Pietro Parolin is an Italian cardinal of the Catholic Church. He has served as the Secretary of State since 15 October 2013 and he was elevated to the cardinalate on 22 February 2014. Parolin was born in Schiavon, Province of Vicenza, as the son of a store manager. He has one sister and a brother, when he was ten years old, his father died in a car accident. After he was ordained on 27 April 1980, he took up studies in canon law at the Pontifical Gregorian University. He entered the Holy Sees diplomatic service in 1986 at the age of 31 and he served for three years in the Nunciature of Nigeria and another three in the Nunciature of Mexico. In Nigeria he became familiar with the problems in Christian-Muslim relations and these laborious negotiations led to Mexico officially shedding the country’s secular and anti-clerical imprint, which extended to its Constitution. In Rome he was as director for Spain, Italy. He speaks native Italian, fluent English and French, and near-native Spanish, Parolin has been at the forefront of Vatican efforts to approve and implement the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.
Addressing the International Atomic Energy Agency on 18 September 2006, at its headquarters in Vienna, Parolin referred to this treaty as the basis to pursue nuclear disarmament and an important element for further development of nuclear energy applications for peaceful purposes. He said, Since this treaty is the only multilateral legal instrument currently available, intended to bring about a nuclear weapons-free world, humanity deserves no less than the full cooperation of all states in this important matter. In 2005 Msgr Parolin was awarded Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, in September 2007 at the opening of the UN he argued that, We often hear in the halls of the United Nations of the responsibility to protect. The Holy See believes that applies in the context of climate change, at the beginning of Pope Benedicts pontificate, direct contact was re-established with China. It was in context that Benedict XVI sent Chinese Catholics the June 2007 Letter. On 17 August 2009 Pope Benedict XVI appointed Msgr, Parolin to a new position as apostolic nuncio to Venezuela.
Talks between the government and Vatican have been held since 1990, Vietnam has one of Asias largest Catholic populations, with more than 6 million followers. In the latest round of talks, a senior Vatican delegation spent the week in Vietnam meeting with Hanoi officials in the hope of laying the groundwork for formal diplomatic relations. During the meeting, the two sides held in-depth and comprehensive discussions on bilateral relations, including issues related to the Catholic Church in Vietnam, the two sides acknowledged the encouraging development in the relations between Vietnam and the Holy See since 1990
Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples in Rome is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for missionary work and related activities. It is perhaps better known by its title, the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. It was renamed by Pope John Paul II in 1982 and its mission continues unbroken, the early Congregation was established in the Palazzo Ferratini, donated by Juan Bautista Vives, to the south of the Piazza di Spagna. The current Prefect of the Congregation is Cardinal Fernando Filoni, the current Secretary is Archbishop Savio Hon Tai-Fai from Hong Kong. The Adjunct Secretary is Archbishop Protase Rugambwa, the Under-Secretary is Father Tadeusz Wojda, S. A. C. The Archivist of the Archives of the Congregation is Bishop Luis Manuel Cuña Ramos, monsignors Lorenzo Piva and Camillus Nimalan Johnpillai assist as Office Heads of the Congregation. The Congregation was originally housed in a palace, the Palazzo Ferratini, donated by Vives. In 1634 a small chapel was built according to designs by Bernini.
In 1642, Father Valerio, with Bernini, redesigned the façade to the Piazza di Spagna, and the development was continued along the Via Due Macelli by Gaspare de’Vecchio from 1639-1645. Initially Borromini designed an oval chapel plan but this was superseded by a rectilinear design, with the greater length parallel to the street. Construction of the chapel commenced in 1660 and although the part was built by 1665. The Re Magi chapel, dedicated to the Three Kings, has a plan with four side chapels and galleries above. On the interior, the wall and the vault are differentiated horizontally by a line but there is a vertical continuity of wall. The criss cross arrangement in the Re Magi Chapel is such that an octagon is formed at the centre and his first designs for the façade onto the Via di Propaganda Fide had five bays but he expanded this to seven. The façade is dominated by the giant pilasters that originally supported a balustrade above the narrow entablature, the central door leads into the courtyard where Borromini intended a curved arcade but this was not built.
