Smelting is a form of extractive metallurgy, its main use is to produce a base metal from its ore. This includes production of silver, iron and other metals from their ores. Smelting makes use of heat and a reducing agent to decompose the ore, driving off other elements as gases or slag. The reducing agent is commonly a source of such as coke. The carbon removes oxygen from the ore, leaving behind the elemental metal, the carbon is thus oxidized in two stages, producing first carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. As most ores are impure, it is necessary to use flux, such as limestone. Plants for the reduction of aluminium are generally referred to as aluminium smelters. Smelting involves more than just melting the metal out of its ore, most ores are a chemical compound of the metal with other elements, such as oxygen, sulfur or carbon and oxygen together. To produce the metal, these compounds have to undergo a chemical reaction, smelting therefore consists of using suitable reducing substances that will combine with those oxidizing elements to free the metal.
In the case of carbonates and sulfides, a process called roasting drives out the carbon or sulfur, leaving an oxide. Roasting is usually carried out in an oxidizing environment, a few practical examples, Malachite, a common ore of copper, is primarily copper carbonate hydroxide Cu22. This mineral undergoes thermal decomposition to 2CuO, CO2, and H2O in several stages between 250 °C and 350 °C, the carbon dioxide and water are expelled into the atmosphere, leaving copper oxide which can be directly reduced to copper as described in the following section titled Reduction. Galena, the most common mineral of lead, is primarily lead sulfide, the sulfide is oxidized to a sulfite which thermally decomposes into lead oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The sulfur dioxide is expelled, and the oxide is reduced as below. Reduction is the final, high-temperature step in smelting and it is here that the oxide becomes the elemental metal. A reducing environment pulls the final oxygen atoms from the raw metal, the required temperature varies over a very large range, both in absolute terms and in terms of the melting point of the base metal.
Fluxes are used in smelting for several purposes, chief among them catalyzing the desired reactions, of the seven metals known in antiquity, only gold occurred regularly in native form in the natural environment. The others – copper, silver, tin and mercury – occur primarily as minerals and these minerals are primarily carbonates, sulfides, or oxides of the metal, mixed with other components such as silica and alumina
Barium carbonate, known as witherite, is a chemical compound used in rat poison, ceramic glazes and cement. Witherite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and it transforms into an hexagonal phase at 1084 K that changes into a cubic phase at 1254 K. The mineral is named after William Withering, who in 1784 recognized it to be distinct from barytes. It occurs in veins of ore at Hexham in Northumberland, Alston in Cumbria, near Chorley in Lancashire. Witherite is readily altered to barium sulfate by the action of water containing calcium sulfate in solution and it is the chief source of barium salts and is mined in considerable amounts in Northumberland. It is used for the preparation of rat poison, in the manufacture of glass and porcelain and it is used for controlling the chromate to sulfate ratio in chromium electroplating baths. Barium carbonate is made commercially from barium sulfide either by treatment with sodium carbonate at 60 to 70 °C or by passing carbon dioxide at 40 to 90 °C.
In the soda ash process, solid or dissolved sodium carbonate is added to barium sulfide solution, barium carbonate is widely used in the ceramics industry as an ingredient in glazes. It acts as a flux, a matting and crystallizing agent and its use is somewhat controversial since some claim that it can leach from glazes into food and drink. To provide a means of use, BaO is often used in fritted form. In the brick, tile and pottery industries barium carbonate is added to clays to precipitate soluble salts that cause efflorescence
Hot blast refers to the preheating of air blown into a blast furnace or other metallurgical process. As this considerably reduced the fuel consumed, hot blast was one of the most important technologies developed during the Industrial Revolution, hot blast allowed higher furnace temperatures, which increased the capacity of furnaces. As first developed, it worked by alternately storing heat from the flue gas in a firebrick-lined vessel with multiple chambers. This is known as regenerative heating, hot blast was invented and patented for iron furnaces by James Beaumont Neilson in 1828 at Wilsontown Ironworks in Scotland, but was applied in other contexts, including late bloomeries. Later the carbon monoxide in the gas was burned to provide additional heat. James Beaumont Neilson, previously foreman at Glasgow gas works, invented the system of preheating the blast for a furnace and he, with partners including Charles Macintosh, patented this in 1828. Initially the heating vessel was made of iron plates, but these oxidized.
