The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
1984 United States presidential election in Montana
The 1984 United States presidential election in Montana took place on November 6, 1984, was part of the 1984 United States presidential election. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Montana overwhelmingly voted for the Republican nominee, President Ronald Reagan, over the Democratic nominee, former Vice President Walter Mondale. Reagan won Montana by a landslide margin of 22.29 percent. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Glacier County voted for a Republican Presidential candidate
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
The Beartooth Highway is an All-American Road on a section of U. S. Route 212 in Montana and Wyoming between Red Lodge and the Northeast entrance of Yellowstone National Park, passing over the Beartooth Pass in Wyoming at 10,947 feet above sea level, it has been called "the most beautiful drive in America," by late CBS correspondent Charles Kuralt. Because of heavy snowfall at the top, the pass is open each year only from mid May through mid October, weather conditions permitting; the Beartooth Highway is the section of U. S. Route 212 between Red Lodge and Cooke City, Montana, it traces a series of steep zigzags and switchbacks, along the Montana-Wyoming border to the 10,947 ft high Beartooth Pass. The approximate elevation rise is from 5,200 ft to 8,000 ft in 12 mi in the most daring landscapes; when driving east to west the highest parts of the Beartooth Highway level off into a wide plateau near the top of the pass descend to the junction with Wyoming Highway 296 near Cooke City, the northeast gateway to Yellowstone National Park.
On the way one passes numerous lakes typical of the Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness Area which borders the highway along much of its route. The highway opened June 14, 1936. Snowstorms can occur in the middle of the summer at this altitude and the pass is known for strong winds and severe thunderstorms. Drivers should plan on a driving time of at least two hours for the 69-mile trip from Red Lodge to Cooke City, it is a good idea to check with the Red Lodge Chamber of Commerce or the Beartooth Ranger District beforehand in case of road closures. Montana Traveler Information and Wyoming Travel Information Service both provide online information on Beartooth Highway travel conditions for their respective portions of the highway; the Beartooth Highway passes through portions of Custer National Forest, Shoshone National Forest and near the Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness. In August 1872, the pass was crossed by Civil War General Philip Sheridan and 120 men returning from an inspection tour of Yellowstone National Park.
Rather than take the long detour down the Clarks Fork Yellowstone River to return to Billings, Sheridan took the advice of an old hunter named Shuki Greer, who claimed intimate knowledge of the Beartooth Mountains. When the road was opened in 1936, it followed Sheridan's route over the pass. Several large mudslides and rockslides on May 19-20, 2005 damaged or destroyed the Montana side of the Beartooth Highway in a dozen places between mile markers 39 and 51; the road was closed for reconstruction, a $20.4 million construction contract issued which stipulated an October 2005 completion date. Construction was completed ahead of schedule however the highway never reopened for the year. An estimated 100,000 cubic yards of rock were removed from a 0.5-mile-long section of the highway near the top of the switchbacks, construction crews drilled down to solid bedrock to create new supports for the road. Current Conditions Montana Scenic Byway: Beartooth Highway National Scenic Byways Project: Beartooth Highway, US Department of Transportation: National Scenic Highways Program.
Beartooth Highway website Historic American Engineering Record No. WY-92, "Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Cody vicinity, Park County, WY" HAER No. WY-92-A, "Beartooth Highway, Beartooth Lake Bridge, Spanning Beartooth Lake outlet on U. S. Highway 212, Cody vicinity, Park County, WY" HAER No. WY-92-B, "Beartooth Highway, Little Bear Creek Bridge No. 1, Spanning Little Bear Creek on U. S. Highway 212 at Milepost 28.2, Cody vicinity, Park County, WY" HAER No. WY-92-C, "Beartooth Highway, Little Bear Creek Bridge No. 2, Spanning Little Bear Creek on U. S. Highway 212 at Cody vicinity, Park County, WY" HAER No. WY-92-D, "Beartooth Highway, Long Lake Bridge, Spanning Long Lake outlet on U. S. Highway 212 at Milepost 31.2, Cody vicinity, Park County, WY"
2012 United States presidential election in Montana
The 2012 United States presidential election in Montana took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 General Election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. Montana voters chose three electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan. Romney carried Montana with 55.35 % of the vote with a 13.65 % margin of victory. Montana was the second-best state performance for Libertarian candidate Gary Johnson, carrying about 3% of the vote. Romney performed much better than John McCain had in 2008; the Republican caucuses took place on June 14 to 2012 as the Montana state convention. Ten days before, the state delegates were selected by the central committee in each county 23 delegates were to have been chosen, for a total of 26 delegates to go to the national convention.
