Journey is an American rock band that formed in San Francisco in 1973, composed of former members of Santana and Frumious Bandersnatch. The band has gone through several phases. During that period, the band released a series of hit songs, including "Don't Stop Believin'", which in 2009 became the top-selling track in iTunes history among songs not released in the 21st century, its parent studio album, the band's seventh and most successful, reached No. 1 on the Billboard 200 and yielded another of their most popular singles, "Open Arms". Its 1983 follow-up album, was as successful in the United States, reaching No. 2 and spawning several successful singles. Journey enjoyed a successful reunion in the mid-1990s and regrouped with a series of lead singers. Sales have resulted in two gold albums, eight multi-platinum albums, two diamond albums, they have had eighteen Top 40 singles in the U. S. six of which reached the Top 10 of the US chart and two of which reached No. 1 on other Billboard charts, a No. 6 hit on the UK Singles Chart in "Don't Stop Believin'".
In 2005, "Don't Stop Believin'" reached No. 3 on iTunes downloads. A progressive rock band, Journey was described by AllMusic as having cemented a reputation as "one of America's most beloved commercial rock/pop bands" by 1978, when they redefined their sound by embracing pop arrangements on their fourth album, Infinity. According to the Recording Industry Association of America, Journey has sold 48 million albums in the U. S. making them the 25th best-selling band. Their worldwide sales have reached over 75 million records, making them one of the world's best-selling bands of all time. A 2005 USA Today opinion poll named Journey the fifth-best U. S. rock band in history. Their songs have become arena rock staples and are still played on rock radio stations across the world. Journey ranks No. 96 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Journey was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame with the class of 2017. Inductees included lead singer Steve Perry, guitarist Neal Schon, keyboardists Jonathan Cain and Gregg Rolie, bassist Ross Valory, drummers Aynsley Dunbar and Steve Smith.
The original members of Journey came together in San Francisco in 1973 under the auspices of former Santana manager Herbie Herbert. Called the Golden Gate Rhythm Section and intended to serve as a backup group for established Bay Area artists, the band included Santana alumni Neal Schon on lead guitar and Gregg Rolie on keyboards and lead vocals. Bassist Ross Valory and rhythm guitarist George Tickner, both of Frumious Bandersnatch, rounded out the group. Prairie Prince of The Tubes served as drummer; the band abandoned the "backup group" concept and developed a distinctive jazz fusion style. After an unsuccessful radio contest to name the group, roadie John Villanueva suggested the name "Journey"; the band's first public appearance came at the Winterland Ballroom on New Year’s Eve, 1973. Prairie Prince rejoined The Tubes shortly thereafter, the band hired British drummer Aynsley Dunbar, who had worked with Frank Zappa. On February 5, 1974, the new line-up made their debut at the Great American Music Hall and secured a recording contract with Columbia Records.
Journey released their eponymous debut album in 1975, rhythm guitarist Tickner left the band before they cut their second album, Look into the Future. Neither album achieved significant sales, so Schon and Dunbar took singing lessons in an attempt to add vocal harmonies to Rolie's lead; the following year's Next contained shorter tracks with more vocals, featured Neal Schon as lead singer on two of the songs. Journey's album sales did not improve and Columbia Records requested that they change their musical style and add a frontman, with whom keyboardist Gregg Rolie could share lead vocal duties; the band hired Robert Fleischman and transitioned to a more popular style, akin to that of Foreigner and Boston. Journey went on tour with Fleischman in 1977 and together the new incarnation of the band wrote the hit "Wheel in the Sky". In late 1977, Journey hired Steve Perry as their new lead singer. Herbie Herbert, the band's manager hired Roy Thomas Baker as a producer to add a layered sound approach as Baker had done with his previous band, Queen.
