UPS Airlines is an American cargo airline based in Louisville, Kentucky. The third-largest cargo airline worldwide, UPS Airlines flies to 779 destinations worldwide, the most of any airline. A wholly owned subsidiary of UPS since its launch in 1988, the airline marked its 30th year of operation in 2018. In line with passenger airlines, UPS Airlines operates under the hub-and-spoke model. Headquartered at Worldport at Louisville International Airport, the airline has several secondary hubs across the United States and international hubs in Germany and Hong Kong; the pilots of UPS Airlines are represented by the Independent Pilots Association. The origin of transporting packages by air for UPS dates to 1929. Many packages were shipped by the Ford Trimotors of United Airlines. After Black Tuesday and the beginning of the Great Depression, the air service would be discontinued by the end of 1931. However, the air service would lead to the expansion beyond the West Coast. After World War II, UPS revisited the idea of shipping packages by air.
Starting in 1953, 2-day delivery was offered on coast-to-coast packages. As before, UPS package volume was transported on commercial airline flights. Unprofitable, Blue Label Air became popular as its speed created enough demand to maintain a profit. In 1975, UPS started its first international operations as it expanded into Canada, with an additional expansion into West Germany a year later; as UPS had become a international company, access to its own cargo aircraft had become a more apparent issue. In 1976, competitor Federal Express had turned a profit, showcasing that package delivery companies did not have to rely on commercial aircraft to transport their volume. In 1978, the Airline Deregulation Act gave UPS a significant opportunity: the company could now establish its own airline and flying from city to city would require far fewer legislative hurdles as the federal government now encouraged competition between airlines. In 1980, UPS opened its first major hub for sorting packages transported by aircraft, located in Louisville, Kentucky.
Located at the westernmost point of the Eastern time zone, Louisville is accessible across the majority of the contiguous United States in less than three hours. In contrast to chief competitor Federal Express, in the early 1980s, air operations of UPS were undertaken by several contractors, including Evergreen International Airlines, Interstate Airlines, Ryan Air, Orion Air. Through its contractors, UPS flew its packages using a fleet of commercial aircraft converted to freighters, including Boeing 727-100s, 727-200s, Douglas DC-8s, Boeing 747-100s. In 1982, UPS introduced its Next-Day Air service, guaranteeing overnight delivery on certain packages. To expand its flight network, UPS opened a distribution facility in Anchorage in 1985. Similar to Louisville, Anchorage was chosen for its strategic geographical position, accessible to 90% of the industrialized world in less than 9½ hours flying distance. In 1986, in an effort to obtain service rights to Japan, UPS entered into a joint venture with DHL, named International Parcel Express.
IPX was rejected for use in Japan, leading UPS to purchase the DHL share of the joint venture in 1987. At the end of 1987, UPS ended the use of contract flights by Evergreen and Orion. Using the flight certificate intended for the IPX joint venture, the renamed UPS Airlines commenced operations in January 1988, adopting many flight crews from Orion Air. At the 1988 founding of UPS Airlines, the company operated a route network serving 41 countries connecting the United States and Canada to Asia and Europe. To expand and modernize its jet fleet, at the end of 1987, UPS purchased dedicated freighter variants of the Boeing 757. In 1995, UPS purchased a second aircraft type from the Boeing 767 freighter; the launch customer of both aircraft, UPS Airlines would purchase 75 757s and 32 767s, more than doubling the size of its aircraft fleet. To update the oldest aircraft in its fleet, the 727-100QF conversion was introduced. In place of a hush kit, the QF conversion changed the aircraft from Pratt & Whitney JT8D to Rolls-Royce Tay turbofans.
