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Cardiff

Cardiff is the capital of Wales and its largest city. The eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom, it is Wales' chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural institutions and Welsh media, the seat of the National Assembly for Wales. At the 2011 census, the unitary authority area population was estimated to be 346,090, the wider urban area 479,000. Cardiff is a significant tourist centre and the most popular visitor destination in Wales with 21.3 million visitors in 2017. In 2011, Cardiff was ranked sixth in the world in National Geographic's alternative tourist destinations. Cardiff is the county town of the historic county of Glamorgan, in 1974, South Glamorgan. Cardiff is part of the Eurocities network of the largest European cities. A small town until the early 19th century, its prominence as a major port for the transport of coal following the arrival of industry in the region contributed to its rise as a major city. In 1905, Cardiff was made a city and proclaimed the capital of Wales in 1955.

At the 2011 Census the population was 346,090. The Cardiff Built-up Area covers a larger area outside the county boundary and includes the towns of Dinas Powys and Penarth. Since the 1980s, Cardiff has seen significant development. A new waterfront area at Cardiff Bay contains the Senedd building, home to the Welsh Assembly and the Wales Millennium Centre arts complex. Current developments include the continuation of the redevelopment of the Cardiff Bay and city centre areas with projects such as the Cardiff International Sports Village, the BBC drama village, a new business district in the city centre. Sporting venues in the city include the Principality Stadium—the national stadium and the home of the Wales national rugby union team—Sophia Gardens, Cardiff City Stadium, Cardiff International Sports Stadium, Cardiff Arms Park and Ice Arena Wales; the city hosted Commonwealth Games. Cardiff was awarded European City of Sport due to its role in hosting major international sporting events in 2009 and again in 2014.

The Principality Stadium hosted 11 football matches as part of the 2012 Summer Olympics, including the games' opening event and the men's bronze medal match. Caerdydd derives from the earlier Welsh form Caerdyf; the change from -dyf to -dydd shows the colloquial alteration of Welsh f and dd, was also driven by folk etymology. This sound change had first occurred in the Middle Ages. Caerdyf has its origins in post-Roman Brythonic words meaning "the fort of the Taff"; the fort refers to that established by the Romans. Caer is Welsh for fort and -dyf is in effect a form of Taf, the river which flows by Cardiff Castle, with the ⟨t⟩ showing consonant mutation to ⟨d⟩ and the vowel showing affection as a result of a genitive case ending; the anglicised Cardiff is derived from Caerdyf, with the Welsh f borrowed as ff, as happens in Taff and Llandaff. The antiquarian William Camden suggested that the name Cardiff may derive from *Caer-Didi, a name given in honour of Aulus Didius Gallus, governor of a nearby province at the time when the Roman fort was established.

Although some sources repeat this theory, it has been rejected on linguistic grounds by modern scholars such as Professor Gwynedd Pierce. Archaeological evidence from sites in and around Cardiff: the St Lythans burial chamber near Wenvoe,. A group of five Bronze Age tumuli is at the summit of the Garth, within the county's northern boundary. Four Iron Age hill fort and enclosure sites have been identified within Cardiff's present-day county boundaries, including Caerau Hillfort, an enclosed area of 5.1 hectares. Until the Roman conquest of Britain, Cardiff was part of the territory of the Silures – a Celtic British tribe that flourished in the Iron Age – whose territory included the areas that would become known as Breconshire and Glamorgan; the 3.2-hectare fort established by the Romans near the mouth of the River Taff in AD 75, in what would become the north western boundary of the centre of Cardiff, was built over an extensive settlement, established by the Romans in the 50s AD. The fort was one of a series of military outposts associated with Isca Augusta that acted as border defences.