On the basis of a January 1828 patent, Thomas Botfield has a claim as the inventor of the hot blast method. Neilson is credited as inventor of hot blast because he won patent litigation and his partners engaged in substantial litigation to enforce the patent against infringers. The spread of technology across Britain was relatively slow. By 1840,58 ironmasters had taken out licenses, yielding a royalty income of £30,000 per year, by the time the patent expired there were 80 licenses. In 1843, just after it expired,42 of the 80 furnaces in south Staffordshire were using hot blast, other advantages of hot blast were that raw coal could be used instead of coke. In Scotland, the poor black band ironstone could be profitably smelted. It increased the output of furnaces. In the case of Calder ironworks from 5.6 tons per day in 1828 to 8.2 in 1833, early hot blast stoves were troublesome, as thermal expansion and contraction could cause breakage of pipes. This was somewhat remedied by supporting the pipes on rollers and it was necessary to devise new methods of connecting the blast pipes to the tuyeres, as leather could not longer be used.
Ultimately this principle was applied even more efficiently in regenerative heat exchangers, such as the Cowper stove, George Crane and David Thomas, of the Yniscedwyn Works in Wales, conceived of the same idea, and Crane filed for a British patent in 1836. They began producing iron by the new process on February 5,1837, Crane subsequently bought Gessenhainers patent and patented additions to it, controlling the use of the process in both Britain and the US
A reverberatory furnace is a metallurgical or process furnace that isolates the material being processed from contact with the fuel, but not from contact with combustion gases. The term reverberation is used here in a sense of rebounding or reflecting. Chemistry determines the relationship between the fuel and the material, among other variables. There are, however, a great many designs. The applications of these fall into two general categories, metallurgical melting furnaces, and lower temperature processing furnaces typically used for metallic ores. Historically these furnaces have used solid fuel, and bituminous coal has proven to be the best choice, the brightly visible flames give more radiant heat transfer than anthracite coal or charcoal. Contact with the products of combustion, which may add undesirable elements to the material, is used to advantage in some processes. Control of the balance can alter the exhaust gas chemistry toward either an oxidizing or a reducing mixture. For example, cast iron can be puddled in an atmosphere to convert it to the lower-carbon mild steel or bar iron.
The Siemens-Martin oven in open hearth steelmaking is a reverbetratory furnace, Reverberatory furnaces were formerly used for melting brass and pig iron for foundry work. They were also, for the first 75 years of the 20th century, the first reverberatory furnaces were perhaps in the medieval period, and were used for melting bronze for casting bells. They were first applied to smelting metals in the late 17th century, Sir Clement Clerke and his son Talbot built cupolas or reverberatory furnaces in the Avon Gorge below Bristol in about 1678. In 1687, while obstructed from smelting lead, they moved on to copper, in the following decades, reverberatory furnaces were widely adopted for smelting these metals and tin. They had the advantage over older methods that the fuel was mineral coal, in the 1690s, they applied the reverberatory furnace to melting pig iron for foundry purposes. The puddling furnace, introduced by Henry Cort in the 1780s to replace the older finery process, was a variety of reverberatory furnace, reverberatory furnaces are widely used to melt secondary aluminium scrap for eventual use by die-casting industries.
