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Carbon footprint

A carbon footprint is defined as the total greenhouse gas emissions caused by an individual, organization, or product, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent. Greenhouse gases, including the carbon-containing gases carbon dioxide and methane, can be emitted through the burning of fossil fuels, land clearance and the production and consumption of food, manufactured goods, wood, buildings and other services. In most cases, the total carbon footprint cannot be calculated because of inadequate knowledge of and data about the complex interactions between contributing processes, including the influence of natural processes that store or release carbon dioxide. For this reason, Wright and Williams proposed the following definition of a carbon footprint: A measure of the total amount of carbon dioxide and methane emissions of a defined population, system or activity, considering all relevant sources and storage within the spatial and temporal boundary of the population, system or activity of interest.

Calculated as carbon dioxide equivalent using the relevant 100-year global warming potential. Most of the carbon footprint emissions for the average U. S. household come from "indirect" sources, e.g. fuel burned to produce goods far away from the final consumer. These are distinguished from emissions which come from burning fuel directly in one's car or stove referred to as "direct" sources of the consumer's carbon footprint. An individual's, nation's, or organization's carbon footprint can be measured by undertaking a GHG emissions assessment, a life cycle assessment, or other calculative activities denoted as carbon accounting. Once the size of a carbon footprint is known, a strategy can be devised to reduce it, e.g. by technological developments, energy efficiency improvements, better process and product management, changed Green Public or Private Procurement, carbon capture, consumption strategies, carbon offsetting and others. For calculating personal carbon footprints, several free online carbon footprint calculators exist including a few supported by publicly available peer-reviewed data and calculations including the University of California, Berkeley's CoolClimate Network research consortium and CarbonStory.

These websites ask you to answer more or less detailed questions about your diet, transportation choices, home size and recreational activities, usage of electricity and heavy appliances such as dryers and refrigerators, so on. The website estimates your carbon footprint based on your answers to these questions. A systematic literature review was conducted to objectively determine the best way to calculate individual/household carbon footprints; this review identified 13 calculation principles and subsequently used the same principles to evaluate the 15 most popular online carbon footprint calculators. A recent study's results by Carnegie Mellon's Christopher Weber found that the calculation of carbon footprints for products is filled with large uncertainties; the variables of owning electronic goods such as the production and previous technology used to make that product, can make it difficult to create an accurate carbon footprint. It is important to question, address the accuracy of Carbon Footprint techniques due to its overwhelming popularity.

Calculating the carbon footprint of industry, product, or service is a complex task. One tool industry uses Life-cycle assessment, where carbon footprint may be one of many factors taken into consideration when assessing a product or service; the International Organization for Standardization has a standard called ISO 14040:2006 that has the framework for conducting an LCA study. ISO 14060 family of standards provides further sophisticated tools for quantifying, monitoring and validating or verifying of GHG emissions and removals. Another method is through the Greenhouse Gas Protocol, a set of standards for tracking GHG emissions. Predicting the carbon footprint of a process is possible through estimations using the above standards. By using Emission intensities/Carbon intensities and the estimated annual use of fuel, chemical, or other inputs, the carbon footprint can be determined while a process is being planned/designed; the concept and name of the carbon footprint derive from the ecological footprint concept, developed by William E. Rees and Mathis Wackernagel in the 1990s.

While carbon footprints are reported in tons of emissions per year, ecological footprints are reported in comparison to what the planet can renew. This assesses the number of "earths" that would be required if everyone on the planet consumed resources at the same level as the person calculating their ecological footprint; the carbon footprint is one part of the ecological footprint. The carbon part was popularized by a large campaign of BP in 2005. Carbon footprints are more focused than ecological footprints since they measure emissions of gases that cause climate change into the atmosphere. Carbon footprint is one of a family of footprint indicators, which include water footprint and land footprint. Direct carbon emissions come from sources that are directly from the site, producing a product; these emissions can be referred to as scope 1 and scope 2 emissions. Scope 1 emissions are emissions that are directly emitted from the site of the service. An example for industry would be the emissions related to burning a fuel on site.

On the individual level, emissions from personal vehicles or gas burning stoves would fall under scope 1. Scope 2 emissions are the other emissions related to purchased electricity, and/or steam used on site. In the US, the EPA has broken down electricity emissio

Torpedo mackayana

Torpedo mackayana known as the ringed torpedo, Western African torpedo, West African torpedo ray, McKay electric ray, or McKay's torpedo ray, is an electric ray species in the family Torpedinidae, which lives in shallow waters on the western coast of Africa. Characterized by rounded spiracles and white and brown spots, females grow to 35–50 centimetres and males to 31.5–38.2 centimetres. Torpedo mackayana was described in 1919 by a Dutch biologist. Torpedo mackayana has a round, "fleshy" disc, which has a greater width than length, it has a white underside. It is covered with small patches of white; these patches may differ in size and distribution throughout its body. It has two dorsal fins; the first dorsal fin is broad, while the second is smaller and more slender. Its teeth are distributed in up to 38 rows and it has visible flaps on its nostrils, it has rounded a feature that does not appear in any other species in the genus Torpedo. Torpedo mackayana is a small to medium-sized ray, its growth and size was surveyed in the Coast of Senegal from 1994 to 1998, with the results having been published in 2001.

This study showed that it has an average length of about 9.55 centimetres and an average weight of 20.64 grams at birth. Females reach sexual maturity at about 35 centimetres and males reach it at 31.5 centimetres. As an adult, females are larger than males. According to the survey, the length of adult females is 35–50 centimetres and the length of adult males is 31.5–38.2 centimetres. The largest female observed weighed the largest male weighed 1,255 grams; the reproductive cycle of Torpedo mackayana can take a year, gestation can take nearly half a year. Ovulation happens in May or June, young are born in August or September. Like other species in the genus Torpedo, the oocyte of the species is sometimes prevented from growing until birth. Females have two ovaries; the eggs of the species, when fertilized, weigh about 8.6 grams on average, the oocytes weigh an average of 9.2 grams. Torpedo mackayana lives in depths of 30 -- 50 metres, it has been found on sea floors of mud or sand. Its prey consists of smaller invertebrates.