Only the left side of the façade relates to the chapel. Other parts of the College have further minor works by Borromini, the intrinsic importance of its duties and the extraordinary extent of its authority and of the territory under its jurisdiction caused the Cardinal Prefect of Propaganda to be known as the red pope. This was the direction for the Catholic Church to look for evangelizing
An appeal may be had to the Pope himself, who is the supreme ecclesiastical judge. The Catholic Church has a legal system, which is the oldest in the West still in use today. The court is named Rota because the judges, called auditors, the Rota was established in the 13th century. The Pope appoints the auditors of the Rota and designates one of them the dean, on Saturday, September 22,2012, Pope Benedict XVI accepted the resignation as Dean, for reasons of age, of Bishop Antoni Stankiewicz, and appointed in his place Msgr. Pio Vito Pinto, until serving as a prelate Auditor of the Court of first instance, the Rota issues its decrees and sentences in Latin. The auditors of the Rota are selected from among recognized ecclesiastical judges serving various Dioceses around the world, the Rotas official records begin in 1171. Until the Risorgimento and the loss of the Papal States in 1870, until the 14th century the court was formally known as the Apostolic Court of Audience. Its first usage in a bull is in 1418.
It is possible that the term Rota comes from the wheel that was centered in the marble floor of Avignon. The Rota serves as a tribunal of first instance in cases such as any contentious case in which a Bishop of the Latin Church is a defendant. If the case can still be appealed after a Rotal decision, the Rota is the highest appeals court, or Supreme court, for all judicial trials in the Catholic Church. The Roman Rota proceedings are governed by a set of rules. Only advocates who are registered in a specific list are allowed to represent the parties before the Tribunal, since Pope Benedict XVI issued the motu proprio Quaerit semper the Rota has had exclusive competence to dispense from marriages ratum sed non consummatum. The Dean of the Rota, even if not already consecrated a Bishop, is to be addressed as Your Excellency, all Prelate Auditor Judges of the Rota are styled, Most Reverend Monsignor. The active auditors of the Rota, with their dates of appointment by the Pope, domenico Teti, Dean of the Roman Rota Tribunal of the Roman Rota Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts GCatholic.
org Herbermann, Charles, ed. Sacra Romana Rota
The pope is the Bishop of Rome and, the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, the office of the pope is the papacy. The pope is considered one of the worlds most powerful people because of his diplomatic and he is head of state of Vatican City, a sovereign city-state entirely enclaved within the Italian capital city of Rome. The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history, the popes in ancient times helped in the spread of Christianity and the resolution of various doctrinal disputes. In the Middle Ages, they played a role of importance in Western Europe. Currently, in addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, who originally had no temporal powers, in some periods of history accrued wide powers similar to those of temporal rulers. In recent centuries, popes were gradually forced to give up temporal power, the word pope derives from Greek πάππας meaning father.
The earliest record of the use of title was in regard to the by deceased Patriarch of Alexandria. Some historians have argued that the notion that Peter was the first bishop of Rome, the writings of the Church Father Irenaeus who wrote around AD180 reflect a belief that Peter founded and organised the Church at Rome. Moreover, Irenaeus was not the first to write of Peters presence in the early Roman Church, Clement of Rome wrote in a letter to the Corinthians, c. 96, about the persecution of Christians in Rome as the struggles in our time and presented to the Corinthians its heroes, the greatest and most just columns, the good apostles Peter and Paul. St. Ignatius of Antioch wrote shortly after Clement and in his letter from the city of Smyrna to the Romans he said he would not command them as Peter and Paul did. Given this and other evidence, many agree that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero. Protestants contend that the New Testament offers no proof that Jesus established the papacy nor even that he established Peter as the first bishop of Rome, using Peters own words, argue that Christ intended himself as the foundation of the church and not Peter.
First-century Christian communities would have had a group of presbyter-bishops functioning as leaders of their local churches, episcopacies were established in metropolitan areas. Antioch may have developed such a structure before Rome, some writers claim that the emergence of a single bishop in Rome probably did not occur until the middle of the 2nd century. In their view, Linus and Clement were possibly prominent presbyter-bishops, documents of the 1st century and early 2nd century indicate that the Holy See had some kind of pre-eminence and prominence in the Church as a whole, though the detail of what this meant is unclear. It seems that at first the terms episcopos and presbyter were used interchangeably, the consensus among scholars has been that, at the turn of the 1st and 2nd centuries, local congregations were led by bishops and presbyters whose offices were overlapping or indistinguishable
College of Cardinals
The College of Cardinals, formerly styled Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church. A function of the college is to advise the pope about church matters when he summons them to an ordinary consistory and it attends various functions as a matter of protocol, for example, during the canonization process. Historically, cardinals were the clergy serving parishes of the city of Rome under its bishop, the College acquired particular importance following the crowning of Henry IV as King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor at the age of six, after the unexpected death of Henry III in 1056. This was significant as the aims and views of the Holy Roman Emperor, churchmen involved in what has become known as the Gregorian Reform took advantage of the new kings lack of power and in 1059 reserved the election of the pope to the clergy of the Church in Rome. Reserving to the cardinals the election of the pope represented a significant shift in the balance of power in the Early Medieval world.