The simplest reverberatory is nothing more than a box lined with alumina refractory brick with a flue at one end. Conventional oil or gas burners are placed usually on side of the furnace to heat the brick. P. W. King, Sir Clement Clerke and the Adoption of coal in metallurgy, Transactions of the Newcomen Society 73, media related to Reverberatory furnaces at Wikimedia Commons
In metallurgy, stainless steel, known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable, is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10. 5% chromium content by mass. Stainless steel is notable for its resistance, and it is widely used for food handling. Stainless steel does not readily corrode, rust or stain with water as ordinary steel does, however, it is not fully stain-proof in low-oxygen, high-salinity, or poor air-circulation environments. There are various grades and surface finishes of stainless steel to suit the environment the alloy must endure, Stainless steel is used where both the properties of steel and corrosion resistance are required. Stainless steel differs from carbon steel by the amount of chromium present, unprotected carbon steel rusts readily when exposed to air and moisture. This iron oxide film is active and accelerates corrosion by making it easier for more iron oxide to form, since iron oxide has lower density than steel, the film expands and tends to flake and fall away. In comparison, stainless steels contain sufficient chromium to undergo passivation and this layer prevents further corrosion by blocking oxygen diffusion to the steel surface and stops corrosion from spreading into the bulk of the metal.
Passivation occurs only if the proportion of chromium is high enough, Stainless steel’s resistance to corrosion and staining, low maintenance, and familiar lustre make it an ideal material for many applications. Storage tanks and tankers used to transport orange juice and other food are made of stainless steel. This influences its use in kitchens and food processing plants, as it can be steam-cleaned and sterilized. High oxidation resistance in air at ambient temperature is achieved with addition of a minimum of 13% chromium. The chromium forms a layer of chromium oxide when exposed to oxygen. The layer is too thin to be visible, and the metal remains lustrous, the layer is impervious to water and air, protecting the metal beneath, and this layer quickly reforms when the surface is scratched. This phenomenon is called passivation and is seen in other metals, corrosion resistance can be adversely affected if the component is used in a non-oxygenated environment, a typical example being underwater keel bolts buried in timber.
When stainless steel parts such as nuts and bolts are forced together, when forcibly disassembled, the welded material may be torn and pitted, a destructive effect known as galling. Galling can be avoided by the use of materials for the parts forced together, for example bronze and stainless steel. However, two different alloys electrically connected in a humid, even mildly acidic environment may act as a voltaic pile, nitronic alloys, made by selective alloying with manganese and nitrogen, may have a reduced tendency to gall. Additionally, threaded joints may be lubricated to provide a film between the two parts and prevent galling, low-temperature carburizing is another option that virtually eliminates galling and allows the use of similar materials without the risk of corrosion and the need for lubrication
Microstructure is the small scale structure of a material, defined as the structure of a prepared surface of material as revealed by a microscope above 25× magnification. The microstructure of a material can strongly influence physical properties such as strength, ductility, corrosion resistance and these properties in turn govern the application of these materials in industrial practice. Microstructure at scales smaller than can be viewed with optical microscopes is often called nanostructure, the nanostructure of biological specimens is referred to as ultrastructure. A microstructure’s influence on the mechanical and physical properties of a material is governed by the different defects present or absent of the structure. These defects can take many forms but the ones are the pores. Even if those pores play an important role in the definition of the characteristics of a material. In fact, for materials, different phases can exist at the same time. These phases have different properties and if managed correctly, can prevent the fracture of the material, the concept of microstructure is observable in macrostructural features in commonplace objects.
Galvanized steel, such as the casing of a lamp post or road divider, each polygon is a single crystal of zinc adhering to the surface of the steel beneath. Zinc and lead are two metals which form large crystals visible to the naked eye. The atoms in each grain are organized one of seven 3d stacking arrangements or crystal lattices. The direction of alignment of the matrices differ between adjacent crystals, leading to variance in the reflectivity of each presented face of the grains on the galvanized surface. The average grain size can be controlled by processing conditions and composition and this is to increase the strength of the material. To quantify microstructural features, both morphological and material property must be characterized, image processing is a robust technique for determination of morphological features such as volume fraction, inclusion morphology and crystal orientations. To acquire micrographs, optical as well as electron microscopy are commonly used, to determine material property, Nanoindentation is a robust technique for determination of properties in micron and submicron level for which conventional testing are not feasible.
