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The Carabinieri are the national gendarmerie of Italy who carry out domestic policing duties. It is one of Italy's main law enforcement agencies, alongside the Polizia di Stato and the Guardia di Finanza; as with the Guardia di Finanza but in contrast to the Polizia di Stato, the Carabinieri are a military force. As the fourth branch of the Italian Armed Forces, they come under the authority of the Ministry of Defence. In practice, there is a significant overlap between the jurisdiction of the Polizia di Stato and Carabinieri, who are contacted on separate emergency telephone numbers. Unlike the Polizia di Stato, the Carabinieri have responsibility for policing the military, a number of members participate in military missions abroad, they were founded as the police force of the Kingdom of Sardinia, the forerunner of the Kingdom of Italy. During the process of Italian unification, the Carabinieri were appointed as the "First Force" of the new national military organisation. Although the Carabinieri assisted in the suppression of opposition during the rule of Benito Mussolini, they were responsible for his downfall and many units were disbanded during World War II by Nazi Germany, which resulted in large numbers of Carabinieri joining the Italian resistance movement.

In 2001, they were separated from the Army to become a separate branch of the Italian Armed Forces. Carabinieri have policing powers that can be exercised at any time and in any part of the country, they are always permitted to carry their assigned weapon as personal equipment; the Carabinieri are referred to as "La Benemerita" as they are a trusted and prestigious law enforcement institution in Italy. The first official account of the use of this term to refer to the Carabinieri dates back to June 24, 1864. Inspired by the French Gendarmerie, the corps was created by King Victor Emmanuel I of Savoy with the aim of providing the Kingdom of Sardinia with a police corps. Police duties were managed by the Dragoni di Sardegna Corps, created in 1726 and composed of volunteers. After French soldiers had occupied Turin at the end of the 18th century and abandoned it to the Kingdom of Piedmont, the Royal Carabinieri Corps was instituted under the Royal Patents of 13 July 1814; the name derives from the French word carabinier, meaning "soldier armed with a carbine."The new force was divided into divisions on the scale of one division for each province.

The divisions were further divided into companies and subdivided into lieutenancies, which commanded and coordinated the local police stations and were distributed throughout the national territory in direct contact with the public. In 1868, the Corazzieri was formed – as an escort of honour for the sovereign, since 1946 for the President of the Republic; the Italian unification saw the number of divisions increased, on 24 January 1861 the Carabinieri were appointed the "First Force" of the new national military organization. In May 1915 Italian troops marched to encompass South Tyrol, territory of their former allies the Austro-Hungarian empire, in the Fronte italiano campaign; the defenders had sufficient time to prepare strong fortifications there, in the Carso theatre to the east, the Italian regiments, under overall command of General Cadorna, found themselves repulsed in harsh fighting. The role of the Carabinieri was to act as barrier troops, setting up machine gun posts to control the rear of the attacking regiments and prevent desertion.

During the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini, the Carabinieri were one of the police forces entrusted with suppressing opposition in Italy. During the same period, while part of the Italian African Police, they were involved in atrocities in colonial Italian East Africa during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. During World War II they fought in their function as military police against the Allied forces, against Yugoslav partisans as part of the Italian occupation force in Yugoslavia. After Mussolini was voted out of office on 25 July 1943, on the orders of the king he was arrested by the Carabinieri as he left the king's private residence in Rome and subsequently imprisoned on Campo Imperatore by Carabinieri forces. After the armistice between Italy and the Allies on 3 September 1943 and the country's split into the fascist Italian Social Republic in the north and the Kingdom of Italy in the south, the Carabinieri split into two groups. In southern Italy the Carabinieri Command for Liberated Italy was founded in Bari, mobilizing new units for the Italian war of liberation.

These units were attached to the Italian Liberation Corps and the six Italian Combat Groups of the Italian Co-Belligerent Army, fighting with the Allied forces. In northern Italy the fascist regime organized the Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana, to employ it as a military police and rapid-deployment anti-guerilla force. GNR was joined by the Black Brigades which represented a new militant incarnation of the Fascist party. Due to the role the Carabinieri had played in the downfall of Mussolini, since one of the few units which fought the German occupation of Rome were the Granatieri di Sardegna regiments and the II Carabinieri cadet battalion, the Germans did not view the Carabinieri as loyal to the fascist cause, They disarmed the force and began the deportation of 8,000 officers to Germany for forced labour on 6 October 1943. Subs

