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Caramel is a medium to dark-orange confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars. It can be used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts, as a filling in bonbons, or as a topping for ice cream and custard; the process of caramelization consists of heating sugar to around 170 °C. As the sugar heats, the molecules break down and re-form into compounds with a characteristic color and flavor. A variety of candies, desserts and confections are made with caramel: brittles, pralines, flan, crème brûlée, crème caramel, caramel apples. Ice creams sometimes contain swirls of caramel; the English word comes from French caramel, borrowed from Spanish caramelo, itself from Portuguese caramel. Most that comes from Late Latin calamellus'sugar cane', a diminutive of calamus'reed, cane', itself from Greek κάλαμος. Less it comes from a Medieval Latin cannamella, from canna'cane' + mella'honey'; some dictionaries connect it to an Arabic kora-moħalláh'ball of sweet'. Caramel sauce is made by mixing caramelized sugar with cream.

Depending on the intended application, additional ingredients such as butter, fruit purees, liquors, or vanilla can be used. Caramel sauce is used in a variety of desserts as a topping for ice cream; when it is used for crème caramel or flan, it is known as clear caramel and only contains caramelized sugar and water. Butterscotch sauce is made with dark brown sugar, a splash of whiskey. Traditionally, butterscotch is a hard candy more in line with a toffee. Toffee, sometimes called "caramel candy", is a soft, chewy candy made by boiling a mixture of milk or cream, glucose and vanilla; the sugar and glucose are heated separately to reach 130 °C. The mixture is stirred and reheated until it reaches 120 °C. Upon completion of cooking, vanilla or any additional flavorings and salt are added. Adding the vanilla or flavorings earlier would result in them burning off at the high temperatures. Adding salt earlier in the process would result in inverting the sugars as they cooked. Alternatively, all ingredients may be cooked together.

In this procedure, the mixture is not heated above the firm ball stage, so that caramelization of the milk occurs. This temperature is not high enough to caramelize sugar and this type of candy is called milk caramel or cream caramel. Salted caramel is a noticeably salty variant, it was invented in 1977 by the French pastry chef Henri Le Roux in Quiberon, Brittany, in the form of a salted butter caramel with crushed nuts, using the famous Breton demi-sel butter. It was named the "Best Candy in France" at the Paris Salon International de la Confiserie in 1980. In the late 1990s, the Parisian pastry chef Pierre Hermé introduced his salted butter and caramel macaroons and, by 2000, high-end chefs started adding a bit of salt to caramel and chocolate dishes, it was only in 2008, that it took off and entered the mass market, when Häagen-Dazs and Starbucks started selling it. Caramel, cooked to 232 °F for 20-40 minutes offers the chewing characteristics that are enjoyed by consumers. Utilised in desserts, the confection has seen wide use elsewhere, including in hot chocolate and spirits such as vodka.

Its popularity may come from its effects on the reward systems of the human brain, resulting in "hedonic escalation". Caramel colouring, a dark, bitter liquid, is the concentrated product of near total caramelization, used commercially as food and beverage colouring, e.g. in cola. Caramelization is the removal of water from a sugar, proceeding to isomerization and polymerization of the sugars into various high-molecular-weight compounds. Compounds such as difructose anhydride may be created from the monosaccharides after water loss. Fragmentation reactions result in low-molecular-weight compounds that may be volatile and may contribute to flavor. Polymerization reactions lead to larger-molecular-weight compounds that contribute to the dark-brown color. In modern recipes and in commercial production, glucose or invert sugar is added to prevent crystallization, making up 10%–50% of the sugars by mass. "Wet caramels" made by heating sucrose and water instead of sucrose alone produce their own invert sugar due to thermal reaction, but not enough to prevent crystallization in traditional recipes.

Four and six tenths tablespoons of commercially prepared butterscotch or caramel topping contain: Calories: 103 Protein: 0.62 Total lipids: 0.04 Carbohydrates, by difference: 27.02 Fiber, total dietary: 0.4 Cholesterol: 0.0 Media related to Caramel at Wikimedia Commons

Henri Lavachery

Henri Alfred Lavachery was a Belgian archaeologist and ethnologist. In 1934, he became the first professional archaeologist to visit Easter Island, was known for his study of its art, he was curator at the Royal Museums of Art and History during the 1940s, founded the Society of Americanists in Belgium in 1928. Lavachery was born in Liège in 1885, received his doctorate in classical philology from the University of Brussels in 1908. Thereafter, he traveled extensively through Europe, participating in various internships, including one at the Frobenius Institute in Frankfurt, another in Paris under the direction of Paul Rivet at the Musée d'Ethnographie du Trocadéro. In 1933, fascinated by the objects created by the Rapa Nui people, Lavachery decided to develop an expedition to Easter Island, with Rivet's support; the expedition took place between July 27, 1934 and January 2, 1935. It was headed by Louis Charles Watelin, a French archaeologist who died during the trip in Tierra del Fuego. Other expedition members included the Swiss anthropologist Alfred Métraux, a Chilean doctor, Dr. Israel Drapkin, who provided leprosy care for affected indigenous people.

