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Carbon tax

A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels and, like carbon emissions trading, is a form of carbon pricing. The term carbon tax is used to refer to a carbon dioxide equivalent tax, the latter of, quite similar but can be placed on any type of greenhouse gas or combination of greenhouse gases, emitted by any economic sector; as of 2018, at least 27 countries and subnational units have implemented carbon taxes. Research shows that carbon taxes reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Economists argue that carbon taxes are the most efficient and effective way to curb climate change, with the least adverse effects on the economy; when a hydrocarbon fuel such as coal, petroleum, or natural gas is burnt, its carbon is converted to carbon dioxide and other compounds of carbon. CO2 is a heat-trapping greenhouse gas which causes global warming, which damages the environment and human health. Since greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are related to the carbon content of the respective fuels, this negative externality can be compensated for by taxing the carbon content of fossil fuels at any point in the product cycle of the fuel.

Carbon taxes offer a cost-effective means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. From an economic perspective, carbon taxes are a type of Pigovian tax and help to address the problem of emitters of greenhouse gases not facing the full social cost of their actions. To prevent them being regressive taxes carbon tax revenues can be spent on low-income groups. Carbon dioxide is one of several heat-trapping greenhouse gases emitted by humans and the scientific consensus is that human-induced greenhouse gas emissions are the primary cause of global warming, that carbon dioxide is the most important of the anthropogenic GHGs. Worldwide, 27 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide are produced by human activity annually; the physical effect of CO2 in the atmosphere can be measured as a change in the Earth-atmosphere system's energy balance – the radiative forcing of CO2. Carbon taxes are one of the policies available to governments to reduce GHG emissions. In the Kyoto Protocol, CO2 emissions are regulated along with other GHGs.

Different GHGs have different physical properties: the global warming potential is an internationally accepted scale of equivalence for other greenhouse gases in units of tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. A carbon tax is a form of pollution tax. Pollution taxes are grouped with two other economic policy instruments: tradable pollution permits/credits and subsidies; these three environmental economic policy instruments are built upon a foundation of a command and control regulation. The difference is that classic command-penalty regulations stipulate, through performance or prescriptive standards, what each polluter is required to do to be in compliance with the law. Command and control regulation is not considered an economic instrument as it is enforced by narrower means such as stop or control order, though it may include an administrative monetary penalty in site-specific regulations; the instrumental distinction between a tax and a command-and-control regulation is determined by the enacted legislative names, whether they contain "tax" as a defined term within the Act, for example British Columbia's Carbon Tax Act versus Alberta's Specified Gas Emitters Regulation, Alta Reg 139/2007 A carbon tax is an indirect tax—a tax on a transaction—as opposed to a direct tax, which taxes income.

A carbon tax is called a price instrument. In economic theory, pollution is considered a negative externality, a negative effect on a third party not directly involved in a transaction, is a type of market failure. To confront parties with the issue, the economist Arthur Pigou proposed taxing the goods, which were the source of the negative externality so as to reflect the cost of the goods' production to society, thereby internalizing the costs associated with the goods' production. A tax on a negative externality is called a Pigovian tax, should equal the marginal damage costs. Within Pigou's framework, the changes involved are marginal, the size of the externality is assumed to be small enough not to distort the rest of the economy. According to the scientific consensus, the impact of climate change may result in catastrophe and non-marginal changes. "Non-marginal" means that the impact could reduce the growth rate in income and welfare. The amount of resources that should be devoted to climate change mitigation is controversial.

Policies designed to reduce carbon emissions could have a non-marginal impact, but not catastrophic. In addition to creating incentives for energy conservation, a carbon tax would put renewable energy sources such as wind and geothermal on a more competitive footing, stimulating their growth. David Gordon Wilson first proposed a carbon tax in 1973. In January 2019, economists published a statement in The Wall Street Journal calling for a carbon tax, describing it as "the most cost-effective lever to reduce carbon emissions at the scale and speed, necessary." By February 2019, the statement had been signed by more than 3,000 U. S. economists, including 27 Nobel Laureate Economists. Carbon leakage is the effect that regulation of emissions in one country/sector has on the emissions in other countries/sectors that are not subject to the same regulation. Leakage effects can be both positive. Negative leakages, which are desirable, are referred to as "spill