Conventional mechanical testing such as tensile testing or dynamic analysis can only return macroscopic properties without any indication of microstructural properties. However, nanoindentation can be used for determination of local properties of homogeneous as well as heterogeneous materials. When a polished flat sample reveals traces of its microstructure, it is normal to capture the image using macrophotography
Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds, three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radioactive isotope, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity, Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earths crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen and oxygen. It is the second most abundant element in the body by mass after oxygen. The atoms of carbon can bond together in different ways, termed allotropes of carbon, the best known are graphite and amorphous carbon. The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form, for example, graphite is opaque and black while diamond is highly transparent. Graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper, while diamond is the hardest naturally occurring material known, graphite is a good electrical conductor while diamond has a low electrical conductivity.
Under normal conditions, carbon nanotubes, and graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials, all carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions, with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form. They are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen, the most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and transition metal carbonyl complexes. The largest sources of carbon are limestones and carbon dioxide, but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal, oil. For this reason, carbon has often referred to as the king of the elements. The allotropes of carbon graphite, one of the softest known substances, and diamond. It bonds readily with other small atoms including other carbon atoms, Carbon is known to form almost ten million different compounds, a large majority of all chemical compounds. Carbon has the highest sublimation point of all elements, although thermodynamically prone to oxidation, carbon resists oxidation more effectively than elements such as iron and copper that are weaker reducing agents at room temperature.
Carbon is the element, with a ground-state electron configuration of 1s22s22p2. Its first four ionisation energies,1086.5,2352.6,4620.5 and 6222.7 kJ/mol, are higher than those of the heavier group 14 elements. Carbons covalent radii are normally taken as 77.2 pm,66.7 pm and 60.3 pm, although these may vary depending on coordination number, in general, covalent radius decreases with lower coordination number and higher bond order. Carbon compounds form the basis of all life on Earth
The cementation process is an obsolete technology for making steel by carburization of iron. Unlike modern steelmaking, it increased the amount of carbon in the iron and it was apparently developed before the 17th century. Derwentcote Steel Furnace, built in 1720, is the earliest surviving example of a cementation furnace, another example in the UK is the cementation furnace in Doncaster Street, Sheffield. The process was described in a treatise published in Prague in 1574 and it was again invented by Johann Nussbaum of Magdeburg, who began operations at Nuremberg in 1601. The process was patented in England by William Ellyot and Mathias Meysey in 1614, at that date, the invention could consist merely of the introduction of a new industry or product, or even a mere monopoly. They evidently soon transferred the patent to Sir Basil Brooke, a clause in the patent prohibiting the import of steel was found to be undesirable because he could not supply as much good steel as was needed. Brookes furnaces were probably in his manor of Madeley at Coalbrookdale where two cementation furnaces have been excavated and he probably used bar iron from the Forest of Dean, where he was a partner in farming the Kings ironworks in two periods.
These were among the first ironworks in Sweden to use the Walloon process of fining iron and it was so called from the Swedish port of Öregrund, north of Stockholm, in whose hinterland most of the ironworks lay. The ore used came ultimately from the Dannemora mine, the process begins with wrought iron and charcoal. It uses one or more long stone pots inside a furnace, typically, in Sheffield, each was 14 feet by 4 feet and 3.5 feet deep. Iron bars and charcoal are packed in alternating layers, with a top layer of charcoal, some manufacturers used a mix of powdered charcoal and mineral salts, called cement powder. In larger works, up to 16 tons of iron was treated in each cycle, though it can be done on a small scale, depending on the thickness of the iron bars, the pots were heated from below for a week or more. Bars were regularly examined and when the condition was reached the heat was withdrawn. The iron had gained a little over 1% in mass from the carbon in the charcoal and this would be done at most 3-4 times, as more is unnecessary and could potentially cause carbon loss from the steel.