The expedition discovered that the island's large stone statues had been made by the ancestors of the current occupants, who were of Polynesian descent, not by members of a prior civilization who had disappeared. Lavachery noted that the island's petroglyphs were sometimes discovered by the trip's explorers and the island dwellers, his observations of the petroglyphs in 1939 suggested a degree of artistic diversity among the creators. According to Thor Heyerdahl, although Lavachery was the only professional archaeologist to have visited the island prior to Heyerdahl's 1950s voyage, Lavachery had not attempted excavations, as the soil appeared too shallow. In the 1930s, Lavachery wrote about the art of the central African Kuba Kingdom, describing it as decorative rather than sculptural; this work was translated from the French to English by novelist Samuel Beckett. In the 1930s at the Palais des Beaux-Arts, Lavachery organized the first major exhibition of African art in Belgium. In 1933, he became the assistant curator at Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels, in 1942, he became Chief Curator, taking over from Jean Capart.

After World War II, Lavachery began to reorganize the institution. He was Professor of non-European art at the Free University of Brussels, as well as a member of the Royal Academies for Science and the Arts of Belgium and its permanent secretary from 1957 to 1960. In addition, he founded the Society of Americanists in Belgium in 1928. Created in 1961, the Prix Henri Lavachery is awarded every five years by the Royal Academy of Belgium for achievements in ethnology. Lavachery was awarded the Grand Officer Order of Leopold, Commander of the Order of the Crown, Medal of the Armed Resistance 1940-1945, Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, he died in Brussels in 1972. Deux fragments de la statuaire monumentale des Mayas Les arts anciens d'Amérique au Musée archéologique de Madrid Enquête sur l'importance respective du marché intérieur et du marché extérieur pour l'industrie belge La mission Franco-Belge dans l'Ile de Paques Contribution à l'étude de l'archéologie de l'île de Pitcairn Sculpteurs modernes de L'lle de Pagues Les pétroglyphes de l'île de Pâques Vie des Polynésiens Les Amériques avant Colomb Art précolombien Tombeau de Georges Marlow Hypothèse pour une évolution primitive des arts plastiques Statuaire de l'Afrique noire Les techniques de protection des biens culturels en cas de conflit armé Anthropology Archaeology Ethnography Easter Island Royal Academies for Science and the Arts of Belgium

William Makepeace Thackeray

William Makepeace Thackeray was a British novelist and illustrator born in India. He is known for his satirical works Vanity Fair, a panoramic portrait of British society, The Luck of Barry Lyndon, adapted for film by Stanley Kubrick. Thackeray, an only child, was born in Calcutta, British India, where his father, Richmond Thackeray, was secretary to the Board of Revenue in the British East India Company, his mother, Anne Becher, was the second daughter of Harriet Becher and John Harman Becher, a secretary for the East India Company. His father was a grandson of headmaster of Harrow School. Richmond died in 1816, which caused Anne to send her son to England that same year, while she remained in British India; the ship on which he travelled made a short stopover at Saint Helena, where the imprisoned Napoleon was pointed out to him. Once in England he was educated at schools in Southampton and Chiswick, at Charterhouse School, where he became a close friend of John Leech. Thackeray disliked Charterhouse, parodied it in his fiction as "Slaughterhouse".

Thackeray was honoured in the Charterhouse Chapel with a monument after his death. Illness in his last year there, during which he grew to his full height of six foot three, postponed his matriculation at Trinity College, until February 1829. Never too keen on academic studies, Thackeray left Cambridge in 1830, but some of his earliest published writing appeared in two university periodicals, The Snob and The Gownsman. Thackeray travelled for some time on the continent, visiting Paris and Weimar, where he met Goethe, he began to study law at the Middle Temple, but soon gave that up. On reaching the age of 21 he came into his inheritance from his father, but he squandered much of it on gambling and on funding two unsuccessful newspapers, The National Standard and The Constitutional, for which he had hoped to write, he lost a good part of his fortune in the collapse of two Indian banks. Forced to consider a profession to support himself, he turned first to art, which he studied in Paris, but did not pursue it, except in years as the illustrator of some of his own novels and other writings.