In 1991, to gain the ability to fly domestic cargo flights within Europe, UPS entered into a partnership with Danish airline Star Air, leasing several 727 freighters to the airline. In the early 1990s, to add capacity to its network, UPS Airlines opened additional hubs, with primary hubs in Rockford and Philadelphia. With most of its aircraft flying on weeknights, the airline was eager to find other ways to produce income from its fleet. In the 1990s, eight 727 freighters were converted into 727-100QC freighters with the ability to be re-converted into passenger aircraft for the purpose of chartered flights. After disappointing results, in 2001, UPS ended charter service with quick-change freighters, with the aircraft returned to cargo service. Following the addition of primary and secondary hubs to the airline network during th
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet". Its distinctive hump upper deck along the forward part of the aircraft has made it one of the most recognizable aircraft, it was the first wide-body airplane produced. Manufactured by Boeing's Commercial Airplane unit in the United States, the 747 was envisioned to have 150 percent greater capacity than the Boeing 707, a common large commercial aircraft of the 1960s. First flown commercially in 1970, the 747 held the passenger capacity record for 37 years; the quadjet 747 uses a double-deck configuration for part of its length and is available in passenger and other versions. Boeing designed the 747's hump-like upper deck to serve as a first–class lounge or extra seating, to allow the aircraft to be converted to a cargo carrier by removing seats and installing a front cargo door. Boeing expected supersonic airliners—the development of, announced in the early 1960s—to render the 747 and other subsonic airliners obsolete, while the demand for subsonic cargo aircraft would remain robust well into the future.
Though the 747 was expected to become obsolete after 400 were sold, it exceeded critics' expectations with production surpassing 1,000 in 1993. By July 2018, 1,546 aircraft had been built, with 22 of the 747-8 variants remaining on order; as of January 2017, the 747 has been involved in 60 hull losses. The 747-400, the most common variant in service, has a high-subsonic cruise speed of Mach 0.85–0.855 with an intercontinental range of 7,260 nautical miles. The 747-400 can accommodate 416 passengers in a typical three-class layout, 524 passengers in a typical two-class layout, or 660 passengers in a high–density one-class configuration; the newest version of the aircraft, the 747-8, is in production and received certification in 2011. Deliveries of the 747-8F freighter version began in October 2011. In 1963, the United States Air Force started a series of study projects on a large strategic transport aircraft. Although the C-141 Starlifter was being introduced, they believed that a much larger and more capable aircraft was needed the capability to carry outsized cargo that would not fit in any existing aircraft.
These studies led to initial requirements for the CX-Heavy Logistics System in March 1964 for an aircraft with a load capacity of 180,000 pounds and a speed of Mach 0.75, an unrefueled range of 5,000 nautical miles with a payload of 115,000 pounds. The payload bay had to be 17 feet wide by 13.5 feet high and 100 feet long with access through doors at the front and rear. Featuring only four engines, the design required new engine designs with increased power and better fuel economy. In May 1964, airframe proposals arrived from Boeing, General Dynamics and Martin Marietta. After a downselect, Boeing and Lockheed were given additional study contracts for the airframe, along with General Electric and Pratt & Whitney for the engines. All three of the airframe proposals shared a number of features; as the CX-HLS needed to be able to be loaded from the front, a door had to be included where the cockpit was. All of the companies solved this problem by moving the cockpit above the cargo area. In 1965 Lockheed's aircraft design and General Electric's engine design were selected for the new C-5 Galaxy transport, the largest military aircraft in the world at the time.
The nose door and raised cockpit concepts would be carried over to the design of the 747. The 747 was conceived; the era of commercial jet transportation, led by the enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, had revolutionized long-distance travel. Before it lost the CX-HLS contract, Boeing was asked by Juan Trippe, president of Pan American World Airways, one of their most important airline customers, to build a passenger aircraft more than twice the size of the 707. During this time, airport congestion, worsened by increasing numbers of passengers carried on small aircraft, became a problem that Trippe thought could be addressed by a larger new aircraft. In 1965, Joe Sutter was transferred from Boeing's 737 development team to manage the design studies for the new airliner assigned the model number 747. Sutter initiated a design study with Pan Am and other airlines, to better understand their requirements. At the time, it was thought that the 747 would be superseded by supersonic transport aircraft.
Boeing responded by designing the 747 so that it could be adapted to carry freight and remain in production if sales of the passenger version declined. In the freighter role, the clear need was to support the containerized shipping methodologies that were being introduced at about the same time. Standard shipping containers are 8 ft square at the front and available in 40 ft lengths; this meant that it would be possible to support a 2-wide 2-high stack of containers two or three ranks deep with a fuselage size similar to the earlier CX-HLS project. In April 1966, Pan Am orde
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans and goods from one location to another. In other words the action of transport is defined as a particular movement of an organism or thing from a point A to the Point B. Modes of transport include air, water, cable and space; the field can be divided into infrastructure and operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between people, essential for the development of civilizations. Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations, including roads, airways, waterways and pipelines and terminals such as airports, railway stations, bus stations, trucking terminals, refueling depots and seaports. Terminals may be used both for maintenance. Vehicles traveling on these networks may include automobiles, buses, trucks, watercraft and aircraft. Operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, the procedures set for this purpose, including financing and policies. In the transport industry and ownership of infrastructure can be either public or private, depending on the country and mode.