With their new lead singer and new producer, Journey released their fourth album, Infinity. This album was their first RIAA-certified platinum album, with their hit song "Wheel in the Sky", Journey set on a new path with a more mainstream sound to make their highest chart success to date. In late 1978, manager Herbie Herbert fired drummer Aynsley Dunbar, who joined Bay Area rivals Jefferson Starship shortly thereafter, he was replaced by Berklee-trained jazz drummer Steve Smith. Perry, Rolie and Valory recorded Evolution, which gave the band their first Billboard Hot 100 Top 20 single, "Lovin', Touchin', Squeezin'". Journey's newfound success brought the band an entirely new fan base. During the 1980 Departure world tour, the band recorded Captured. Keyboardist Gregg Rolie left the band, the second time in his career he left a successful act. Keyboardist Stevie "Keys" Roseman was brought in to record the lone studio track for Captured
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Douglass Haywood Rauch was an American bassist most famous for his work with Carlos Santana during his jazz fusion period in the early 1970s. Doug Rauch was born in New York, attended Elisabeth Irwin High School, graduating in 1968, he was the son of notable opera singer Nadine Brewer of the Metropolitan Opera. Prior to joining Santana in the 1960s, he worked with several New York-based acts including Buzzy Linhart, Voices of East Harlem, Bunky and Jake, he arranged to record as a guest on Jake's 1969 record. A. M. F; the collaboration with Buzzy Linhart resulted in an album: Music in 1971, opening the door for him to meet and record a track on Carly Simon's debut album the same year. Accepting an invitation from Santana drummer Michael Shrieve, Rauch moved to San Francisco in 1971 where he worked with the band Loading Zone which featured future Santana bandmate Tom Coster. Rauch and Coster worked with guitarist Gábor Szabó during this period. Rauch teamed up with Santana in 1972, he made his first appearance with the band in early 1972.
Rauch shared a mutual admiration for the music of The Mahavishnu Orchestra with his new bandleader, was an important element in shaping the more jazz/rock/fusion oriented sound of the new Santana band. He appears on the albums Caravanserai, Love Devotion Surrender and Lotus. During the Santana years Rauch played with the third edition of Tony Williams Lifetime, David Bowie, Lenny White, Billy Cobham, the George Duke Band, Jan Hammer. Doug Rauch played his last show with Santana on New Year's Eve 1973-1974, he was replaced by returning original bassist David Brown. That year Rauch teamed up with David Bowie for his Diamond Dogs tour for a month in September 1974, he did studio session-work for Japanese singer and guitarist Shigeru Suzuki's album Band Wagon. In July–August 1975 Rauch performed and recorded with Lenny White on his solo release fusion jazz classic "Venusian Summer"; the same year Rauch joined the Duke Band. However, this collaboration was short-lived due to Rauch's increasing substance abuse problems.
His collaboration with the Jan Hammer Band was short-lived and he was replaced by Fernando Saunders in late 1975. One of the key elements of Doug's playing style was his unique and pioneering use of his thumb in a downward and upward motion; this technique is now referred to as "double thumbing" and used by several high-profile bass players, most notably Marcus Miller, Victor Wooten and Stanley Clarke. One of the earliest recorded examples of Doug Rauch using this approach is the song "Attitude" on the Giants album; the song "Look Up" from Santana's 1972 album Caravanserai is a good early example. Although Rauch used a good amount of conventional two-finger right-hand technique during his Santana years, he used double thumb style more or less later on nobably with the Lenny White and the Billy Cobham / George Duke bands. In the 1960s and for some of his work with Santana, Doug can be seen using two stock pre-CBS era Fender Precision Basses with perloid block inlays in the neck. One was colored sunburst, the other white.
However, the main bass Doug used for the majority of his career was a modified pre-CBS era Fender Jazz Bass. The instrument was one of only a handful custom modified by various technicians in the early 1970s, it contained 3 passive pickups instead of usual two as seen on a stock Fender Jazz Bass. The 3 pickups were a Gibson EB0 neck humbucking pickup in the neck position, a stock Fender Precision Bass humbucker in the middle position, a stock Fender Jazz Bass single coil bridge pickup in the bridge position. A non-original knob and two white switches were installed above the jack plate. Around 1974-1975 Doug was seen with blue lights installed in the neck, it is unknown if the lights were a modification to the original instrument, or in fact a new instrument altogether. Another key element of his sound was his frequent use of a phase-shifter effect. In his career, Doug Rauch was one of the first bass players to use a tube power amp made by McIntosh for live gigs. Notably, Jerry Garcia and Phil Lesh of the Grateful Dead San Francisco based musicians used Mcintosh power amps for their live shows around the same time.