The fort may have been abandoned in the early 2nd century. However, by this time a civilian settlement, or vicus, was established, it was made up of traders who made a living from the fort, ex-soldiers and their families. A Roman villa has been discovered at Ely. Contemporary with the Saxon Shore forts of the 3rd and 4th centuries, a stone fortress was established at Cardiff. Similar to the shore forts, the fortres

Chris Hurford

Christopher John Hurford was a Labor member of the Australian House of Representatives seat of Adelaide from 1969 to 1987. He played a key role in the development of Australia's skills-oriented immigration policy, founded the ALP Labor Unity faction in SA. Hurford was born in India, to an English father and Australian mother. In 1940, his mother took the children to Perth, Western Australia where Hurford attended school, before returning to India to England. In 1949, his whole family migrated to Western Australia as'ten-pound poms', despite their Australian heritage. After studying at the London School of Economics, Chris Hurford worked in accountancy, he entered federal parliament in 1969, representing the Division of South Australia. The seat had fallen to Liberal Andrew Jones during the massive Coalition landslide of 1966. However, Jones' strong conservatism did not play well in this ancestrally Labor seat, Hurford retook the seat for Labor on a resounding 14.3 percent swing, turning it into a safe Labor seat in one stroke.

Hurford won enough votes on the first count to take the seat without the need for preferences. He held Adelaide until his resignation in 1987. Hurford was Minister for Housing and Construction, outside Cabinet in the first Hawke Ministry from March 1983 to December 1984. In the second Hawke Ministry, he was promoted to Cabinet as Minister for Immigration and Ethnic Affairs until February 1987, when he replaced Don Grimes as Minister for Community Services; as Immigration Minister, Hurford's major achievement was the introduction of the "points system" for skilled immigration—a system which provided transparency in decisions on skilled migration and brought a new focus to immigration's role in developing human capital. The system has since been adopted in other jurisdictions. Hurford's period in Immigration was notable for his attempt to have Sheikh Taj El-Din Hilaly deported, but was unsuccessful, he made an early, unsuccessful attempt to reduce ministerial discretions in the granting of immigration visas.

In July 1987, Hurford withdrew from the third Hawke ministry for personal reasons. He retired from Parliament at the end of the year and became Australia's Consul-General in New York for four years. Within the South Australian ALP, Hurford is arguably an important modernising figure, he led the creation of the Labor Unity faction, a group variously described as "right-wing", moderate or "Third Way". A Catholic, Hurford won support from the conservative leadership of the Shop Distributive and Allied Trades Union in forming the faction. In the 1980s Hurford led the SA Labor Unity group in vigorously defending within the ALP the policy direction of the Hawke Government, a direction with which the larger Centre-Left and Left factions were uncomfortable. By the 1990s Labor Unity became a substantial counterweight to the other factions in SA

The City: Suggestions for Investigation of Human Behavior in the Urban Environment

The City is a book by American urban sociologists Robert E. Park and Ernest W. Burgess published in 1925; the publication of this work was preceded by an article published by Park in 1915. The article - considered to be the primer for the Chicago School of Sociology - is one of the most important urban models in the 20th century; the theory behind the book is an effect of long research focused on the city of Chicago. Park’s and Burgess’ urbanecology proposes that cities are environments like those found in nature, governed by numerous forces, with competition as the primary force. According to Park and Burgess scarce urban resources lead to competition between groups and to division of urban spaces into distinctive ecological niches which are inhabited by people with similar characteristic due to parallel social pressures they experience. Competition for land and urban resources led to spatial differentiation of urban space into zones. Based on these assumptions and Burgess created one of the earliest city models – Concentric ring theory first introduced in The City.

Chicago and New York were typical examples of this modernist model. The urban core of the city stood for a place to live, it was a space in which different people interacted with each other and, in fact, formed one organism. The school was interested in reforming city value. By careful examination of urban form and the processes that took place in this form, Chicago sociologists determined biotic and cultural dependencies among people; this gave foundations to claim a model of the city that represents concentric zones diversified according to life conditions and social status. All the zones existed around one collective nuclei-, the city center, where paths of the city dwellers crossed; this model was used by Park and their students to explain social problems such as crime and unemployment in certain areas of Chicago. Michael Dear enumerates the major assumptions of the book in a following way: ” a modernist view of the city as a unified whole, i.e. a coherent regional system in which the center organizes its hinterland.

Chicago School sociologists researched “natural history” of the city of the perfect competition market period, which came to an end along with the Great Depression causing the Chicago School model to become out of date. In the 1980s sociologists, urban planners based in Southern California have started to write about a different design of city development- the one, ongoing in the Los Angeles metropolitan area and was reflective of what was happening throughout the United States. Chicago School Concentric zone model Robert E. Park Los Angeles School Urban Ecology