SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Carbon sink

A carbon sink is a natural reservoir that stores carbon-containing chemical compounds accumulated over an indefinite period of time. Public awareness of the significance of CO2 sinks has grown since passage of the Kyoto Protocol, which promotes their use as a form of carbon offset. There are different strategies used to enhance this process. Increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide means increase in global temperature; the amount of carbon dioxide varies in a dynamic equilibrium with photosynthesis of land plants. The natural sinks are: Soil is the Earth's greatest carbon store and active carbon sink Photosynthesis by terrestrial plants with grass and trees serving as carbon sinks during growing seasons. Absorption of carbon dioxide by the oceans via physicochemical and minor biological processesWhile the creation of artificial sinks has been discussed, no major artificial systems remove carbon from the atmosphere on a material scale. Carbon sources include the combustion of fossil fuels by humans for energy and transportation and farmland, although there are proposals for improvements in farming practices to reverse this.

Because growing vegetation takes in carbon dioxide, the Kyoto Protocol allows Annex I countries with large areas of growing forests to issue Removal Units to recognize the sequestration of carbon. The additional units make it easier, it is estimated that forests absorb between 10 and 20 tons of carbon dioxide per hectare each year, through photosynthetic conversion into starch, cellulose and other components of wooden biomass. While this has been well documented for temperate forests and plantations, the fauna of the tropical forests place some limitations for such global estimates; some countries seek to trade emission rights in carbon emission markets, purchasing the unused carbon emission allowances of other countries. If overall limits on greenhouse gas emission are put into place and trade market mechanisms are purported to find cost-effective ways to reduce emissions. There is as yet no carbon audit regime for all such markets globally, none is specified in the Kyoto Protocol. National carbon emissions are self-declared.

In the Clean Development Mechanism, only afforestation and reforestation are eligible to produce certified emission reductions in the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Forest conservation activities or activities avoiding deforestation, which would result in emission reduction through the conservation of existing carbon stocks, are not eligible at this time. Agricultural carbon sequestration is not possible yet. Soils represent a short to long-term carbon storage medium, contain more carbon than all terrestrial vegetation and the atmosphere combined. Plant litter and other biomass including charcoal accumulates as organic matter in soils, is degraded by chemical weathering and biological degradation. More recalcitrant organic carbon polymers such as cellulose, hemi-cellulose, aliphatic compounds and terpenoids are collectively retained as humus. Organic matter tends to accumulate in litter and soils of colder regions such as the boreal forests of North America and the Taiga of Russia.

Leaf litter and humus are oxidized and poorly retained in sub-tropical and tropical climate conditions due to high temperatures and extensive leaching by rainfall. Areas where shifting cultivation or slash and burn agriculture are practiced are only fertile for two to three years before they are abandoned; these tropical jungles are similar to coral reefs in that they are efficient at conserving and circulating necessary nutrients, which explains their lushness in a nutrient desert. Much organic carbon retained in many agricultural areas worldwide has been depleted due to intensive farming practices. Grasslands contribute to soil organic matter, stored in their extensive fibrous root mats. Due in part to the climatic conditions of these regions, these soils can accumulate significant quantities of organic matter; this can vary based on rainfall, the length of the winter season, the frequency of occurring lightning-induced grass-fires. While these fires release carbon dioxide, they improve the quality of the grasslands overall, in turn increasing the amount of carbon retained in the humic material.

They deposit carbon directly to the soil in the form of char that does not degrade back to carbon dioxide. Forest fires release absorbed carbon back into the atmosphere, as does deforestation due to increased oxidation of soil organic matter. Organic matter in peat bogs undergoes slow anaerobic decomposition below the surface; this process is slow enough that in many cases the bog grows and fixes more carbon from the atmosphere than is released. Over time, the peat grows deeper. Peat bogs hold one-quarter of the carbon stored in land plants and soils. Under some conditions and peat bogs may become sources of CO2, such as when a forest is flooded by the construction of a hydroelectric dam. Unless the forests and peat are harvested before flooding, the rotting vegetation is a source of CO2 and methane comparable in magnitude to the amount of carbon released by a fossil-fuel powered plant of equivalent power. Current agricultural practices lead to carbon loss from soils, it has been suggested. Present worldwide practises of overgrazing are reducing many grasslands' performance as carbon sinks.

The Rodale Institute says that regenerative agriculture, if practiced on the planet’s tillable land of 15 million km2 (3.6 bi

Lake Conache

Lake Conache is located in the village of Conache, in Laredo District, near Trujillo in the Peruvian region La Libertad. This lake has an area of 9 hectares, is close to the Pampas de San Juan, jurisdiction of the town called Santo Domingo in Laredo district; the lake is next to large dunes. In addition, near the lagoon Conache are extensive forests of carob presenting a variety of wildlife, are visited by tourists; the Lake Conache was seasonal and periodically it was formed during the rainy season in the area, months after it dried, but after completing the second phase of the special project of irrigation Chavimochic, with the continuous flood irrigation of the crops in the Pampas de San Juan, the water table increased by the leaks, the lake came to have a permanent water and it was growing its volumen. The lake has a varied wildlife: egrets, wild ducks, freshwater fish and gallinetas, charcoca as can be observed in some months of the year flocks of birds migrate to this habitat for nesting.

It is observed the presence of cattails and reeds that grow in the lagoon. There are abundant and carob trees that surround the lake. Trujillo Laredo District Conache Lake Conache Lake Conache on YouTube near Trujillo city

List of number-one Billboard Top Latin Albums of 2008

The Billboard Top Latin albums chart, published in Billboard magazine, is a record chart that features Latin music sales information. This data are compiled by Nielsen SoundScan from a sample that includes music stores, music departments at electronics and department stores, Internet sales and verifiable sales from concert venues in the United States. There were 23 number-one albums in 2008. Es un Ratico by Colombian singer-songwriter Juanes, won five Latin Grammy Awards, including Album of the Year. One month after the death of their lead vocalist Sergio Gómez in late December 2007, the Chicago-based group K-Paz de la Sierra returned to the top of the chart with Capaz de Todo Por Tí, number one for six consecutive weeks. Cómplices, the eighth number-one album by Mexican singer Luis Miguel, debuted at number 10 on the Billboard 200, the highest peak for the singer on that chart, with 32,000 album units sold; this album gave the singer the record for the most number-one albums on this chart for one month, until it was tied by fellow Mexican singer-songwriters Marco Antonio Solís and Los Temerarios.

This record was broken on October 25, 2008 by Solís with the debut of his ninth number-one album No Molestar. Vicente Fernández's Para Siempre won the Latin Grammy Award for Best Ranchero Album. Primera Fila, a live album by Fernández, was the last number-one album of 2008. With 26,000 album units sold, Daddy Yankee debuted at number 13 on the Billboard 200 with Talento de Barrio, a soundtrack for the movie that starred the reggaeton performer, which debuted at number one on this chart. Wisin & Yandel returned to number one with Los Extraterrestres, an album, awarded with the Latin Grammy Award for Best Urban Music Album. and ended the year as the best selling Latin album of 2008. On November 29, another Wisin & Yandel recording, a collaboration with DJ Nesty, titled La Mente Maestra debuted at number one. R. K. M & Ken-Y, Jenni Rivera and Los Pikadientes de Caborca peaked at number one for the first time in their careers. Luis Fonsi's Palabras del Silencio, earned his best sales week with 30,000 album copies sold and the second-largest sales week of the year for a Latin performer.

This album became the second number-one album on this chart for Fonsi. Billboard Top Latin Albums