Doug Rauch died of a heroin overdose in San Francisco, at the age of 28. 1969: Bunky & Jake: "L. A. M. F." 1970: Buzzy Linhart: "Music" 1971: Carly Simon: "Carly Simon" 1971: Papa John Creach: "Papa John Creach" 1971: Giants': "Giants"' 1972: Santana: "Caravanserai" 1973: Betty Davis: "Betty Davis" 1973: Bola Sete: "Goin' To Rio" 1973: John McLaughlin & Carlos Santana: "Love, Devotion, & Surrender" 1973: Santana: "Welcome" 1974: Santana: "Lotus" 1974: Jose Chepito Areas: "Jose Chepito Areas" 1974: David Bowie: "Cracked Actor" 1975: Shigeru Suzuki: "Bandwagon" 1975: Cobham/Duke Band: "Live at the Electric Ballroom" 1976: Lenny White: "Venusian Summer" 1976: Billy Cobham: "Life & Times" 1976: Ike White: "Changin' Times"
A keyboardist or keyboard player is a musician who plays keyboard instruments. Until the early 1960s musicians who played keyboards were classified as either pianists or organists. Since the mid-1960s, a plethora of new musical instruments with keyboards have come into common usage, requiring a more general term for a person who plays them; these keyboards include: electric pianos such as the Fender Rhodes and Wurlitzer electric piano electronic pianos such as the Roland Digital Piano Hammond and other electric organs such as the Farfisa and Vox Continental analog synthesizers such as Moog, ARP, units produced by a variety of other manufacturers such as Alesis. Analog modeling synthesizers produced by such companies as Alesis, Novation digital keyboard workstations such as those produced today by Roland, Yamaha and Korg samplers Mellotron MIDI keyboard clavinet continuum melodica pianet piano harpsichord reed organ celesta clavichord pipe organ harmonium keytar kimophone There are many famous electronic keyboardists in metal, rock and jazz music.
A complete list can be found at List of keyboardists. The use of electronic keyboards grew in popularity throughout the 1960s, with many bands using the Hammond organ and electric pianos such as the Fender Rhodes; the Doors became the first group to use the Moog synthesizer on a pop record on 1967's "Strange Days". Other bands, including The Moody Blues, The Rolling Stones, The Beatles would go on to add it to their records, both to provide sound effects and as a musical instrument in its own right. In 1966, Billy Ritchie became the first keyboard player to take a lead role in a rock band, replacing guitar, thereby preparing the ground for others such as Keith Emerson and Rick Wakeman. In the late 1960s, a pioneer of modern electronic music Jean Michel Jarre started to experiment with synthesizers and other electronic devices; as synthesizers became more affordable and less unwieldy, many more bands and producers began using them paving the way for bands that consisted of synthesizers and other electronic instruments such as drum machines by the late 1970s/early 1980s.
Some of the first bands that used this set up were Kraftwerk and The Human League. Rock groups began using synthesizers and electronic keyboards alongside the traditional line-up of guitar and drums; the pop-blues-rock band Fleetwood Mac was known for synthesizer-infused hits during this period. Keyboardists are highly sought after in cover bands, to replicate the original keyboard parts and other instrumental parts such as strings or horns where it would be logistically difficult to hire people to play the actual instruments. Pianist Organist List of Hammond organ players List of harpsichordists Classical pianists Young, Percy M. Keyboard Musicians of the World. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1967. N. B.: Concerns celebrated keyboard players and the various such instruments used over the centuries. SBN 200-71497-X Keyboard magazine Keyboard Player magazine Harmony Central resource for keyboard/synth players Vintage Synth Explorer
Quadraphonic sound – equivalent to what is now called 4.0 surround sound – uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at the four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are independent of one another. Quadraphonic audio was the earliest consumer product in surround sound and thousands of quadraphonic recordings were made during the 1970s, it was a commercial failure due to format incompatibilities. Quadraphonic audio formats were more expensive to produce than standard two-channel stereo. Playback required specially designed decoders and amplifiers. Quadraphonic audio reproduction on vinyl records was problematic; some systems used a demodulator to decode discrete sound channels. This allowed for full channel separation. Other systems used matrix decoding to recover four channels from the two channels cut on the record. Matrix systems do not have full channel separation, some information can be lost between the encoding and decoding processes. Both discrete and matrix quadrophonic recordings could be played in two channels on conventional stereo record players.