Sandesaya is a 1960 film. The film based on the Portuguese invaders in Sri Lanka, it was directed by Sri Lankan film director Lester James Peries. It was produced by K. Gunaratnam on behalf of the Cinemas Company on the request of Raj Kapoor. A band of guerrillas led by Bandara lead a resistance against Portuguese invaders. Bandara is in love with Sumana. Ananda Jayaratne as Bandara Kanthi Gunatunga as Sumana Gamini Fonseka as Dhamitha David Dharmakeerthi as Disapathi Ekanayake'Disawa' Arthur Van Langenberg as Captain Antony Rodrigo Vincent Vaas as Sandeshaya Carrier Hugo Fernando as Vithana Rala Eddie Jayamanne as Mamma Shane Gunaratne as Sira Iranganie Serasinghe as Yaso Hami Bandu Gunasekara as Punchappu Douglas Wickremasinghe as Mudaliwuna Malwana Thilakasiri Fernando as Cart driver Shanthi Lekha as Executed man's wife N. R. Dias as Torturer Chris Greet as Portuguese soldier Jeevarani Kurukulasuriya as Executed man's daughter Reg Van Culenberg as Portuguese soldier Tissa Udangamuwa as Portuguese soldier Anthony C.

Perera as Town crier The music in the film was composed by a pioneer in Sinhala music. Jothipala's Puruthugeesikaraya was a hit; the lyrics were composed by Arisen Ahubudu. Sri Lanka Cinema Database Sandesaya on IMDb National Film Corporation of Sri Lanka - Official Website

Fahrenheit (1995 video game)

Fahrenheit is a full motion video game published by Sega and developed by Sega Studios for release on the Sega CD and Sega 32X CD in 1995. Developed as a 32X CD title, it saw a release on the Sega CD, where it was the same game, but with downgraded video quality. Both versions were bundled and sold together as one package for the North American release, while Japan and Europe only saw the Sega CD version released. Fahrenheit is one of the many full-motion-video games that were released for the Sega CD in the 1990s. Played through a first-person perspective it follows a rookie firefighter belonging to a fictional fire house called "Company 13." After an introduction exposition scene the player advances to the first of three burning buildings to rescue victims and property while disposing of potential hazards. As the player wanders through each building, an on-screen menu will pop up, allowing movement to the Left, Right or Forward; the game is timed, so decisions must be made or the computer will make the decisions for the player.

In addition to this, the player has a limited supply of oxygen. The game has three different levels of a password feature. On release, GamePro called the game "a well-executed thriller that builds in intensity." Though they complained that players are given too much time to think about their choices, they praised the game's cinematic presentation, tough decision making, use of aural clues. Famicom Tsūshin scored the Mega-CD version of the game a 24 out of 40. GamePro did a separate review for the 32X version, commenting that "The strong elements of Fahrenheit on the Sega CD get better on the 32X CD." Next Generation scored the 32X version two out of five stars, commenting, "Fahrenheit is unusual in that it lets you decide where to go, something that has never been done in an FMV game before. That feature alone makes this game fun. However, the bad acting, grainy video, lack of gameplay don't allow the fun to happen."

Addison, New York

Addison is a town in Steuben County, New York, United States. The population was 2,595 at the 2010 census; the name was selected to honor the author Joseph Addison. The Town of Addison contains a village called Addison; the town is an interior town in the southeastern part of the county. The town was first settled in 1791 by Samuel Rice. Addison a part of the old town of Painted Post, was organized as Middletown at the time of the organization of Steuben county in March 1796; the name was changed to Addison, in honor of Joseph Addison, the English author, on April 6, 1808. The early settlers called it "Tuscarora". In 1890 the population of Addison was 2,884. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 25.7 square miles, of which, 25.6 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. Former New York State Route 432, now County Road 119, is an east-west highway through the town. New York State Route 417 New York State Route 17, passes through the southeast corner of the town.

Addison is on the Southern Tier Main Line of the Norfolk Southern Railway, ultimate successor to the Erie/Erie Lackawanna Railroads which ran the railroad from its opening in 1850 to 1976. From c. 1885 to 1961 Addison was the northern terminus of the Wellsville, Addison & Galeton Railroad/Baltimore & Ohio/Buffalo & Susquehanna line from Galeton, Penn. The Canisteo River flows through the south part of the town. Goodhue Creek flows into the river near the east town line; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,640 people, 1,026 households, 687 families residing in the town. The population density was 103.0 people per square mile. There were 1,177 housing units at an average density of 45.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.45% White, 0.30% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.04% Asian, 0.08% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.61% of the population. There were 1,026 households out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.0% were non-families.

25.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.06. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.1% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $31,942, the median income for a family was $37,813. Males had a median income of $32,159 versus $22,708 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,473. About 13.2% of families and 17.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.1% of those under age 18 and 9.7% of those age 65 or over. Addison – The Village of Addison is on Route 417. Goodhue Lake – A small lake at the north town line. Jones Corners – A location on the west town line and County Road 2.