From the beginning of the 12th century, the College of Cardinals started to meet as such, in the Catholic church, the Dean of the College of Cardinals and the Cardinal Vice-Dean are the president and vice-president of the college. Both are elected by and from the six Cardinal-bishops, but the election requires Papal confirmation, except for presiding and delegating administrative tasks, they have no authority over the cardinals, acting as primus inter pares. The Fundamental Law of Vatican City State requires that appointees to the legislative body. The word cardinal is derived from the Latin cardo, meaning hinge, the office of cardinal as it is known today slowly evolved during the first millennium from the clergy of Rome. In 845 the Council of Meaux required Bishops to establish Cardinal titles or parishes in their towns and those who were assigned to the latter roles were given the titles of Legatus a latere and Missus Specialis. During the pontificate of Stephen V, the three classes of the College that are present today began to form, Stephen decreed that all cardinal-bishops were bound to sing Mass on rotation at the high altar at St.
Peters Basilica, one per Sunday. The first class to form was that of the cardinal-deacons, direct descendants of the original seven ordained in Acts 6, followed by the cardinal-priests, and finally. The College played a part in various reforms within the Church as well. In the 12th century, the Third Lateran Council declared that only Cardinals could assume the papacy, in 1130, under Urban II, all the classes were permitted to take part in papal elections, up to this point, only cardinal-bishops had this role. By the end of the 14th century, the practice of solely Italian cardinals had ceased, between the 14th century and 17th century, there was much struggle for the College between the cardinals of the day and the reigning popes. The most effective way for a pope to increase his power was to increase the number of cardinals and those cardinals in power saw these actions as an attempt to weaken their influence. In 1517, Pope Leo X added another thirty-one cardinals, bringing the total to sixty-five so that he could have a majority in the College of Cardinals.
Paul IV brought the total to seventy, Pope Pius IV raised an additional six
Secretariat of State (Holy See)
The Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the central papal governing bureaucracy of the Catholic Church. It is headed by the Cardinal Secretary of State and performs all the political, the Secretariat is divided into two sections, the Section for General Affairs and the Section for Relations with States, known as the First Section and Second Section, respectively. The origins of the Secretariat of State go back to the fifteenth century, one can trace to this Secretaria Apostolica the Chancery of Briefs, the Secretariat of Briefs to Princes and the Secretariat of Latin Letters. From these beginnings, the Secretariat of State developed, especially at the time of the Council of Trent, for a long time, the Secretarius Intimus, called Secretarius Papae or Secretarius Maior, was almost always a prelate, often endowed with episcopal rank. It was only at the beginning of the pontificate of Innocent X that someone already a Cardinal, Pope Innocent XII definitively abolished the office of Cardinal Nephew, and the powers of that office were assigned to the Cardinal Secretary of State alone.
With the apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae universae of 15 August 1967, Pope Paul VI reformed the Roman Curia, the head of the Secretariat of State is the Secretary of State, who is a cardinal. The Cardinal Secretary of State is primarily responsible for the diplomatic and political activity of the Holy See, the Section for General Affairs is responsible for organizing the activities of nuncios around the world in their activities concerning the local church. The Section for General Affairs is headed by a known as the Substitute for General Affairs, or more formally. The current Substitute for General Affairs to the Secretary of State is Archbishop Giovanni Angelo Becciu, the current Assessor for General Affairs of the Secretariat of State is Monsignor Paolo Borgia. In 1814, Pope Pius VII gave this office responsibility for negotiations with all governments and this Council was replaced by the present Section for Relations with States. The Section is responsible for the Holy Sees interactions with civil governments, the Section is headed by an Archbishop, the Secretary for Relations with States, who reports to the Secretary of State.