Jacques de Baerze

Jacques de Baerze was a Flemish sculptor in wood, two of whose major carved altarpieces survive in Dijon, now in France the capital of the Duchy of Burgundy. De Baerze came from Ghent, lived in Dendermonde some thirty kilometres away, not far from Antwerp and Brussels, he was a well-established master before the death in January 1384 of the local ruler, Louis II of Flanders, Duke of Brabant, as two commissions from Louis to produce carved altarpieces are recorded, though the works have not survived. These were for the chapel of the castle of Dendermonde, the hospice of the Cistercian abbey of Bijloke just outside Ghent; these works were noticed by Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, Louis' son-in-law and successor as Count of Flanders. In 1385 Philip had founded a Carthusian monastery, the Charterhouse of Champmol just outside Dijon, as the dynastic burial-place of the Burgundian Valois, was filling it with impressive works of art. In 1390, he commissioned de Baerze to create two similar altarpieces for Champmol: one, now known as the Altar of Saints and Martyrs for the chapter house, the larger, now known as the Retable of the Crucifixion, for the main altar of the church.

Both are triptychs with hinged wings, carved on the interior, but the exterior panels, showing when the wings were closed, were to be painted by his court artist Melchior Broederlam — a common arrangement for a grand altarpiece. These painted; the triptychs would be shown closed, displaying the paintings, but opened to show the carvings for feast days. The iconography of the two artists' elements was designed to complement each other, with a painted sequence of scenes from the Infancy of Christ and within, carved scenes of the Adoration of the Magi, the Crucifixion in the centre, the Entombment of Christ, flanked by saints on the inside of the side-panels. Above there is elaborate Gothic tracery with small figures of angels; the whole of both works is either painted. The Altar of Saints and Martyrs is 159 cm high, 252 cm wide with the wings open. For the Retable of the Crucifixion the equivalent figures are 252 cm; the retables were transported to Dijon from Dendermonde in August 1391, but were returned to Flanders a year later.

There, the painting and gilding was finished by Broederlam at his studio in Ypres. They were returned to Champmol, approved by a committee including Claus Sluter, installed by the end of 1399, after which de Baerze disappears from documented records; the altarpieces were moved after the French Revolution to the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon, along with the Broederlam panels, which now, unlike at the time of their creation, receive more attention than the carvings, as they are of great significance in the development of Early Netherlandish painting, painting is of greater interest to modern art historians than sculpture. De Baerze's two retables are the earliest Netherlandish examples to survive complete, although there were evidently many more such works in existence by this date, the form developed first in the Low Countries. With hardly any works from the period to compare to those in Dijon, it is hard to assess the originality of de Baerze, or his place in the tradition, though he participates in the International Gothic style of the period.

Most of his work was for local churches and religious houses. In fact the iconoclasm after the Reformation was so destructive of Netherlandish wood-carved altars that only a few fragments survive there from the following eighty years, while Germany has many examples. Other smaller carvings attributed to de Baerze survive, including the 28 cm high figure from an altar crucifix which formed part of the Champmol commission, now in the Art Institute of Chicago, a St George in the Mimara Museum in Zagreb

Millennium Cohort Study (United States)

The Millennium Cohort Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study headquartered at the Naval Health Research Center in San Diego and designed to evaluate any long-term health effects of military service, including deployments. It is the largest population-based prospective health project in US military history collecting data on over 200,000 enrolled participants. Investigators that conduct the Millennium Cohort Study include uniformed and non-uniformed scientists from the Army, Air Force, Department of Veterans Affairs and academic institutions. After the 1991 Gulf War, the United States Department of Defense recognized the need to collect prospective exposure and health information that may be associated with the long-term health of service members; the Millennium Cohort Study was designed to address that need. Pilot studies were conducted in 2000; the most methodologically rigorous epidemiological study on American military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan is funded by the US Department of Defense, supported by military, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, civilian researchers.