America - A 600 Acre plot of land home to the annual AmericaFest. Pinnacle State Park – A state park east of Addison village. Charles W. Gillet, former United States Congressman Bud Heine, former MLB player Jim Greengrass, former MLB player John V. McDuffie, born in Addison, United States Congressman from Alabama. Levi E. Pond and Wisconsin state senator, was born in Addison. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Addison has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps. Town of Addison Brief Addison information Addison history/links

Melvin L. Morse

Melvin L. Morse is an American medical doctor who specialized in pediatrics, he was voted by his peers as one of "America's Best Doctors" in 1997–1998, 2001–2002, 2005–2006. He has published numerous scientific articles in medical journals over the course of his thirty-year career; as the author of several books, Morse has appeared on many talk show and television programs to discuss his extensive research on near-death experiences in children. His 1991 book Closer to the Light was a bestseller. Oprah Winfrey interviewed Morse about this book in 1992. Larry King interviewed Morse in 2010; the PBS show Upon Reflection produced a half-hour episode devoted to Morse. He was the subject of an article in the Rolling Stone magazine in 2004 entitled "In search of the Dead Zone". In 2012, Morse and his second wife were charged with felony child endangerment based on allegations made by his eleven-year-old step-daughter, Anna Morse. During Morse's 2014 trial, he was dubbed as the "waterboarding doctor" by the media.

Trial testimony did not substantiate any instances of "waterboarding" as the term is understood. Morse was released from Sussex County Correctional Institution in 2016. According to Kahlil Peterkin, Clinical Supervisor of the prison's therapeutic Key program and Morse's therapist of thirteen months, Morse underwent a transformation while incarcerated. Peterkin reported Morse was well-respected by his fellow inmates and considered a leader in prison, he taught fellow inmates meditation techniques which Peterkin described as'transformative" in the lives of the men who learned and practiced them. Following his release, Morse co-founded The Recidivism Prevention Group, a company dedicated to assisting addicts and former inmates in developing spiritual understandings to re-enter society as productive members; the group uses meditation techniques to accomplish these goals. Morse now resides in Washington, DC. Morse graduated from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland in 1975 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Natural Science.

Morse earned a medical degree from George Washington University in Washington, D. C. in 1980. He interned in Pediatrics at the University of California at San Francisco, completed a residency in Pediatrics at Seattle Children's Hospital, he subsequently completed a two-year fellowship in Hematology/Oncology and a one-year fellowship in Behavioral Pediatrics. Morse practiced Pediatrics in Washington for 20 years, he was an Associate Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Washington in Seattle. In 1986, Morse worked for a year as a pediatrician at Fort Hall, Idaho for the Indian Health Service, he retired from the full-time practice of Pediatrics in 2006 before moving to Delaware in 2007. Prior to his arrest, he was working as a pediatrician at an office in Delaware. After his arrest on child endangerment charges in 2012, his Delaware license was suspended. In 2007, Morse became the Research Director of the Institute for the Scientific Study of Consciousness founded by Charles Tart in 1979. While Director of ISSC, he was awarded the Warcollier International Prize for consciousness research in 2011.

Morse, Melvin. Closer to the Light. Random House Digital. ISBN 9780804108324. Retrieved 2012-08-10. Morse, Melvin. Parting Visions:: Pre-Death Visions and Spiritual Experiences. Random House Publishing Group. Retrieved 2012-08-10. Morse, Melvin. Transformed by the Light: The Powerful Effect of Near Death Experiences on People's Lives. Random House. ISBN 0679404430. Morse, Melvin. Where God Lives: Paranormal Science and How Our Brains Are Connected to the Universe. Harper Collins. ISBN 0061095044. Morse, ML, Castillo P, Venecia D. "Near Death Experiences in a Pediatric Population". American Journal of Diseases in Children. Vol 140 No 11 1110-1115. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Morse, Melvin. "Current Problems in Pediatrics". Near Death Experiences and Death Related Visions for the Clinician. Vol 24 55-83. Morse, ML. J Alt Comp Med. PMC 3239316. Christenson, PJ, Hardoin, RA, Hennsley, JA, Morse, ML. "The Effect of Premonitions of SIDS on Grieving and Healing". The SIDS Survival Guide. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Morse has been married twice, has six children, five of whom are adopted.