Little else is known about its biology. Torpedo mackayana lives in tropical waters of the eastern Atlantic Ocean, in 16 countries on the western coast of Africa; the most northern part of its range is Senegal, the most southern part is Angola. It is caught by fisheries as a bycatch. Pollution and habitat destruction, due to coastal development, are threats in part of its range. However, nothing is known about its population size or trend, except that it is not threatened; the adult population consists of more females than males, while young are more male than female. No conservation actions are taking place for the species, it is listed as data deficient on the IUCN Red List as of 2007. According to the IUCN, further research is required of the species' population before planning conservation actions

Fort Myers, Florida

Fort Myers or Ft. Myers, is the county seat and commercial center of Lee County, United States, it has grown in recent years. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 62,298 and in 2018 was estimated at 82,254. Fort Myers is a gateway to the Southwest Florida region and a major tourist destination within Florida; the winter estates of Thomas Edison and Henry Ford are major attractions. The city is named after Colonel Abraham Myers, the quartermaster general of the Confederate States Army. Spain had colonial influence in Florida, succeeded by Great Britain and, the United States. During the Second Seminole War, between 1835 and 1842, the US Army operated Fort Dulany at Punta Rassa, at the mouth of the Caloosahatchee River; when a hurricane destroyed Fort Dulany in October 1841, army operations were moved up the Caloosahatchee River to a site named Fort Harvie. Fort Harvie was abandoned in 1842. After a white trader was killed by Seminoles on the Peace River in 1849, the Army returned to the Caloosahatchee River in 1850.

The new Fort Myers was built on the burned ruins of Fort Harvie. The fort was named for Brevet Colonel Abraham Charles Myers, quartermaster for the Army's Department of Florida, it covered about 139 acres, soon had 57 buildings, including a two-story blockhouse, pictured in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, a 1,000-foot-long wharf at which ships could dock. Irvin Solomon notes that Fort Myers was described "as'one of the finest and largest' forts of the Seminole Wars", it was abandoned at the end of the Third Seminole War. During the American Civil War, Confederate blockade runners and cattle ranchers were based in Fort Myers; these settlers prospered through trading with the Union soldiers. The United States Army set up a camp on Useppa Island, near the entrance to Charlotte Harbor, in December 1863, it was intended as a place from which to recruit Union sympathizers and Confederate deserters and conscription-evaders, to raid into the interior and interfere with Confederate efforts to round-up cattle for supply to the Confederate Army.

After some probes along the Peace and Myakka rivers, which had mixed results, operations were moved to the mainland. Troops from the 47th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment and the 2nd Regiment of Florida Rangers left Key West for Fort Myers early in January 1864; the Union soldiers reached Fort Myers enough to capture three Confederate sympathizers before they could act on orders to burn the fort to keep it out of Union hands. Beyond the principal reason for occupying the fort of providing support for Union sympathizers and local residents disaffected with Confederate taxation and conscription, the fort provided access to the large cattle herds in southern Florida, support for the blockade of the southwest Florida coast being conducted by the U. S. Navy, a haven for any escaped slaves in the area. In April 1864, after the troops from the 47th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment had been transferred to Louisiana, Companies D and I of the 2nd United States Colored Infantry Regiment were transferred from Key West to Fort Myers, remained at the fort until it was abandoned.

Company G of the regiment had been sent to Fort Myers by early May. Solomon argues that Brevet Brigadier General Daniel Phineas Woodbury, commandant of the District of Key West and the Tortugas, intended that action to be an irritant to the Confederacy; the presence of the black soldiers, who made up the majority of troops used in raids into Confederate territory, played on Confederate fears of armed blacks. It was reported that Woodbury took pleasure in placing a "prickly pear cactus under the Confederate saddle". By the Spring of 1864, Fort Myers was protected by a 500-foot-long breastwork, 7 feet high and 15 feet wide, extending in an arc around the land side of the fort; the Seminole War-era blockhouse had been repaired and another two-story blockhouse built. The fort was soon harboring Confederate army deserters. Many of the white men enlisted in the 2nd Florida Union Cavalry. Although designated as cavalry, the members of the regiment stationed at Fort Myers were never mounted. Escaped slaves that came to the fort were recruited into the 2nd United States Colored Infantry Regiment.

The Union achieved control of the full length of the Mississippi River after the fall of Vicksburg in July 1863. The Confederate Army became dependent on Florida for most of its supply of beef. By the end of 1863 between 1,000 and 2,000 head of cattle were being shipped to the Confederate Army from Florida every week; as 1864 progressed, Union troops and sympathizers began driving cattle to Punta Rassa to supply Union ships on blockade duty and Union-held Key West, reducing the supply of cattle available to Confederate forces. The increased shipping from Punta Rassa led the Union Army to built a wharf there. By one Confederate estimate, the Union shipped 4,500 head of cattle from Punta Rassa; the Battle of Fort Myers was fought on February 20, 1865, in Lee County, Florida during the last months of the American Civil War. This small engagement is known as the "southernmost land battle of the Civil War." The Fort Myers community was founded after the American Civil War by Captain Manuel A. Gonzalez on February 21, 1866.

Captain Gonzalez was familiar with the area as a result of his years of service delivering mail and supplies to the Union Army at the Fort during the Seminole Indian Wars and Civil War. When the U. S. Government abandoned the fort following the Civil War, Gonzalez sailed from Key West, Florida to found the community. Three w