Cardiff Arms Park

Cardiff Arms Park known as The Arms Park and the BT Sport Cardiff Arms Park for sponsorship reasons from September 2014, is situated in the centre of Cardiff, Wales. It is known as a rugby union stadium, but it has a bowling green; the Arms Park was host to the British Empire and Commonwealth Games in 1958, hosted four games in the 1991 Rugby World Cup, including the third-place play-off. The Arms Park hosted the inaugural Heineken Cup Final of 1995–96 and the following year in 1996–97; the history of the rugby ground begins with the first stands appearing for spectators in the ground in 1881–1882. The Arms Park had a cricket ground to the north and a rugby union stadium to the south. By 1969, the cricket ground had been demolished to make way for the present day rugby ground to the north and a second rugby stadium to the south, called the National Stadium; the National Stadium, used by Wales national rugby union team, was opened on 7 April 1984, however in 1997 it was demolished to make way for the Millennium Stadium in 1999, which hosted the 1999 Rugby World Cup and became the national stadium of Wales.

The rugby ground has remained the home of the semi-professional Cardiff RFC yet the professional Cardiff Blues regional rugby union team moved to the Cardiff City Stadium in 2009, but returned three years later. The site is owned by Cardiff Athletic Club and has been host to many sports, apart from rugby union and cricket; the site has a bowling green to the north of the rugby ground, used by Cardiff Athletic Bowls Club, the bowls section of the Cardiff Athletic Club. The National Stadium hosted many music concerts including Michael Jackson, David Bowie, Bon Jovi, The Rolling Stones and U2; the Cardiff Arms Park site was called the Great Park, a swampy meadow behind the Cardiff Arms Hotel. The hotel was built by Sir Thomas Morgan, during the reign of Charles I. Cardiff Arms Park was named after this hotel. From 1803, the Cardiff Arms Hotel and the Park had become the property of the Bute family; the Arms Park soon became a popular place for sporting events, by 1848, Cardiff Cricket Club was using the site for its cricket matches.

However, by 1878, Cardiff Arms Hotel had been demolished. The 3rd Marquess of Bute stipulated that the ground could only be used for "recreational purposes". At that time Cardiff Arms Park had a cricket ground to the north and a rugby union ground to the south. 1881–2 saw the first stands for spectators. The architect was Archibald Leitch, famous for designing Ibrox Stadium and Old Trafford, among others. In 1890, new standing areas were constructed along the entire length of the ground, with additional stands erected in 1896. By 1912, the Cardiff Football Ground, as it was known, had a new south stand and temporary stands on the north and west ends of the ground; the south stand was covered, while the north terrace was without a roof. The improvements were funded by the Welsh Rugby Union; the opening ceremony took place on 5 October 1912, with a match between Newport RFC and Cardiff RFC. The new ground was opened by Lord Ninian Crichton-Stuart; this new development increased the ground capacity to 43,000 and much improved the facilities at the ground compared to the earlier stands.

In 1922 John Crichton-Stuart, 4th Marquess of Bute, had sold the entire site and it was bought by the Cardiff Arms Park Company Limited for £30,000, it was leased to the Cardiff Athletic Club for 99 years at a cost of £200 per annum. During 1934 the cricket pavilion had been demolished to make way for the new North Stand, built on the rugby union ground, costing around £20,000. However, in 1941 the new North Stand and part of the west terracing was badly damaged in the Blitz by the Luftwaffe during the Second World War. At a general meeting of the WRU in June 1953 they made a decision "That until such time as the facilities at Swansea were improved, all international matches be played at Cardiff". At the same time, plans were made for a new South Stand, estimated to cost £60,000; the new South Stand opened in time for the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games. This brought the overall capacity of the Arms Park up to 60,000 spectators, of which 12,800 were seated and the remainder standing.

The Arms Park hosted the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, used for the athletics events, but this event caused damage to the drainage system, so much so, that other rugby unions complained after the Games about the state of the pitch. On 4 December 1960, due to torrential rain, the River Taff burst its banks with the Arms Park pitch being left under 4 feet of water; the Development Committee was set up to resolve these issues on a permanent basis. They looked at various sites in Cardiff, they could not agree a solution with the Cardiff Athletic Club, so they purchased about 80 acres of land at Island Farm in Bridgend, used as a prisoner-of-war camp. It is best known for being the camp where the biggest escape attempt was made by German prisoners of war in Great Britain during the Second World War. Due to problems including transport issues Glamorgan County Council never gave outline planning permission for the proposals and by June 1964 the scheme was aba


Branisella is an extinct genus of New World monkey from the Salla Formation of what is now Bolivia during the Late Oligocene 26 million years ago, comprising only the species Branisella boliviana. It is the oldest fossil New World monkey discovered, it was found in Bolivia by the paleontologist Leonardo Branisa, it was named after him by Hoffstetter, the scientist who first described and classified it in 1969. Morphologically, it is similar to Proteopithecus, an Oligocene primate from Africa, in its reduced upper second premolar and unreduced lower second premolar; this suggests. Other features, suggest that it may have been related to the omomyids, an extinct group of tarsier-like primates found in North America, among other places. Within platyrrhines, this taxon has been interpreted as either a stem platyrrhine not related to any of the living forms, or as a primitive callitrichine; as Branisella is the only South American primate taxon known until the Miocene, more fossils are needed before its phylogenetic position can be established.