In the early period, brass, an alloy of copper and zinc, was usually produced by a cementation process in which metallic copper was heated with calamine
A bloomery is a type of furnace once widely used for smelting iron from its oxides. The bloomery was the earliest form of capable of smelting iron. A bloomerys product is a mass of iron and slag called a bloom. This mix of slag and iron in the bloom is termed sponge iron, the bloomery has now largely been superseded by the blast furnace, which produces pig iron. A bloomery consists of a pit or chimney with heat-resistant walls made of earth, near the bottom, one or more pipes enter through the side walls. These pipes, called tuyères, allow air to enter the furnace, either by natural draught, an opening at the bottom of the bloomery may be used to remove the bloom, or the bloomery can be tipped over and the bloom removed from the top. The first step taken before the bloomery can be used is the preparation of the charcoal, the charcoal is produced by heating wood to produce the nearly pure carbon fuel needed for the smelting process. The ore is broken into pieces and usually roasted in a fire to remove any moisture in the ore.
Any large impurities in the ore can be crushed and removed, since slag from previous blooms may have a high iron content, it can be broken up and recycled into the bloomery with the new ore. In operation, the bloomery is preheated by burning charcoal, and once hot, iron ore and additional charcoal are introduced through the top, as the desired product of a bloomery is iron which is easily forgeable, it requires a low carbon content. The temperature and ratio of charcoal to iron ore must be controlled to keep the iron from absorbing too much carbon. Cast iron occurs when the iron melts and absorbs 2% to 4% carbon, because the bloomery is self-fluxing the addition of limestone is not required to form a slag. The mixed iron and slag cool to form a spongy mass referred to as the bloom. Because the bloom is highly porous, and its spaces are full of slag. Iron treated this way is said to be wrought, and the resulting iron and it is possible to produce blooms coated in steel by manipulating the charge of and air flow to the bloomery.
The onset of the Iron Age in most parts of the world coincides with the first widespread use of the bloomery, while earlier examples of iron are found, their high nickel content indicates that this is meteoric iron. Other early samples of iron may have produced by accidental introduction of iron ore in bronze smelting operations. Iron appears to have been smelted in the West as early as 3000 BC, in the West, iron began to be used around 1200 BC
Hardness is a measure of how resistant solid matter is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a compressive force is applied. Some materials are harder than others, Hardness is dependent on ductility, elastic stiffness, strain, toughness and viscosity. Common examples of matter are ceramics, certain metals, and superhard materials. There are three types of hardness measurements, scratch and rebound. Within each of these classes of measurement there are individual measurement scales, for practical reasons conversion tables are used to convert between one scale and another. Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to fracture or permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object, the principle is that an object made of a harder material will scratch an object made of a softer material. When testing coatings, scratch hardness refers to the necessary to cut through the film to the substrate. The most common test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy, one tool to make this measurement is the sclerometer.
Another tool used to make these tests is the pocket hardness tester and this tool consists of a scale arm with graduated markings attached to a four-wheeled carriage. A scratch tool with a rim is mounted at a predetermined angle to the testing surface. In order to use it a weight of mass is added to the scale arm at one of the graduated markings. The use of the weight and markings allows a known pressure to be applied without the need for complicated machinery. Indentation hardness measures the resistance of a sample to material deformation due to a constant compression load from an object, they are primarily used in engineering. The tests work on the premise of measuring the critical dimensions of an indentation left by a specifically dimensioned and loaded indenter. Common indentation hardness scales are Rockwell, Shore, rebound hardness, known as dynamic hardness, measures the height of the bounce of a diamond-tipped hammer dropped from a fixed height onto a material. This type of hardness is related to elasticity, the device used to take this measurement is known as a scleroscope.