Over 200,000 military personnel are members of the cohort. The Millennium Cohort Study began with a random sample of US Military members including active duty and National Guard members from all services. Surveys are sent to this representative sample of US military personnel every three years until 2022, through email and the United States Postal Service, requesting that they submit their data online or via the mail service. 42% of Millennium Cohort participants have left military service and the study will continue to follow all participants through their Active duty, National Guard careers and civilian endeavors. Prospective data analyses are underway to assess health outcomes including Suicide, Posttraumatic stress disorder, hypertension, respiratory symptoms and illness, immune responses, chronic multi-symptom illness, CHD and CVD, modifiable health behaviors such as smoking, alcohol use and physical activity that may be associated with deployment in support of the current wars. More than 60% of Millennium Cohort participants have deployed in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

In 2011 the Millennium Cohort Study was expanded to include 10,000 spouses of Millennium Cohort members. The substudy, The Millennium Cohort Family Study's goal is to gain a more complete understanding of the military experience and its resultant impact on the health and well-being of service members and their families. Rush, Toni. "Obesity and associated adverse health outcomes among US military members and veterans: Findings from the millennium cohort study". Obesity. 24: 1582–1589. Doi:10.1002/oby.21513. PMID 27345964. Riddle JR, Smith TC, Smith B, Corbeil TE, Engel CC, Wells TS, Hoge CW, Adkins J, Zamorski M, Blazer D for the Millennium Cohort Study Team.. "Millennium Cohort: The 2001–2003 baseline prevalence of mental disorders in the U. S. Military". Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 60: 192–201. Doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2006.04.008. PMID 17208126. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Tyler C Smith, Mark Zamorski, Besa Smith, James R Riddle, Cynthia A LeardMann, Timothy S Wells, Charles C Engel, Charles W Hoge, Joyce Adkins, Dan Blaze and the Millennium Cohort Study Team.

"The physical and mental health of a large military cohort: Baseline functional health status of the Millennium Cohort". BMC Public Health. 7: 340. Doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-340. PMC 2212642. PMID 18039387. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter Tyler C Smith, Margaret A K Ryan, Deborah L Wingard, Donald J Slymen, James F Sallis, Donna Kritz-Silverstein for the Millennium Cohort Study Team. "New onset and persistent symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder self reported after deployment and combat exposures: Prospective population based US military cohort study". BMJ. 336: 366–71. Doi:10.1136/bmj.39430.638241. AE. PMC 2244768. PMID 18198395. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter Official Millennium Cohort Study website Millennium Cohort Study Publications Millennium Cohort Endorsements Naval Health Research Center home page

Benjamin Mancroft, 3rd Baron Mancroft

Benjamin Lloyd Stormont Mancroft, 3rd Baron Mancroft, is a British peer and Conservative Party politician. Mancroft was born on 16 May 1957, he is the son of the 2nd Baron Diana Lloyd. He was educated at an all-boys public school in Berkshire. Between 1987 and 1998, Mancroft was Joint Master of the Vale of the White Horse Hunt and was chair of Addiction Recovery Foundation from 1989 to 2006, patron until 2014, he was director of Phoenix House Housing Association from 1991 to 1996 and vice-chairman from 1992 to 1996. He was further deputy chair of the British Field Sports Society from 1992 and 1997, President of the Alliance of Independent Retailers from 1996 to 2000 and was chair of the Drug and Alcohol Foundation from 1994 to 2005. Director of Countryside Alliance 1997, vice-chair 2005, chair 2013– 2015, he has been chair of the Standing Conference on Countryside Sports & Wildlife Management since 2009, chair of the Masters of FoxHounds Association since 2014. He has been president of the Lotteries Council since 2005.

He takes an active part in fox hunting. Mancroft was chair of Inter Lotto Ltd from 1995 until 2004, chair of Scratch-n-Win Lotteries from 1995 to 1998, he was director of St Martin's Magazines plc from 1995 to 2005 and director and vice chair of Rok Mobile Ltd from 2003 to 2007, Rok Corporation since 2003 and VP of Rok Mobile Inc 2007– 2012. From 2006 to 2009, he was chair of New Media Lottery Services PLC, listed on AIM in 2006, he was director of DJI Holdings Ltd 2008–2016, chair 2008 – 2013, director of BNN Technology PLC from 2015, chair PYX Financial Group 2013 – 2015 and chair Landtrader Ltd from 2017. In 1987, he became the 3rd Baron Mancroft, he sits as a Conservative. In 1999, he was one of the ninety hereditary peers elected to remain in the House of Lords after the House of Lords Act 1999. Lord Mancroft has been married to Emma Peart, daughter of Thomas Peart and his wife Gabriel, since 20 September 1990. Georgia Esmé Mancroft The Hon. Arthur Louis Stormont Mancroft The Hon. Maximilian Michael Mancroft In February 2008, Mancroft claimed that NHS nurses who had treated him at the Royal United Hospital in Bath were "grubby and promiscuous".

