalities Aiud Alba Iulia - county seat. After the administrative unification law in 1925, the name of the county changed to Alba County and the territory was reorganized, it was bordered on the west by Hunedoara County, to the north by Turda County, to the east by the counties of Sibiu and Târnava-Mică. Its territory included the central part of the current Alba County; the county consisted of seven districts: Plasa Abrud Plasa Aiud Plasa Ighiu Plasa Ocna Mureș Plasa Sebeș Plasa Teiuș Plasa Vințu de Jos Subsequently, Plasa Ighiu was abolished and two other districts were established, leaving these: Plasa Abrud Plasa Aiud Plasa Alba Iulia Plasa Ocna Mureș Plasa Sebeș Plasa Teiuș Plasa Vințu de Jos Plasa Zlatna There were four towns: Alba-Iulia, Abrud and Sebeș. According to the census data of 1930, the county's population was 212,749, of which 81.5% were Romanians, 11.3% Hungarians, 3.6% Germans, 1.8% Romanies, 1.4% Jews, as well as other minorities.
In the religious aspect, the population consisted of 50.1% Eastern Orthodox, 31.6% Greek Catholics, 7.5% Reformed, 3.4% Roman Catholics, 3.3% Evangelical, 1.2% Unitarians, other minorities. In 1930, the urban population of the county was 33,365, of which 58.8% were Romanians, 23.0% Hungarians, 8.2% Germans, 6.2% Jews, 1.6% Romanies, as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view, the urban population was made up of 38.3% Eastern Orthodox, 21.4% Greek Catholic, 14.7% Reformed, 7.2% Evangelical, 6.5% Jewish, as well as other minorities. After the 1938 Administrative and Constitutional Reform, this county merged with the counties of Ciuc, Sibiu, Târnava Mare, Târnava Micǎ to form Ținutul Mureș; the county was re-established in 1940, but dissolved again in 1950. It was re-established in 1968 in its current borders. Notable natives include: Ion Agârbiceanu Lucian Blaga Avram Iancu Alba County on memoria.ro