Passenger transport may be public. Freight transport has become focused on containerization, although bulk transport is used for large volumes of durable items. Transport plays an important part in economic growth and globalization, but most types cause air pollution and use large amounts of land. While it is subsidized by governments, good planning of transport is essential to make traffic flow and restrain urban sprawl. Humans' first means of transport involved walking and swimming; the domestication of animals introduced a new way to lay the burden of transport on more powerful creatures, allowing the hauling of heavier loads, or humans riding animals for greater speed and duration. Inventions such as the wheel and the sled helped make animal transport more efficient through the introduction of vehicles. Water transport, including rowed and sailed vessels, dates back to time immemorial, was the only efficient way to transport large quantities or over large distances prior to the Industrial Revolution.
The first forms of road transport involved animals, such as horses, oxen or humans carrying goods over dirt tracks that followed game trails. Many early civilizations, including those in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, constructed paved roads. In classical antiquity, the Persian and Roman empires built stone-paved roads to allow armies to travel quickly. Deep roadbeds of crushed stone underneath kept such roads dry; the medieval Caliphate built tar-paved roads. The first watercraft were canoes cut out from tree trunks. Early water transport was accomplished with ships that were either rowed or used the wind for propulsion, or a combination of the two; the importance of water has led to most cities that grew up as sites for trading being located on rivers or on the sea-shore at the intersection of two bodies of water. Until the Industrial Revolution, transport remained slow and costly, production and consumption gravitated as close to each other as feasible; the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century saw a number of inventions fundamentally change transport.
With telegraphy, communication became independent of the transport of physical objects. The invention of the steam engine followed by its application in rail transport, made land transport independent of human or animal muscles. Both speed and capacity increased allowing specialization through manufacturing being located independently of natural resources; the 19th century saw the development of the steam ship, which sped up global transport. With the development of the combustion engine and the automobile around 1900, road transport became more competitive again, mechanical private transport originated; the first "modern" highways were constructed during the 19th century with macadam. Tarmac and concrete became the dominant paving materials. In 1903 the Wright brothers demonstrated the first successful controllable airplane, after World War I aircraft became a fast way to transport people and express goods over long distances. After World War II the automobile and airlines took higher shares of transport, reducing rail and water to freight and short-haul passenger services.
Scientific spaceflight began in the 1950s, with rapid growth until the 1970s, when interest dwindled. In the 1950s the introduction of containerization gave massive efficiency gains in freight transport, fostering globalization. International air travel became much more accessible in the 1960s with the commercialization of the jet engine. Along with the growth in automobiles and motorways and water transport declined in relative importance. After the introduction of the Shinkansen in Japan in 1964, high-speed rail in Asia and Europe started attracting passengers on long-haul routes away from the airlines. Early in U. S. history, private joint-stock corporations owned most aqueducts, canals, railroads and tunnels. Most such transport infrastructure came under government control in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, culminating in the nationalization of inter-city passenger rail-service with the establishment of Amtrak. However, a movement to privatize roads and other infrastructure has gained some ground and adherents.
A mode of transport is a solution that makes use of a particular type of vehicle and operation. The transport of a person or of cargo may invol
Qatar the State of Qatar, is a country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Whether the sovereign state should be regarded as a constitutional monarchy or an absolute monarchy is disputed, its sole land border is with neighbouring Gulf Cooperation Council monarchy Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. An arm of the Persian Gulf separates Qatar from the nearby Bahrain. In early 2017, Qatar's total population was 2.6 million: 313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates. Islam is the official religion of Qatar; the country has the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of high human development and is regarded as the most advanced Arab state for human development. Qatar is a high-income economy, backed by the world's third-largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves. Qatar has been ruled by the House of Thani since Mohammed bin Thani signed a treaty with the British in 1868 that recognised its separate status.
Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971. In 2003, the constitution was overwhelmingly approved in a referendum, with 98% in favour. In the 21st century, Qatar emerged as a significant power in the Arab world both through its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network, supporting several rebel groups financially during the Arab Spring. For its size, Qatar wields disproportionate influence in the world, has been identified as a middle power. Qatar is the subject of a diplomatic and economic embargo by Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Egypt, which began in June 2017. Saudi Arabia has proposed the construction of the Salwa Canal, which would run along the Saudi-Qatar border turning Qatar into an island. Pliny the Elder, a Roman writer, documented the earliest account pertaining to the inhabitants of the peninsula around the mid-first century AD, referring to them as the Catharrei, a designation which may have derived from the name of a prominent local settlement.
A century Ptolemy produced the first known map to depict the peninsula, referring to it as Catara. The map referenced a town named "Cadara" to the east of the peninsula; the term'Catara' was used until the 18th century, after which'Katara' emerged as the most recognised spelling. After several variations -'Katr','Kattar' and'Guttur' - the modern derivative Qatar was adopted as the country's name. In Standard Arabic, the name is pronounced. Human habitation of Qatar dates back to 50,000 years ago. Settlements and tools dating back to the Stone Age have been unearthed in the peninsula. Mesopotamian artifacts originating from the Ubaid period have been discovered in abandoned coastal settlements. Al Da'asa, a settlement located on the western coast of Qatar, is the most important Ubaid site in the country and is believed to have accommodated a small seasonal encampment. Kassite Babylonian material dating back to the second millennium BC found in Al Khor Islands attests to trade relations between the inhabitants of Qatar and the Kassites in modern-day Bahrain.
Among the findings were 3,000,000 crushed snail shells and Kassite potsherds. It has been suggested that Qatar is the earliest known site of shellfish dye production, owing to a Kassite purple dye industry which existed on the coast. In 224 AD, the Sasanian Empire gained control over the territories surrounding the Persian Gulf. Qatar played a role in the commercial activity of the Sasanids, contributing at least two commodities: precious pearls and purple dye. Under the Sasanid reign, many of the inhabitants in Eastern Arabia were introduced to Christianity following the eastward dispersal of the religion by Mesopotamian Christians. Monasteries were constructed and further settlements were founded during this era. During the latter part of the Christian era, Qatar comprised a region known as'Beth Qatraye'; the region was not limited to Qatar. In 628, Muhammad sent a Muslim envoy to a ruler in Eastern Arabia named Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi and requested that he and his subjects accept Islam. Munzir obliged his request, accordingly, most of the Arab tribes in the region converted to Islam.
After the adoption of Islam, the Arabs led the Muslim conquest of Persia which resulted in the fall of the Sasanian Empire. Qatar was described as a famous camel breeding centre during the Umayyad period. In the 8th century, it started benefiting from its commercially strategic position in the Persian Gulf and went on to become a centre of pearl trading. Substantial development in the pearling industry around the Qatari Peninsula occurred during the Abbasid era. Ships voyaging from Basra to India and China would make stops in Qatar's ports during this period. Chinese porcelain, West African coins and artefacts from Thailand have been discovered in Qatar. Archaeological remains from the 9th century suggest that Qatar's inhabitants used greater wealth to construct higher quality homes and public buildings. Over 100 stone-built houses, two mosques, an Abbasid fort were constructed in Murwab during this period. However, when the caliphate's prosperity declined in Iraq, so too did it in Qatar. Qatar is mentioned in 13th-century Muslim scholar Yaqut al-Hamawi's book, Mu'jam Al-Buldan, which alludes to the Qataris' fine striped wov
Cathay Pacific Airways Limited known as Cathay Pacific or just Cathay, is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport. The airline's operations and subsidiaries have scheduled passenger and cargo services to more than 190 destinations in more than 60 countries worldwide including codeshares and joint ventures. Cathay Pacific operates a fleet of wide-body aircraft, consisting of Airbus A330, Airbus A350 and Boeing 777 equipment. Cathay Pacific Cargo operates two models of the Boeing 747. Wholly owned subsidiary airline Cathay Dragon operates to 44 destinations in the Asia-Pacific region from its Hong Kong base. In 2010, Cathay Pacific and Cathay Pacific Cargo, together with Cathay Dragon, carried nearly 27 million passengers and over 1.8 million tons of cargo and mail. The airline was founded on 24 September 1946 by Australian Sydney H. de Kantzow and American Roy C. Farrell; the airline made the world's first non-stop transpolar flight flying over the North Pole in July 1998, the maiden flight to arrive at the new Hong Kong International Airport.