The cheek teeth of Branisella are high-crowned, suggesting that it might have been somewhat terrestrial, although this hypothesis cannot be confirmed from bones of the postcranial skeleton. The known dental specimens show heavy and rapid wear and the first molar tooth is far more worn than the last, suggesting that it included abrasive foods in its diet with poorly developed cutting edges indicating a diet of fruit. One specimen retains a small part of the orbit and indicates that Branisella had small eyes and was diurnal. Mikko's Phylogeny Archive FOSILBOL / PRIMATES

William Childress

William Childress is an American writer, author and photojournalist. Childress has received numerous awards and accolades for his writing and poetry, is regarded as one of the foremost poets of the Korean War by at least two critics. Born the oldest son of a poor family of migrant sharecroppers, Childress joined the Army at age 18, serving in the Korean War as a demolitions specialist in 1952. After the war he reenlisted as a paratrooper, making 33 jumps, twice narrowly escaping death from parachute malfunctions. Three honorable discharges Childress attended Fresno State College in California, studying English and Journalism, set a record as the only undergraduate to publish poetry and photojournalism in national magazines; this helped him get two fellowships to the University of Iowa Writers Workshop and a Master of Fine Arts degree. His thesis became his first book of poems, Lobo. Childress lived for some time in California, his wife, died there in December 2013. He now lives in California. During his 45-year photojournalism career, Childress has published some 4,000 articles in various magazines and other publications, including National Geographic, Country Living, The Saturday Evening Post, McCall's, Ladies' Home Journal, Sports Afield, TV Guide, Air & Space Smithsonian, The Nation, The New Republic, as well as 6,000 magazine and newspaper photos.

For 14 years, Childress wrote a regular column for the St. Louis Post-Dispatch called "Out of the Ozarks." His column became so popular that in 1988 Childress wrote a book titled Out of the Ozarks, published by Southern Illinois University Press, became a regional bestseller. Childress was nominated for the Pulitzer Prize, in the Commentary category. Childress has published some 350 poems, in such journals as Poetry Magazine, Poet Lore, The Southern Review, North American Review, Harper's, Kenyon Review, Georgia Review, Northwest Review, as well as the anthologies Old Glory, The Hundred Years War, The Orvis Anthology, University of Columbia American War Poetry Anthology, Tall Tales & Short Stories, The Madness of It All, he has published dozens of short stories, including "Uncle Roman," which won the prestigious STORY award in 1970. He has published three books of poetry: Burning the Years, the Devins Award-winning Lobo, Selected Poems, his fourth poetry book, "Cowboys & Indians", has been not yet published.

In 2006, Childress' autobiographical memoir An Ozark Odyssey was published by Southern Illinois University Press. An ex-paratrooper and Korean War demolitions expert, Childress has written a Korean War memoir, Working Man's War, due to be published soon. In addition, Childress has written a novel, The Taro Leaf Murders, co-authored the photographic anthology Missouri on My Mind. In addition to his two Pulitzer Prize nominations, Childress' literary awards and achievements include the Joseph Henry Jackson Poetry Award, the State of Illinois Literary Award, the Poetry Society of America Award, the above-mentioned Devins Award. In 2004, Childress was awarded a $5,000 fellowship to the exclusive Millay Colony for the Arts, a prestigious writer's retreat in upstate New York. Childress was awarded the "Maxwell Medal" by the Dog Writers Association of America in 2003, for his story "Bonnie's Big Break." Childress' work has been read on BBC radio, as well as featured in a 2003 Canadian Korean War documentary, "The Unfinished War."

Childress has appeared on American radio numerous times. In the mid-1980s, Childress was being considered as a candidate for the Civilians in Space program, which aimed to put a journalist aboard the U. S. Space Shuttle. However, the tragic 1986 death of teacher Christa McAuliffe in the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster put an end to the Civilians In Space program. Burning the Years Lobo Selected Poems Out of the Ozarks Missouri On My Mind An Ozark Odyssey Out of the Ozarks Listing of several works by William Childress Childress' meeting with William Saroyan "Bonnie's Big Break," award-winning dog story IMDB page for Canadian Korean War documentary "The Unfinished War" American War Poetry: An Anthology