Thackeray's years of semi-idleness ended after he married, on 20 August 1836, Isabella Gethin Shawe, second daughter of Isabella Creagh Shawe and Matthew Shawe, a colonel who had died after distinguished service in India. The Thackerays had three children, all girls: Anne Isabella and Harriet Marian, who married Sir Leslie Stephen, editor and philosopher. Thackeray now began "writing for his life", as he put it, turning to journalism in an effort to support his young family, he worked for Fraser's Magazine, a sharp-witted and sharp-tongued conservative publication for which he produced art criticism, short fictional sketches, two longer fictional works and The Luck of Barry Lyndon. Between 1837 and 1840 he reviewed books for The Times, he was a regular contributor to The Morning Chronicle and The Foreign Quarterly Review. Through his connection to the illustrator John Leech, he began writing for the newly created magazine Punch, in which he published The Snob Papers collected as The Book of Snobs.

This work popularised the modern meaning of the word "snob". Thackeray was a regular contributor to Punch between 1843 and 1854. Tragedy struck in Thackeray's personal life as his wife, succumbed to depression after the birth of their third child, in 1840. Finding that he could get no work done at home, he spent more and more time away until September 1840, when he realised how grave his wife's condition was. Struck by guilt, he set out with his wife to Ireland. During the crossing she threw herself from a water-closet into the sea, but she was pulled from the waters, they fled back home after a four-week battle with her mother. From November 1840 to February 1842 Isabella was in and out of professional care, as her condition waxed and waned, she deteriorated into a permanent state of detachment from reality. Thackeray sought cures for her, but nothing worked, she ended up in two different asylums in or near Paris until 1845, after which Thackeray took her back to England, where he installed her with a Mrs Bakewell at Camberwell.

Isabella outlived her husband by 30 years, in the end being cared for by a family named Thompson in Leigh-on-Sea at Southend until her death in 1894. After his wife's illness Thackeray became a de facto widower, never establishing another permanent relationship, he did pursue other women, however, in particular Mrs Jane Sally Baxter. In 1851 Mr Brookfield barred Thackeray from further visits to or correspondence with Jane. Baxter, an American twenty years Thackeray's junior whom he met during a lecture tour in New York City in 1852, married another man in 1855. In the early 1840s Thackeray had some success with two travel books, The Paris Sketch Book and The Irish Sketch Book, the latter marked by hostility to Irish Catholics. However, as the book appealed to British prejudices, Thackeray was given the job of being Punch's Irish expert under the pseudonym Hibernis Hibernior, it was Thackeray, in other words, chiefly responsible for Punch's notoriously hostile and condescending depictions of the Irish during the Irish Famine.

Thackeray achieved more recognition with his Snob Papers, but the work that established his fame was the novel Vanity Fair, which first appeared in serialised instalments beginning in Janua

Winter Flies

Winter Flies is a 2018 Czech road movie drama by Slovenian director Olmo Omerzu. It premiered at Karlovy Vary International Film Festival on 1 July 2018. Olmo Omerzu has won a Best Director Award at Karlovy Vary International Film Festival, it was selected as the Czech entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 91st Academy Awards, but it was not nominated. The film follows two boys - Mára and Heduš. Heduš runs away from home, he joins Mára. They drive through countryside in a Mára's car, they meet hitchhiker Bára. Both boys dream about having sex with her but she locks herself in the car during night and boys have to sleep outside. Mára reveals to Heduš that he goes to his grandfather, a retired military officer. Boys get to Mára's grandfather who suffers a heart attack and boys get him to hospital. Mára is arrested by 2 police officers who interrogate him; the film ends. Tomáš Mrvík as Mára Jan František Uher as Heduš Eliška Křenková as Bára Lenka Vlasáková as Policewoman Martin Pechlát as Policeman Petr Pýcha has written radio play inspired by a story he read on an internet.

His play was refused for vulgarity and he decide to rewrite it to a film screenplay. Pýcha decided to ask Omerzu to direct the film. Omerzu started preparations of the film. Casting for main roles took long Omerzu wante non-actors who can find themselves in their characters; the film was shot in North Bohemia. The film premiered at 2018 Karlovy Vary International Film Festival; the film had a journalist projection on 24 August 2018. It was followed by press conference; the film was distributed to Czech cinemas on 4 September 2018 and presented at multiple International film festivals. List of submissions to the 91st Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Czech submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Winter Flies on IMDb