The airline celebrated its 70th anniversary in 2016. It is reciprocally one of the major shareholders of Air China. Cathay Pacific is the world's tenth largest airline measured in terms of sales, fourteenth largest measured in terms of market capitalisation. In 2010, Cathay Pacific became the world's largest international cargo airline, along with main hub Hong Kong International Airport as the world's busiest airport in terms of cargo traffic, it is one of the founding members of the Oneworld alliance. Cathay Pacific's subsidiary Cathay Dragon is an affiliate member of Oneworld. Cathay Pacific Airways was founded on 24 September 1946 in Hong Kong, with Sydney "Syd" de Kantzow, Roy Farrell, as well as Neil Buchanan, Donald Brittan Evans and Robert "Bob" Stanley Russell were the initial shareholders. Buchanan and Russell worked for de Kantzow and Farrell in the predecessor of Cathay Pacific, Roy Farrell Import-Export Company, headquartered in Shanghai. Both de Kantzow and Farrell were ex-air force pilots who had flown the Hump, a route over the Himalayan mountains.
Farrell purchased the airline's first aircraft, a Douglas DC-3, nicknamed Betsy, in Bush Field, New York City in 1945. The company began freight services on 28 January 1946 from Sydney to Shanghai, after Farrell and Russell flew the plane to Australia and obtained a license to carry freight services earlier that month, its first commercial flight was a shipment of Australian goods. The profitable business soon attracted attention from the Republic of China government officials. After several instances where the company's planes were detained by authorities in Shanghai, on 11 May 1946 the company relocated, flying its two planes to Hong Kong. Farrell and de Kantzow re-registered their business in Hong Kong on 24 September 1946 as "Cathay Pacific Airways Limited", while another sister company The Roy Farrell Export Import Company Limited was incorporated on 28 August 1946 and chartered some flights of Cathay. According to International Directory of Company Histories, forming two companies are for tax purposes.
They named the airline Cathay, the ancient name given to China, Pacific because Farrell speculated that they would one day fly across the Pacific. Moreover, to avoid the name "Air Cathay" as it was occurred in a comic; the Chinese name for the company was not settled on until the 1950s. It comes from a Chinese idiom meaning "grand and peaceful state" and was at the time used by other businesses called "Cathay" in English. According to legend, the airline's unique name was conceived by Farrell and some foreign correspondents at the bar of the Manila Hotel, while another narrative was the name was taken in the Cathay Hotel in Shanghai Bund, during drinking and brainstorming, choosing Cathay was to avoid the word China in the airline name. 25 September, on Cathay Pacific's maiden voyage, de Kantzow and Peter Hoskins flew from Sydney to Hong Kong via Manila. The airline flew routes between Hong Kong, Manila, Shanghai, Bangkok, with additional chartered destinations; the airline grew quickly. By 1947, it had added 2 Vickers Catalina seaplane to its fleet.
In 1948, a new legal person of Cathay Pacific Airways was incorporated, with John Swire & Sons, China Navigation Company, Australian National Airways being the new shareholders of the new entity, acquiring the assets from the old legal person. De Kantzow and Russell were the shareholders of Cathay Pacific Holdings at that time, it was reported that the colonial British government of Hong Kong, required the airline was majority owned by British. Despite de Kantzow being a British subject through his Australian roots, Farrell was an American, thus forcing them to sell their majority stake. Under Swire's management, de Kantzow remained in the airline until 1951, while Farrell had sold his minority stake in Cathay Pacific soon after Swire's takeover in 1948, due to his wife's health problems, he became a successful businessman. Swire acquired 52% of Cathay Pacific Airways; as of 31 December 2017, the airline is still 45% owned by Swire Group through its subsidiary Swire Pacific Limited, as the largest shareholder.
However, Swire Group formed a shareholders' agreement with the second largest shareholder Air China (which was controlled by state-owned China National Aviation Hold
Korean Air Lines Co. Ltd. operating as Korean Air, is the largest airline and flag carrier of South Korea based on fleet size, international destinations and international flights. The airline's global headquarters are located in South Korea. Korean Air was founded as Korean National Airlines in 1946. After several years of service and expansion, the airline was privatized in 1969. Korean Air's international passenger division and related subsidiary cargo division together serve 127 cities in 44 countries, while its domestic division serves 12 destinations, it is among the top 20 airlines in the world in terms of passengers carried and is the top-ranked international cargo airline. Incheon International Airport serves as Korean Air's international hub. Korean Air maintains a satellite headquarters campus at Incheon; the majority of Korean Air's pilots, ground staff, flight attendants are based in Seoul. Korean Air is the parent company of Jin Air and is a founding member of the SkyTeam airline alliance.