His staff includes a Prelate, the Under-Secretary for Relations with States, the Secretary for Relations with States is often called the foreign minister of the Holy See, and the Under-Secretary is often called the deputy foreign minister. The current Secretary for Relations with States is Archbishop Paul Gallagher, the current Undersecretary for Relations with States is Monsignor Antoine Camilleri. The current Delegate for Pontifical Representations is Archbishop Jan Pawłowski and the current Head of Protocol is Monsignor José Avelino Bettencourt
Congregation (Roman Curia)
The second highest-ranking departments of the Roman Curia are called congregations. Above them are the three Secretariats, lower-ranking are the pontifical councils and pontifical commissions. In origin, the congregations were selected groups of cardinals, not the whole College of Cardinals, today, as a result of a decision of the Second Vatican Council, the membership includes diocesan bishops from diverse parts of the world who are not cardinals. Each congregation has a permanent staff to assist it in dealing with the business comes before it. Each congregation is led by a prefect, who is usually a cardinal, until recently, a non-cardinal appointed to head a congregation was styled pro-prefect until made a cardinal. Ecclesiastical business used to be handled by the pontifical chancery, the ever-growing number of business items and the ever-increasing complexity of the issues necessitated the creation of separate, specialised administrative-legislative bodies. Thereafter, cardinals in greater or less number were associated with them, however, they were not merely entrusted with the preparation of the case, but were given authority to decide it.
This division would evidently facilitate the selection of wise and experienced men in all branches of ecclesiastical affairs, hence a natural division into executive cases, assigned to the offices, judicial cases, reserved to the tribunals, and administrative cases, committed to the Roman Congregations. By a judicious division of administrative matters, he established that permanent organization of these departments of the Curia, on 29 June 1908, with the constitution Sapienti Consilio, Pope St. Pius X reduced the number of the congregations to 11. Wherefore, it is forbidden for an officer of one of the congregations to serve in any way as an agent, or as a procurator or advocate, the competency of the congresso in each congregation is determined. The congresso consists of the officers under the presidency of the cardinal who presides over the congregation. It deals with the matters of importance among those that are before the congregation. It is the business of the congresso to prepare for their discussion those matters that are to be considered by the full congregation.
On the other hand, the congresso is charged with the execution of the orders of the congregation that have received the approval of the pope. The normæ peculiares and the communes, together with the Constitution Sapienti Consilio. Following the Second Vatican Council, Pope Paul VI implemented many of the called for in the Curia with his Constitution Regimini Ecclesiae Universae of 15 August 1967. One of the changes brought about by Paul VI was the admission of diocesan bishops and archbishops as members of the Congregations. The most recent reorganization of the Roman Congregations came with Pope John Paul IIs Constitution Pastor Bonus, agents of Roman Congregations This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Charles, ed. article name needed
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith is the oldest among the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. It was founded to defend the church from heresy and its headquarters are at the Palace of the Holy Office, just outside Vatican City. The congregation employs a board including cardinals, priests, lay theologians. The current Prefect is Cardinal Gerhard Ludwig Müller and it served as the final court of appeal in trials of heresy and served as an important part of the Counter-Reformation. This body was renamed the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office in 1908 by Pope Saint Pius X, in many Catholic countries, the body is often informally called the Holy Office. The Congregations name was changed to Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on 7 December 1965 and this includes investigations into grave delicts, i. e. These crimes, in a motu proprio of 2001, Sacramentorum sanctitatis tutela, in effect, it is the promoter of justice who deals with, among other things, the question of priests accused of paedophilia.
Within the CDF are the International Theological Commission, the Pontifical Biblical Commission, the Prefect of the CDF is ex officio president of these commissions. Until 1968, the Pope himself held the title of prefect, instead, he appointed one of the cardinals to preside over the meetings, first as Secretary, as Pro-Prefect. Since 1968, the Cardinal head of the dicastery has borne the title of Prefect, from 1968 onwards, the title of Secretary refers to the second highest-ranking officer of the Congregation. The Congregation has a membership of some 18 other cardinals and a number of non-cardinal bishops, a staff of some 38 priests and lay men and women. The work of the CDF is divided into four sections, the doctrinal, matrimonial, Prefect, Cardinal Gerhard Ludwig Müller Secretary, Archbishop Luis Ladaria Ferrer, S. J. Assistant Secretary, Archbishop Joseph Augustine Di Noia, O. P and they refused to recant the doctrines of the Community of the Lady of All Nations. The nuns are members of the Good Shepherd Monastery of Our Lady of Charity, sister Mary Theresa Dionne,82, one of 6, said they will still live at the convent property, which they own.