Cut to the Quick

Cut to the Quick is an EP by Redgum. It was released as a record and has never been re-released on CD. "Working Girls" was released on Frontline, "Fabulon", "The Diamantina Drover", "Where Ya Gonna Run To" were included on 1983's Caught in the Act. "Where Ya Gonna Run To" was included on Brown Rice and Kerosine. More in 2004 "Fabulon" and "The Diamantina Drover" were included on the Redgum anthology Against the Grain. "Working Girls" "Fabulon" "The Diamantina Drover" "Where Ya Gonna Run To" Redgum Lyrics Archive - Cut To The Quick

Johnstown flood of 1977

The Johnstown flood of 1977. Nearly twelve inches of rain fell in twenty-four hours. With the failing of six area dams nature was able to do what area residents had been convinced could not happen again. Ron Shawley, executive director of Laurel Highland's Historical Village, returned to Johnstown on the 20th and stated "It was like somebody dropped an atomic bomb on Johnstown", "I questioned what kind of force it would take to do that.". After the Johnstown flood of 1936, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers began a study and work started in August 1938 with extensive dredging and flood control measures. On November 27, 1943, Colonel Gilbert Van B. Wilkes, Chief of the Army Corps of Engineers, Pittsburgh District, told a Johnstown audience the flood problems had been solved. People began to feel secure that any flooding issues had been resolved and promoted the area as "flood free" for many years; the Corps of Engineers had designed flood control measures for the protection of a standard project flood.

Protection to the 500-year level was not economically viable. In 1974 the Corps issued a report titled "The Potential for Future Flooding in the Johnstown Area"; this did not deter the people of Johnstown at all. On the 19th of July, 1977, a deluge of rain hit the area around Johnstown during the night and the dams in the area over-topped and failed; the largest dam to fail was the Laurel Run Dam, releasing over 101 million gallons of water that poured through the village of Tanneryville, killing 41 people. The combination of the other five dams released another 27 million gallons, not counting the water from rains. Well over 128 million gallons of water poured down the valley from the dams alone and by dawn Johnstown was flooded by six feet of water; the channel improvements were designed to carry 81,500 cubic feet per second but the flood discharge was measured as 115,000 feet per second. A Swiss immigrant named Joseph Schantz started farming at the confluence of the Little Conemaugh River and the Stoneycreek River around 1794.

He laid out plans for a town and chose the name Conemaugh after a Native American village that occupied the same site. The plan accounted for the fact that a new county named Cambria would be taken from Somerset County but lobbying for the new town to be the county seat failed as Ebensburg was chosen; the town was prone to flooding. After the flood of 1889, no significant flood measures were undertaken. In 1936, Congress was looking at flood control bills. During this time heavy snow run-off and three days of continuous rainfall caused the Saint Patrick's Day flood of 1936. On April 27, 1937, Congress passed sweeping flood control legislation and in 1938 work began. On November 27, 1943, the Johnstown Channel Improvement Project was completed, with 9.1 miles of improvements that included the Conemaugh River, Stony Creek, the Little Conemaugh River. The Laurel Run Dam on Laurel Run was an old earthen dam owned by the Bethlehem Steel company and sold to the Johnstown Water Company; this dam had a 42.5-foot high spillway, when it failed about 101 million gallons of water was released.

After the dam failed, water rushed through the Tanneryville neighborhood. The Sandy Run Dam, a 28-foot high, a 63-year old earthen dam with a spillway owned by the Highland Water and Sewer Authority, released a little more than 18 million gallons of water; when the dam failed the flood waters entered the Conemaugh between St. Michael and South Fork at Ehrenfeld; the Salix Water Dam on Otto Run, owned by the Adams Township Water Authority, was a 25-foot earthen dam that held 2 million gallons of water. When the dam failed, the flood waters ran into the South Fork Little Conemaugh River which joins the Conemaugh River in Sidman; the Cambria Slope Mine #33, on Sanders Run, had a spillway height of 32 feet and was leased by the Bethlehem Mines Corporation, held 7 million gallons of water. Sanders Run flows adjacent to and joins Howells Run, skirting Ebensburg draining into City Reservoir; the dam was a total failure. An Unnamed dam on Peggy's Run, Franklin Borough, was leased to Bethlehem Mines Corporation.

The dam was situated outside Franklin and the water shed drained towards East Conemaugh and the Conemaugh River. The dam failure released an unknown amount of water. An unnamed impoundment dam, holding 1000 gallons of reserve water for Bethlehem Mines Corporation failed; the victims of the 1977 flooding were from Old Conemaugh Borough, Walnut Grove, West End, Dale Borough, Strongstown, Windber, Dilltown, Mineral Point and Scalp Level Johnstown flood of 1936 Canal inclined plane Inclined plane railroad Johnstown Flood MuseumJohnstown Area Heritage Association The water supply of Johnstown