Prior to selecting delegates, a non-binding primary election was held June 5, 2012. Results were announced before the national convention in August; the Republican ticket won by a margin of 13.65% Republican Party presidential debates, 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries, 2012 Results of the 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries Montana Republican Party The Green Papers: for Montana The Green Papers: Major state elections in chronological order
The Beartooth Mountains are located in south central Montana and northwest Wyoming, U. S. and are part of the 944,000 acres Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness, within Custer and Shoshone National Forests. The Beartooths are the location of Granite Peak, which at 12,807 feet is the highest point in the state of Montana; the mountains are just northeast of Yellowstone National Park and are part of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The mountains are traversed by road via the Beartooth Highway with the highest elevation at Beartooth Pass 10,947 ft ); the name of the mountain range is attributed to a rugged peak found in the range, Beartooth Peak, that has the appearance of a bear's tooth. The Beartooth Mountains sit upon the larger Beartooth Plateau, the largest true high elevation plateau in the United States; the remoteness of the region contributed to its obscurity until the 1870s. The Crow tribe of Native Americans used the valleys of the mountains for hunting game animals and for winter shelter from the harsh winds of the plains.
Though trappers entered the region in the 1830s, formal exploration by the U. S. Government did not occur until 1878. Since almost 400 species of plants have been discovered and the Beartooths are considered to be the most biologically unique mountain range in North America; the region is home to one of the largest populations of grizzly bears outside of Alaska and Canada. Black bears, mountain goats, bighorn sheep, moose, mountain lion, lynx are found here. Since 2000 the wolf has reappeared from the migration of wolves that were transplanted into neighboring Yellowstone National Park from Canada. Plants and grasses exist above the 9,000-foot timberline and Engelmann spruce, subalpine fir, whitebark pine, lodgepole pine are found below; the Beartooth mountains are composed of Precambrian granite and crystalline metamorphic rocks dated at 2.7 to 4 billion years old, making these rocks among the oldest on Earth. The Stillwater igneous complex within the mountains is the location of the largest known deposits of platinum and chromium and the second largest deposits of nickel found in the United States.
Older ages are found in zircon crystals in meta-sedimentary rocks. The most abundant rocks in the Beartooths are 2.9-2.7 billion years old. Huge expansive plateaus are found at altitudes in excess of 10,000 ft with over 25 peaks exceeding 12,000 ft; the mountains have some waterfalls in excess of 300 feet. Winters are severe with heavy incessant winds. 25 small glaciers exist in the Beartooths with Grasshopper Glacier being one of the more distinctive. The highest peaks of the Beartooth Mountains are clustered in three groups, topped by Granite Peak, Mount Wood 12,649 ft, Castle Mountain 12,617 ft; the cluster containing Mount Wood is named the Granite Range. The largest of these three contiguous areas above 10,000 feet, which extends into Wyoming, is the one dominated by Castle Mountain. List of mountain ranges in Montana Ranges of the Rocky Mountains U. S. Forest Service. "Beartooth Ranger District". Custer National Forest. Archived from the original on 25 July 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-11. Wilderness.net.
"Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness". The National Wilderness Preservation System. Retrieved 2006-07-11
1996 United States presidential election in Montana
The 1996 United States presidential election in Montana took place on November 5, 1996. Voters chose 3 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Montana voted for Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole over President Bill Clinton by a slim margin of 2.88%. Billionaire businessman Ross Perot finished with 13.56 % of the popular vote in Montana. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Sheridan County, Dawson County, Mineral County voted for the Democratic candidate. With 13.56% of the popular vote, Montana would prove to be Ross Perot's second strongest state in the 1996 election after Maine