The hospital's Chief Executive, James Scott, called the accusations "damaging and distressing", requested that the peer retract them. Mancroft refused to apologise. "DodOnline". Archived from the original on 8 December 2006. Retrieved 31 December 2006

Circumferential Road 2

Circumferential Road 2 is a 2-12 lane network of roads and segments that altogether form the second circumferential road that acts as a beltway of the City of Manila. It is the Second Circumferential Road, labeled C-2 in the Manila Arterial Road System, it is a route running inside the city of Manila proper, passing through the Tondo, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa, Paco and Malate districts. The development of the major road network in Manila was first conceived in the Metropolitan Thoroughfare Plan of 1945, predicting that the metropolis in the 1940s will expand further to the shorelines of Laguna de Bay; the plan proposed the laying of circumferential roads 1 to 6 and radial roads 1 to 10. Since roads were existing, the concept was to just connect short road segments to form C-2. To be joined are Calle Capulong, Calle Tayuman, Governor Forbes, Calle Nagtahan found north of the Pasig River, Calle Canonigo in the south bank of the Pasig; the Nagtahan Bridge - the widest bridge crossing the Pasig River upon construction end in 1963 until the Guadalupe Bridge was built - connected these two sections.

The older roads date back to the early 19th century under Spanish rule. Calle Canonigo was laid out to connect Plaza Dilao / Paco railroad station to Calle Isaac Peral; the road perpendicular to Canonigo leading to Pasig River was a narrow street called Calle Luengo in Pandacan. A 1934 map of Manila by the YMCA shows Calle Tayuman starts at Calle Sande / Juan Luna and ends near the San Lazaro Hippodrome; the road connects to Calle Governor Forbes which stretches until Calle Lealtad. Calle Nagtahan connects the Santa Mesa Rotonda up to the Pasig River. South of the Pasig, only Calle Canonigo was existing. Harrison Boulevard was built during the Commonwealth period to connect Calle Herrán to Dewey Boulevard. Calle Luego was extended to Calle Herran. Known as the C-2 Road, Capulong Street starts from Mel Lopez Boulevard and ends in Juan Luna Street, it becomes the Tayuman Street after crossing the road. It is the main thoroughfare of the Tondo district of Manila. Tayuman Street is a 4-lane main thoroughfare of the districts of Santa Cruz Districts.

It starts from the Juan Luna Street, ends in a junction with Lacson Avenue. The entire road is considered as a part of the C-2 Road. Starts from the junction of Tayuman Street and Andalucia Street and ends in the Nagtahan Interchange, skirting the old San Lazaro Hippodrome. Is the main section connecting Lacson Avenue via the Mabini Bridge in Santa Mesa to Roxas Boulevard in Malate. Intersections indicated in bold are intersections with stoplights. Mel Lopez Boulevard Raxa Bago Street Juan Luna Street Abad Santos Avenue Rizal Avenue Aragon Street, Alfonso Mendoza Street Laong Laan Road, Dimasalang Road Dapitan Street España Boulevard M. Earnshaw Street Nagtahan Interchange: junctions of J. P. Laurel Street, Legarda Street, Magsaysay Boulevard and Lacson Avenue, triple grade separations. P. M. Guazon, Jesus Street Tomas Claudio Street Plaza Dilao Partial Roundabout Pedro Gil Street, Pasig Line South Luzon Expressway junction NB San Andres Street/Taft Avenue Adriatico Street A. Mabini/Harrison Avenue Roxas Boulevard EDSA Roxas Boulevard Major Roads in Metro Manila South Luzon Expressway C-3 Road 바카라사이트


Karandighi is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Islampur subdivision of Uttar Dinajpur district in the Indian state of West Bengal. The western frontier of ancient Pundravardhana kingdom, bordering ancient Anga of Mahabharat fame, the Dinajpur area remained somewhat obscure in the major empires that held sway over the region and beyond till the rise of the Dinajpur Raj during the Mughal period; some areas forming a part of Uttar Dinajpur were parts of kingdoms in Nepal. Dinajpur district was constituted by the British in 1786, with a portion of the estate of Dinajpur Raj. Subsequent to the Permanent Settlement in 1793, the semi-independent Dinajpur Raj was further broken down and some of its tracts were transferred to the neighbouring British districts of Purnea, Malda and Bogra. In 1947, the Radcliffe Line placed the Sadar and Thakurgaon subdivisions of Dinajpur district in East Pakistan; the Balurghat subdivision of Dinajpur district was reconstituted as West Dinajpur district in West Bengal.