He is in regular contact all his children. Delaware Family Court has not restricted his access to his daughter Melody. In August 2012, Morse and his wife Pauline were arrested for felony child endangerment based on allegations of "waterboarding" made by his eleven-year-old step-daughter, Anna, he was accused by Delaware State Police of force-feeding the eleven-year-old girl until she threw up, among other child abuses. Morse's trial started on January 2014 at the Sussex County Superior Court in Delaware; the accusation made by the State Police that Morse had force-fed his step-daughter was not substantiated at trial. The step-daughter testified at trial. Morse ran water over her head to rinse the vomit out of her hair; this was the testimony which spawned the term "waterboarding" by the media. The trial transcripts contain no testimony regarding any instances of "waterboarding" in the context of torture as it is known today. Morse was convicted of one felony count of first-degree reckless endangerment and five misdemeanor


UB40 are an English reggae and pop band, formed in December 1978 in Birmingham, England. The band has had more than 50 singles in the UK Singles Chart, has achieved considerable international success, they have been nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album four times, in 1984 were nominated for the Brit Award for Best British Group. UB40 have sold over 70 million records worldwide; the ethnic make-up of the band's original line-up was diverse, with musicians of English, Irish, Jamaican and Yemeni parentage. Their hit singles include their debut "Food for Thought" and two Billboard Hot 100 number ones with "Red Red Wine" and "Can't Help Falling in Love". Both of these topped the UK Singles Chart, as did the band's version of "I Got You Babe", their two most successful albums, Labour of Love and Promises and Lies, reached number one on the UK Albums Chart. UB40 and the English ska band Madness hold the record for most weeks spent by a group in the UK singles chart during the 1980s, with 214 weeks each.

The band's line-up was stable for nearly 29 years, from March 1979 until January 2008, when frontman Ali Campbell left the band, followed shortly thereafter by keyboardist Mickey Virtue. Another member, remained with the band until November 2013, when he departed the original band to team up with Campbell and Virtue in a new version of UB40. In 2014, legal advice was sought by the original band who took action against the group containing Campbell and Astro over usage of the band name, due to its being used by both parties; the band members began as friends who knew each other from various schools across Birmingham, England. The name "UB40" was selected in reference to a form issued to people claiming unemployment benefits from the UK government's Department of Employment; the designation UB40 stood for Unemployment Benefit, Form 40. The origins of what would become UB40 began when in mid-1978 guitarist Ali Campbell, together with the rhythm section of drummer Jimmy Brown and bassist Earl Falconer, began rehearsing charting reggae songs in addition to some of their own original compositions.

They were soon joined by several of their friends, firstly percussionists Yomi Babayemi and Norman Hassan, saxophonist Brian Travers and keyboardist Jimmy Lynn. Robin Campbell, although reluctant to commit to forming a band with the others, was invited to join once again by his brother and bought a guitar with which to do so in December of that year. Once Robin had joined the others in their jamming sessions, the eight musicians formed a band, deciding on the name'UB40' after a friend suggested it was an appropriate name given the unemployed status of all of the band members. Prior to this, Travers had work as an electrical apprentice for NG Bailey; this lineup of the band lasted long enough to play their first show at the Hare & Hounds pub in Kings Heath in February 1979 and one other, before the band underwent its first lineup change in the form of Babyemi and Lynn leaving the band and Mickey Virtue joining in place of Lynn. A month UB40's classic lineup was rounded out with the inclusion of percussionist and vocalist Astro.

Astro had been working for Duke Alloy's sound system attending reggae dances in Birmingham. Before some of them could play their instruments, Ali Campbell and Brian Travers travelled around Birmingham promoting the band, putting up UB40 posters, their sound was honed through many long jam sessions at various locations in Birmingham. Their first gig took place on 9 February 1979 at The Hare & Hounds Pub in Kings Heath, Birmingham for a friend's birthday party; this was commemorated in October 2011 by the unveiling of a plaque at the venue, indicating the band receiving the Performing Rights Society's Music Heritage Award. UB40 caught their first break when Chrissie Hynde saw them at a pub and gave them an opportunity as a support act to her band, The Pretenders. UB40's first single, "King"/"Food for Thought" was released on Graduate Records, a local independent label run by David Virr, it reached No. 4 on the UK Singles Chart. The title of their first album, Signing Off, indicates the band was signing off from, or ending, their claim for unemployment benefits.

It was produced by Bob Lamb. Norman Hassan said of the recording: "if you stripped my track down, you could hear the birds in the background." This is. Signing Off was released on 29 August 1980, it entered the UK Albums Chart on 2 October 1980, spent 71 weeks in total on the chart. Signing Off is now a Platinum album; as UB40 grew in popularity, they encouraged and supported local musicians and bands from Birmingham, such as Beshara bringing them on tour. After great success in the UK, UB40's popularity in the US was established when they released Labour of Love, an album of cover songs, in 1983; the album reached No. 1 on the UK Albums Chart and No. 8 on the Billboard 200 in the US. The album featured the song "Red Red Wine", a cover version of a Neil Diamond song. Three years UB40 performed at the Birmingham Heart Beat Charity Concert 1986. In 1987 Ray "Pablo" Falconer, producer of UB40 music, died in a car crash, his brother, Earl Falconer, the band's bassist, was driving with nearly twice the legal limit of alcohol in his blood.

Earl was sentenced to six months imprisonment in June 1988 and banned from driving for