It was voted Asia's best airline by Business Traveler readers in 2012. Korean Air was founded by the South Korean government in 1962 as Korean Air Lines to replace Korean National Airlines, founded in 1946. On March 1, 1969, the Hanjin Transport Group took control of the airline. Long-haul freight operations were introduced on April 26, 1971, followed by passenger services to Los Angeles International Airport on April 19, 1972. International flights to Hong Kong and Los Angeles were flown with Boeing 707s until the introduction of the Boeing 747 in 1973. In 1973, the airline introduced Boeing 747s on its Pacific routes and started a European service to Paris, France using the 707 and McDonnell Douglas DC-10. In 1975, the airline became one of the earliest Asian airlines to operate Airbus aircraft with the purchase of three Airbus A300s, which were put into immediate service on Asian routes. Since South Korean aircraft were prohibited from flying in the airspace of North Korea and the Soviet Union at the time, the European routes had to be designed eastbound from South Korea, such as Gimpo-Anchorage-Paris.
A blue-top and redesigned livery with a new corporate "Korean Air" logo featuring a stylized Taegeuk design was introduced on March 1, 1984, the airline's name changed to Korean Air from Korean Air Lines. This livery was introduced on its Fokker F28 Boeing 747-300s, it was designed in cooperation between Korean Boeing. In the 1990s, Korean Air became the first airline to use the new McDonnell Douglas MD-11 to supplement its new fleet of Boeing 747-400 aircraft; some older 747 aircraft were converted for freight service. In the 1980s, Korean Air's head office was in the KAL Building on Jung-gu, Seoul. On June 5, 2007, Korean Air said that it would create a new low-cost carrier called Jin Air in Korea to compete with Korea's KTX high-speed railway network system, which offered cheaper fares and less stringent security procedures compared to air travel. Jin Air started its scheduled passenger service from Seoul to Jeju on July 17, 2008. Korean Air announced that some of its A300s would be given to Jin Air.
By 2009, Korean Air's image had become more prestigious, differing from the airline's late-1990s image, tarnished by several fatal accidents. In mid-2010, a co-marketing deal with games company Blizzard Entertainment sent a 747-400 and a 737-900 taking to the skies wrapped in StarCraft II branding. In August 2010, Korean Air announced heavy second-quarter losses despite record high revenue. In August 2010, Hanjin Group, the parent of Korean, opened a new cargo terminal at Navoi in Uzbekistan, which will become a cargo hub with regular Incheon-Navoi-Milan flights. Korean Air owns the Hyatt in Incheon; this building in downtown Los Angeles will house the largest InterContinental Hotel in the Americas in what will be the tallest building in Los Angeles. In 2013, Korean Air acquired a 44% stake in Czech Airlines, it sold the stake in October 2017. Korean Air's headquarters, the Korean Air Operations Center, is located in Gonghang-dong, Gangseo-gu in Seoul. Korean Air has offices at Gimpo International Airport in Seoul.
Korean Air's other hubs are at Jeju International Airport and Gimhae International Airport, Busan. The maintenance facilities are located in Gimhae International Airport; the airline had 20,540 employees as of December 2014. Korean Air serves 123 international destinations in 50 countries on 5 continents, excluding codeshares; the airline’s international hub is Incheon International Airport. The airline flies 13 domestic destinations within South Korea. KAL operates between Incheon and 22 cities in mainland China, along with Asiana Airlines, it is one of the two largest foreign airlines to operate into the People's Republic of China. Korean Air has codeshare agreements with the following airlines: Korean Air has interline agreements with the following airlines: Korean Air is an airline partner of Skywards, the frequent-flyer program for Emirates. Skywards members can redeem miles for free flights; as of March 2019, the Korean Air fleet consists of the following aircraft: Korean Air has operated the following aircraft: At the Association of Asia Pacific Airlines Assembly in 2018, Korean Air announced that it was considering a new large widebody aircraft order.