The sect believes that its 86-year-old founder, Marie Paule Giguere, is the reincarnation of the Virgin Mary, notification on the works of the Reverend Father Jon Sobrino, S. J. Notification regarding the book Jesus Symbol of God of the Reverend Father Roger Haight, notification on the book Toward a Christian Theology of Religious Pluralism by the Reverend Father Jacques Dupuis, S. J. Notification concerning some writings of Professor Dr. J, notification concerning the Text Mary and Human Liberation by the Reverend Father Tissa Balasuriya, O. M. I. Notification on the writings and activities of Mrs. M. I. P, essay on militant Ecclesiology by Leonardo Boff, O. F. M
The Lateran Treaty was one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, settling the Roman Question. They are named after the Lateran Palace, where they were signed on February 11,1929, the Italian parliament ratified them on June 7,1929. Italy was under a Fascist government, but the democratic governments have all upheld the treaty. It recognized the Vatican as an independent state, with Prime Minister Benito Mussolini agreeing to give the church financial refund, in 1947, the Lateran Pacts were incorporated into the democratic Constitution of Italy. The Lateran Pacts are often presented as three treaties, a 27-article treaty of conciliation, a 3-article financial convention, and a 45-article concordat, the website of the Holy See presents the pacts as two, making the financial convention an annex of the treaty of conciliation. Peters Basilica did not come to pass, the nascent Kingdom of Italy invaded and occupied Romagna in 1860, leaving only Latium in the Popes domains.
Latium, including Rome itself, was occupied and annexed in 1870, for the following sixty years, relations between the Papacy and the Italian government were hostile, and the status of the Pope became known as the Roman Question. The agreements were signed in the Lateran Palace, hence the name by which they are known, the agreements included a political treaty which created the state of the Vatican City and guaranteed full and independent sovereignty to the Holy See. The Pope was pledged to perpetual neutrality in international relations and to abstention from mediation in a controversy unless specifically requested by all parties. The attached financial agreement was accepted as settlement of all the claims of the Holy See against Italy arising from the loss of power of the Papal States in 1870. To commemorate the conclusion of the negotiations, Mussolini commissioned the Via della Conciliazione. The Constitution of the Italian Republic, adopted in 1947, states that relations between the State and the Catholic Church are regulated by the Lateran Treaties, in 1984, an agreement was signed, revising the concordat.
As of 2013, there are ten other groups with access. The revised concordat regulated the conditions under which civil effects are accorded to church marriages, in 2008, it was announced that the Vatican would no longer immediately adopt all Italian laws, citing conflict over right-to-life issues following the trial and ruling of the Eluana Englaro case. Italys anti-Jewish laws of 1938 prohibited marriages between Jews and non-Jews, including Catholics, the Vatican viewed this as a violation of the Concordat, which gave the church the sole right to regulate marriages involving Catholics. Article 34 of the Concordat had specified that marriages performed by the Catholic Church would always be considered valid by civil authorities, the Holy See understood this to apply to all Catholic Church marriages in Italy regardless of the faith of those being married. Properties of the Holy See List of Sovereigns of the Vatican City State Reichskonkordat, Christianity In a Revolutionary Age A History of Christianity in the 19th and 20th Century, Vol 4 The 20th Century In Europe pp 32–35,153,156,371 Riccards, Michael.
Vicars of Christ, Popes and Politics in the Modern World, under His Very Windows, The Vatican and the Holocaust in Italy
Dominique François Joseph Mamberti is the Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura in the Roman Curia. He was elevated to the cardinalate by Pope Francis in 2015, Dominique Mamberti was born in Marrakesh, Morocco, on 7 March 1952 and was ordained a priest of the Diocese of Ajaccio, France, on 20 September 1981. He has academic degrees in civil and canon law, Mamberti is considered an expert on Latin America, the United Nations, the Middle East and Islam. On 18 May 2002, Pope John Paul II appointed him Titular Archbishop of Sagona and Apostolic Nuncio to Sudan and he received episcopal consecration from Cardinal Secretary of State Angelo Sodano on 3 July 2002. On 19 February 2004, he was appointed Apostolic Nuncio to Eritrea and he was appointed Secretary for Relations with States by Pope Benedict XVI on 15 September 2006. This post is generally seen as the equivalent of Foreign Minister of the Holy See, in 2007 Archbishop Mamberti was awarded the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic.