Two scales that measures rebound hardness are the Leeb rebound hardness test, there are five hardening processes, Hall-Petch strengthening, work hardening, solid solution strengthening, precipitation hardening, and martensitic transformation. Hardness in the elastic range—a small temporary change in shape for a given force—is known as stiffness in the case of a given object and they exhibit plasticity—the ability to permanently change shape in response to the force, but remain in one piece
United States Department of Defense
The Department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 801,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services and it is headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside of Washington, D. C. The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, Military operations are managed by nine regional or functional Unified Combatant Commands. The Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the National Defense University, the history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775. The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775 and this coincides with the American holiday Flag Day. The Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, both the Navy and the Marine Corps are separate military services subordinate to the Department of the Navy. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to federal government, to defend its citizens and this first Congress had a huge agenda, that of creating legislation to build a government for the ages.
Legislation to create a military defense force stagnated, two separate times, President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts, deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing heavily on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense, the National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment was renamed the Department of Defense on 10 August 1949, under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the authority of the Military Departments.
Also provided in this legislation was a centralized authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The Act moved decision-making authority from the Military Departments to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and it strengthened the command channel of the military over U. S. forces from the President to the Secretary of Defense. Written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, it was signed into law 6 August 1958, because the Constitution vests all military authority in Congress and the President, the statutory authority of the Secretary of Defense is derived from their constitutional authorities. Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 describes the relationships within the Department. The latest version, signed by former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates in December 2010, is the first major re-write since 1987, the Office of the Secretary of Defense is the Secretary and Deputy Secretarys civilian staff. S. Government departments and agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, OSD performs oversight and management of the Defense Agencies and Department of Defense Field Activities.
OSD supervises the following Defense Agencies, Several defense agencies are members of the United States Intelligence Community and these are national-level intelligence services that operate under the jurisdiction of the Department of Defense but simultaneously fall under the authorities of the Director of National Intelligence
A carburetor, or carburettor, or carburator, or carburetter is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine in the proper ratio for combustion. It is sometimes shortened to carb in North America or carby in Australia. To carburate or carburet is to blend the air and fuel or to equip with a carburetor for that purpose, carburetors have largely been supplanted in the automotive and, to a lesser extent, aviation industries by fuel injection. They are still common on engines for lawn mowers, rototillers. The word carburetor comes from the French carbure meaning carbide, carburer means to combine with carbon. In fuel chemistry, the term has the specific meaning of increasing the carbon content of a fluid by mixing it with a volatile hydrocarbon. The first carburetor was invented by Samuel Morey in 1826, a carburetor was invented by an Italian, Luigi De Cristoforis, in 1876. Another carburetor was developed by Enrico Bernardi at the University of Padua in 1882, for his Motrice Pia, a carburetor was among the early patents by Karl Benz as he developed internal combustion engines and their components.
Early carburetors were the surface type, in which air is charged with fuel by being passed over the surface of gasoline. In 1885, Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler developed a float carburetor for their engine based on the atomizer nozzle, hungarian engineers János Csonka and Donát Bánki patented a carburetor for a stationary engine in 1893. Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham, experimented with the wick carburetor in cars, in 1896, Frederick and his brother built the first gasoline-driven car in England, a single cylinder 5 hp internal combustion engine with chain drive. Unhappy with the performance and power, they re-built the engine the next year into a horizontally opposed version using his new wick carburetor design. Carburetors were the method of fuel delivery for most US-made gasoline-fueled engines up until the late 1980s. 1991, Jeep Grand Wagoneer with the AMC360 cu in V8 engine, low-cost commercial vans and 4WDs in Australia continued with carburetors even into the 2000s, the last being the Mitsubishi Express van in 2003.
Elsewhere, certain Lada cars used carburetors until 2006, many motorcycles still use carburetors for simplicitys sake, since a carburetor does not require an electrical system to function. EEC legislation required all vehicles sold and produced in countries to have a catalytic converter after December 1992. This legislation had been in the pipeline for some time, with cars becoming available with catalytic converters or fuel injection from around 1990. Fords first fuel-injected car was the Ford Capri RS2600 in 1970, general Motors launched its first fuel-injected car around the same time, when began to introduce fuel-injected engines to its Vauxhall Cavalier/Opel Ascona range