Types under consideration for replacement of older widebody aircraft in the fleet include the Boeing
The Boeing 727 is an American midsized, narrow-body three-engined jet aircraft built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from the early 1960s to 1984. It can carry 149 to 189 passengers and models can fly up to 2,700 nautical miles nonstop. Intended for short and medium-length flights, the 727 can use short runways at smaller airports, it has three Pratt & Whitney JT8D engines below the T-tail, one on each side of the rear fuselage with a center engine that connects through an S-duct to an inlet at the base of the fin. The 727 is the only Boeing trijet, as a commercial design entering production; the 727 followed the 707, a quad-jet airliner, with which it shares its upper fuselage cross-section and cockpit design. The 727-100 first flew in February 1963 and entered service with Eastern Air Lines in February 1964; the 727 became a mainstay of airlines' domestic route networks and was used on short- and medium-range international routes. Passenger and convertible versions of the 727 were built; the highest production rate of the 727 was in the 1970s.
As of July 2018, a total of 44 Boeing 727s were in commercial service with 23 airlines, plus a few more in government and private use. Airport noise regulations have led to 727s being equipped with hush kits. Since 1964, there have been 118 fatal incidents involving the Boeing 727. Successor models include variants of the 737 and the 757-200; the last commercial passenger flight of the type was in January 2019. The Boeing 727 design was a compromise among United Airlines, American Airlines, Eastern Air Lines. United Airlines requested a four-engine aircraft for its flights to high-altitude airports its hub at Stapleton International Airport in Denver, Colorado. American Airlines, operating the four-engined Boeing 707 and Boeing 720, requested a twin-engined aircraft for efficiency. Eastern Airlines wanted a third engine for its overwater flights to the Caribbean, since at that time twin-engine commercial flights were limited by regulations to routes with 60-minute maximum flying time to an airport.
The three airlines agreed on a trijet design for the new aircraft. In 1959, Lord Douglas, chairman of British European Airways, suggested that Boeing and de Havilland Aircraft Company work together on their trijet designs, the 727 and D. H.121 Trident, respectively. The two designs had a similar layout, the 727 being larger. At that time Boeing intended to use three Allison AR963 turbofan engines, license-built versions of the Rolls-Royce RB163 Spey used by the Trident. Boeing and de Havilland each sent engineers to the other company's locations to evaluate each other's designs, but Boeing decided against the joint venture. De Havilland had wanted Boeing to license-build the D. H.121, while Boeing felt that the aircraft needed to be designed for the American market, with six-abreast seating and the ability to use runways as short as 4,500 feet. In 1960, Pratt & Whitney was looking for a customer for its new JT8D turbofan design study, based on its J52 turbojet, while United and Eastern were interested in a Pratt & Whitney alternative to the RB163 Spey.
Once Pratt & Whitney agreed to go ahead with development of the JT8D, Eddie Rickenbacker, chairman of the board of Eastern, told Boeing that the airline preferred the JT8D for its 727s. Boeing had not offered the JT8D, as it was about 1,000 lb heavier than the RB163, though more powerful. Boeing reluctantly agreed to offer the JT8D as an option on the 727, it became the sole powerplant. With high-lift devices on its wing, the 727 could use shorter runways than most earlier jets. 727 models were stretched to carry more passengers and replaced earlier jet airliners such as the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, as well as aging propeller airliners such as the DC-4, DC-6, DC-7, the Lockheed Constellations on short- and medium-haul routes. For over a decade, more 727s were built per year than any other jet airliner; the airliner's middle engine at the rear of the fuselage gets air from an inlet ahead of the vertical fin through an S-shaped duct. This S-duct proved to be troublesome in that flow distortion in the duct induced a surge in the centerline engine on the take-off of the first flight of the 727-100.
This was fixed by the addition of several large vortex generators in the inside of the first bend of the duct. The 727 was designed for smaller airports, so independence from ground facilities was an important requirement; this led to one of the 727's most distinctive features: the built-in airstair that opens from the rear underbelly of the fuselage, which could be opened in flight. Hijacker D. B. Cooper used this hatch when he parachuted from the back of a 727, as it was flying over the Pacific Northwest. Boeing subsequently modified the design with the Cooper vane so that the airstair could not be lowered in flight. Another innovation was the auxiliary power unit, which allowed electrical and air-conditioning systems to run independently of a ground-based power supply, without having to start one of the main engines. An unusual design feature is that the APU is mounted in a hole in the keel beam web, in the main landing gear bay; the 727 is eq