There were less sophisticated "derived" solutions that only provided back ambience channels, not a defined placement of individual instruments. Quadraphonic systems based on tape were introduced, based on new equipment capable of playing four discrete channels; these recordings were released in 8-track cartridge formats. A full, four-channel system will reproduce the Left Front, Left Back, Right Front, Right Back audio signals in each of four separate speakers. Regardless of discrete or matrix formats, in four-channel stereo the rear speakers should be of the same or almost-same size or quality and have the same or almost-same frequency range as the front speakers. Discrete reproduction is the only true Quadraphonic system; as its name suggests, with discrete formats the original four audio channels are passed through a four-channel transmission medium and presented to a four-channel reproduction system and fed to four speakers. This is defined as a 4–4–4 system. Q4 / Quadraphonic Reel to Reel Quad-8 / Quadraphonic 8-Track CD-4 / Quadradisc UD-4 / UMX / BMX With Matrix formats, the four channels are converted down to two channels.
These are passed through a two-channel transmission medium before being decoded back to four channels and presented to four speakers. To transmit four individual audio signals in a stereo-compatible manner, there must be four simultaneous linear equations to reproduce the original four audio signals at the output; the term "compatible" indicates that: A single-channel system will reproduce all four audio signals in its one speaker. A two-channel system will reproduce the Left Front & Left Back audio signals in the Left speaker and the Right Front & Right Back signals in the Right Speaker; the original systems were basic and suffered from low front L/R separation and a poor rear L/R separation of 2db. The decoders were designed more to give an effect rather than accurate decoding, due to limitations in both systems, although as both systems were closely related mathematically, users only needed one decoder of either system to play back albums of both systems; the aboves' poor decode performance was the main reason for their disappearance once the improved matrix systems arrived based on the work by Peter Scheiber.
His basic formula utilized 90-degree phase-shift circuitry to enable enhanced 4-2-4 matrix systems to be developed, of which the two main leaders were Columbia's SQ and Sansui's QS Systems. With Scheiber and Martin Willcocks, Jim Fosgate developed the Tate II 101 SQ decoder, which produced a accurate sound field by using gain riding and the Haas effect to mask decoding artifacts, it used custom, hand-assembled and -calibrated circuitry with components sorted to 1%, for exact performance. Sansui's QSD- series decoders and QRX- series receivers were good synthesizing L—R stereo into a ⋂ horseshoe topology. However, all these came too late in the game and were too expensive or difficult to procure for public purchase, to rescue matrix quad; the differences between the original systems and the new were so large that it made it impossible to decode DY/EV-4 with either SQ or QS decoders with any accuracy, the results being just a form of artificial quad. This 4:2:4 process could not be accomplished without some information loss.
That is to say, the four channels produced at the final stage were not identical to those with which the process had begun. Matrix H SQ / Stereo Quadraphonic QS / RM DY / Dynaquad EV / Stereo-4 Derived formats were inexpensive electronic solutions that provided back ambience channels from regular stereo records. There was no deliberate placement of individual instruments on the back channels. DY / Dynaquad Hafler circuit The first medium for 4-channel sound was reel-to-reel tape, used first in European electronic-music studios by 1954, an outstanding example of, the tape part of Karlheinz Stockhausen’s piece and was introduced to the American market by the Vanguard Recording Society in June 1969 as "Quadraphonic open reel tape" tapes. All available 4 tracks were used in one direction on the tape, running at twice the speed of the regular 4-Track reel-to-reel tapes. RCA Records followed, in April 1970, with its announcement of a 4 channel version of the 8-track tape, named Quad-8 or Quadra
The Rolling Stone Album Guide
The Rolling Stone Album Guide known as The Rolling Stone Record Guide, is a book that contains professional music reviews written and edited by staff members from Rolling Stone magazine. Its first edition was published in 1979 and its last in 2004; the guide can be seen at Rate Your Music, while a list of albums given a five star rating by the guide can be seen at Rocklist.net. The Rolling Stone Record Guide was the first edition of what would become The Rolling Stone Album Guide, it was edited by Dave Marsh and John Swenson, included contributions from 34 other music critics. It is divided into sections by musical genre and lists artists alphabetically within their respective genres. Albums are listed alphabetically by artist although some of the artists have their careers divided into chronological periods. Dave Marsh, in his Introduction, cites as precedents Leonard Maltin's book TV Movies and Robert Christgau's review column in the Village Voice, he gives Tape Guide as raw sources of information.