Raiganj subdivision was formed in 1948. In order to restore territorial links between northern and southern parts of West Bengal, snapped during the partition of Bengal, on the recommendations of the States Reorganisation Commission a portion of the erstwhile Kishanganj subdivision comprising Goalpokhar and Chopra thanas and parts of Thakurganj thana, along with the adjacent parts of the erstwhile Gopalpur thana in Katihar subdivision were transferred from Purnea district in Bihar to West Bengal in 1956, were formally incorporated into Raiganj subdivision in West Dinajpur; the township of Kishanganj and its entire municipal boundary remained within Bihar. Islampur subdivision was formed in March 1959. At the same time, the portion of Chopra PS lying to the north of the Mahananda river covering an area that now comprises Bidhannagar-1 gram panchayat, Bidhannagar-2 GP, Chathat-Bansgaon GP and the southern half of Phansidewa-Bansgaon Kismat GP in Darjeeling district, was transferred from West Dinajpur to the jurisdiction of Phansidewa PS in Darjeling district.

With the introduction of the Community Development Programme in 1960-61, community development blocks were set up in West Dinajpur district. In 1992, West Dinajpur district was bifurcated and Uttar Dinajpur district was established. Karandighi is located at Uttar Dinajpur district of India; the latitude 22.57 and longitude 88.36 are the geocoordinate of the Karandighi. Uttar Dinajpur district has a flat topography and slopes from north to south. All rivers flow in that direction. Except for the eastern fringes of Chopra CD Block, most of the district is a part of the catchment area of the Mahanada and a part of the larger Barind Tract; the soil is composed of different varieties of alluvium. The main rivers are: Nagar, Kulik, Gamari and Tangon; the rivers have little water in the dry season but with heavy rains, during monsoon, overflow the banks. The Nagar River flows along the international border with Bangladesh and forms the boundary between Karandighi and Raiganj CD Blocks. Sudan river flows through Karandighi CD Block.

Karandighi CD Block is bounded by Goalpokhar I and Goalpokhar II CD Blocks on the north, Haripur Upazila in Thakurgaon District of Bangladesh and Raiganj CD Block on the east, Balrampur CD Block in Katihar district of Bihar on the south and Balrampur CD Block and Baisi and Amour CD Blocks in Purnia district of Bihar on the west. 206 km of the India-Bangladesh border is in Uttar Dinajpur district. It covers the eastern boundary of the district. On the western side Uttar Dinajpur district has 227 km boundary with Bihar. Karandighi CD Block has an area of 390.52 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 13 gram panchayats, 212 gram sansads, 214 mouzas and 200 inhabited villages. Karandighi police station serves this block. Headquarters of this CD Block is at Karandighi. Uttar Dinajpur district is one of the smaller districts in the state and stands 15th in terms of area in the state. Gram panchayats of Karandighi block/ panchayat samiti are: Altapur I, Altapur II, Rasakhowa I, Rasakhowa II, Bazargaon I, Bazargaon II, Domohona, Karandighi I, Karandighi II, Lahutara I, Lahutara II, Raniganj.

As per the 2011 Census of India, Karandighi CD Block had a total population of 368,332, all of which were rural. There were 179,760 females. Population below 6 years was 66,984. Scheduled Castes numbered 107,936 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 28,773. In the 2001 census, Karandighi community development bloc had a population of 318,793, of which 163,876 were males and 154,917 were females. Decadal growth for the period 1991 to 2001 was 38.53%, against 28,72% for Uttar Dinajpur district. Large villages in Karandighi CD Block were: Bagela, Bhulki, Rautara, Khanta, Bajargaon, Kochra, Sabdhan, Sohar, Jujhapur and Raghopur. Other villages in Karandighi CD Block included: Altapur. Decadal Population Growth Rate Note: The CD Block data for 1971-1981, 1981-1991 and 1991-2001 is for Karandighi PS covering the block The decadal growth of population in Karandighi CD Block in 2001-2011 was 15.51%. The decadal growth of population in Karandighi PS in 1991-2001 was 30.57%, in 1981-91 was 36.03% and in 1971-81 was 38.40%.

The decadal growth rate of population in Uttar Dinajpur district was as follows: 30.2% in 1971-81, 34.0% in 1981-91, 28.7% in 1991-20