In September 2007, Mamberti orchestrated the first official visit between an Arab Head of State, Sudans President Omar el-Bashir and Pope Benedict, the visit took place at the Popes Summer residence, Castel Gondolfo. Shortly after this event, the King of Saudi Arabia met the Pope. This marked the beginning of a new period of Catholic-Muslim relations and he met with President Raul Castro, saying afterward that bilateral relations are cordial, continuing and on the rise. The visit of Mamberti showed the development of relations between the state and the Catholic Church in Cuba, the governments note said. Archbishop Dominique Mamberti did not say whether the Vatican explicitly supported the Palestinians U. N. initiative, one of them has already been created, while the other has not yet been established, although nearly 64 years have passed. The Holy See is convinced if we want peace, it is necessary to adopt courageous decisions. At the opening of the UN General Assembly in September 2012, Mamberti said that law is solidly based upon the dignity and nature of humanity—in other words.
He called the UN delegates attention to the language of the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, international law will earn recognition and respect, he said, if it is recognised as protecting every person and nation, not favouring the powerful. In a separate address in early October 2012, Mamberti spoke of the theme of the assembly was the Adjustment or settlement of disputes or situations by peaceful means. All interested parties should not only facilitate the mission of the envoy of the United Nations and the Arab League. On January 16,2013, Mamberti gave an interview to Vatican Radio about the Catholic Churchs autonomy and he defended the right to a conscience clause for Christian employers who refused services to homosexuals. Mamberti said that the Holy See is “deeply concerned” with the suffering of Christians in the region, Christian communities are suffering unjustly, they are scared, and many Christians have been forced to emigrate, he said
Vatican City, officially Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City, is a walled enclave within the city of Rome. With an area of approximately 44 hectares, and a population of 842, formally it is not sovereign, with sovereignty being held by the Holy See, the only entity of public international law that has diplomatic relations with almost every country in the world. It is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state ruled by the Bishop of Rome – the Pope, the highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergy of various national origins. Vatican City is distinct from the Holy See, which dates back to early Christianity and is the episcopal see of 1.2 billion Latin. According to the terms of the treaty, the Holy See has full ownership, exclusive dominion, within Vatican City are religious and cultural sites such as St. Peters Basilica, the Sistine Chapel and the Vatican Museums. They feature some of the worlds most famous paintings and sculptures, the unique economy of Vatican City is supported financially by the sale of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications.
The name Vatican City was first used in the Lateran Treaty, signed on 11 February 1929, the name is taken from Vatican Hill, the geographic location of the state. Vatican is derived from the name of an Etruscan settlement, Vatica or Vaticum meaning garden, located in the area the Romans called vaticanus ager. The official Italian name of the city is Città del Vaticano or, more formally, Stato della Città del Vaticano, although the Holy See and the Catholic Church use Ecclesiastical Latin in official documents, the Vatican City officially uses Italian. The Latin name is Status Civitatis Vaticanæ, this is used in documents by not just the Holy See. The name Vatican was already in use in the time of the Roman Republic for an area on the west bank of the Tiber across from the city of Rome. Under the Roman Empire, many villas were constructed there, after Agrippina the Elder drained the area and laid out her gardens in the early 1st century AD. In AD40, her son, Emperor Caligula built in her gardens a circus for charioteers that was completed by Nero, the Circus Gaii et Neronis, usually called, simply.
Even before the arrival of Christianity, it is supposed that this originally uninhabited part of Rome had long considered sacred. A shrine dedicated to the Phrygian goddess Cybele and her consort Attis remained active long after the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter was built nearby, the particularly low quality of Vatican water, even after the reclamation of the area, was commented on by the poet Martial. The Vatican Obelisk was originally taken by Caligula from Heliopolis in Egypt to decorate the spina of his circus and is thus its last visible remnant and this area became the site of martyrdom of many Christians after the Great Fire of Rome in AD64. Ancient tradition holds that it was in this circus that Saint Peter was crucified upside-down, opposite the circus was a cemetery separated by the Via Cornelia. Peters in the first half of the 4th century, the Constantinian basilica was built in 326 over what was believed to be the tomb of Saint Peter, buried in that cemetery