The first edition included black and white photographs of many of the covers of albums which received five star reviews. These titles are listed together in the Five-Star Records section, coincidentally five pages in length; the edition included reviews for many comedy artists including Lenny Bruce, Lord Buckley, Bill Cosby, The Firesign Theatre, Spike Jones, Richard Pryor. Comedy artists were listed in the catch-all section "Rock, Soul and Pop", which included the genres of folk, bluegrass and reggae, as well as comedy. Traditional pop performers were not included, with the notable exceptions of Frank Sinatra and Nat King Cole. Included too were some difficult-to-classify artists. Big band jazz was handled selectively, with certain band leaders omitted, while others were included. Many other styles of jazz did appear in the Jazz section; the book was notable for the time in the provocative, "in your face" style of many of its reviews. For example, writing about Neil Young's song, "Down by the River", John Swenson described it both as an "FM radio classic", as a "wimp anthem".
His colleague, Dave Marsh, in reviewing the three albums of the jazz fusion group Chase, gave a one-word review: "Flee.". Introduction Rock, Soul and Pop Blues Jazz Gospel Anthologies and Original Casts Five-Star Records Glossary Selected Bibliography The guide employs a five star rating scale with the following descriptions of those ratings: Indispensable: a record that must be included in any comprehensive collection Excellent: a record of substantial merit, though flawed in some essential way. Good: a record of average worth, but one that might possess considerable appeal for fans of a particular style. Mediocre: a record, artistically insubstantial, though not wretched. Poor: a record where technical competence is at question or it was remarkably ill-conceived. Worthless: a record that need never have been created. Reserved for the most bathetic bathwater; the New Rolling Stone Record Guide was an update of 1979's The Rolling Stone Record Guide. Like the first edition, it was edited by Swenson.
It included contributions from 52 music critics and featured chronological album listings under the name of each artist. In many cases, updates from the first edition consist of short, one-sentence verdicts upon an artist's work. Instead of having separate sections such as Blues and Gospel, this edition compressed all of the genres it reviewed into one section except for Jazz titles which were removed for this edition and were expanded and published in 1985 Rolling Stone Jazz Record Guide. Besides adding reviews for many emerging punk and New Wave bands, this edition added or expanded a significant number of reviews of long-established reggae and ska artists. Since the goal of this guide was to review records that were in print at the time of publication, this edition featured a list of artists who were included in the first edition but were not included in the second edition because all of their material was out of print; this edition dispensed with the album cover photos found in the first edition.
Introduction to the Second Edition Introduction to the First Edition Ratings Reviewers Record Label Abbreviations Rock, Blues, Country and Pop Anthologies and Original Cast Index to Artists in the First Edition The second edition uses the same rating system as the first edition. The only difference is that in addition to a rating, the second edition employs the pilcrow mark to indicate a title, out of print at the time the guide was published; some artists had the ratings for their albums lowered as the book now offered a revisionist slant to rock's history. The Rolling Stone Jazz Record Guide was published in 1985 and incorporated the jazz listings omitted from The New Rolling S
Tom Coster is an American keyboardist and longtime backing musician for Carlos Santana. Detroit-born and San Francisco-raised, Coster played piano and accordion as a youth, continuing his studies through college and a productive five-year stint as a musician in the U. S. Air Force Band. Coster has played with and/or composed for many groups and musicians including The Loading Zone, Gábor Szabó, Carlos Santana, Billy Cobham, Third Eye Blind, Coryell/Coster/Smith, Claudio Baglioni, Stu Hamm, Boz Scaggs and Bobby Holiday, Joe Satriani, Frank Gambale, Vital Information. Coster produced several solo jazz fusion recordings as a leader for Fantasy, JVC; some of Coster's best-known compositions are "Europa", "Flor D'Luna" and "Dance, Dance" performed by Santana and "The Perfect Date" performed by Vital Information. Coster's son was born in 1966 called Tom Coster a keyboardist and composer. All About Jazz Vital Information Web Site