A flat cap is a rounded cap with a small stiff brim in front. The hat is known in Scotland as a bunnet in the Scots language, in Wales as a Dai cap, in New Zealand as a cheese-cutter, in the United States as a driving cap. Cloths used to make the cap include wool and cotton. Less common materials may include linen, or corduroy; the inside of the cap is lined for comfort and warmth. The style can be traced back to the 14th century in Northern England, when it was more to be called a "bonnet"; this term was replaced by "cap" before about 1700, except in Scotland, where it continues to be referred to as a bunnet in Scots. A 1571 Act of the English Parliament was enacted to stimulate domestic wool consumption and general trade, it decreed that on Sundays and holidays, all males over 6 years of age, except for the nobility and "persons of degree", were to wear woollen caps or pay a fine of three farthings per day. The Act was not repealed until 1597, though by the flat cap had become entrenched as a recognised mark of a non-noble subject, such as a burgher, a tradesman, or an apprentice.
The style may have been the same as the Tudor bonnet still used in some styles of academic dress. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, when men predominantly wore some form of headgear, flat caps were worn throughout Great Britain and Ireland. Versions in finer cloth were considered to be suitable casual countryside wear for upper-class Englishmen. Flat caps were worn by fashionable young men in the 1920s. Boys of all classes in the United Kingdom wore flat caps during this period. In the United States, the caps were worn from the 1890s; the cap was at the time standard boys' wear. They were worn to school, for casual wear, with suits. Flat caps were always worn with knicker suits in the 1910s and 1920s. Both flat caps and knickerbockers declined in popularity during the 1930s; the flat cap made its way to southern Italy in the late 1800s brought by British servicemen. In Turkey, the flat cap became the main headgear for men after it became a replacement for the fez, banned by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1925.
One of the flat hats worn in academia is known as a bonnet or Tudor bonnet and derives directly from medieval headgear of the period of the original 1571 Act. It remains ceremonial wear by members of the academic community in many countries as the headgear of doctoral graduates, it has a soft, round crown and a stiff, flat brim. The bonnet is made of black velvet and trimmed, between crown and brim, with gold cord and tassels; some universities opt to trim their bonnets with coloured cord and tassels. Some stylistic varieties of this bonnet are: The Canterbury cap is a flat-topped, soft cloth hat with a round headband deeper at the back than at the front; the Oxford bonnet has a black ribbon between brim. The John Knox cap is a soft, square cap made from black velvet and worn by the doctors of certain Scottish universities, as well as Durham University in England, the University of Calgary, Queens' University in Canada, it is worn by the holders of higher doctorates of the University of Liverpool and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
The academic cap, however, is more used in academia. In British popular culture, the flat cap is associated with older working-class men those in Northern England, the West Country, as personified by Fred Dibnah and comic strip anti-hero Andy Capp; the flat cap's strong connection with the working class and the East End of London is illustrated by Jim Branning of the television soap opera EastEnders and Del-Boy Trotter of Only Fools and Horses. Taxicab and bus drivers are depicted wearing a flat cap, as comedically portrayed by Gareth Hale and Norman Pace's "London cabbies" television sketches. In the BBC show Peaky Blinders, characters show their membership of the Birmingham gang by sewing razor blades into the peak of their flat caps for use as a weapon. AC/DC vocalist Brian Johnson, a native of Newcastle, customarily wears a flat cap on stage and off; the flat cap can be taken to denote the upper class when affecting casualness. "A toff can be a bit of a chap as well without, as it were, losing face."In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, British public figures including David Beckham, Guy Ritchie, Richard Blackwood, the Prince of Wales wore the flat cap.
The flat cap hat is associated in North American popular culture with city newsboys, the style sometimes being called a "newsboy" or Newsboy cap, sometimes referred to as a "Kangol hat" due to conflation with the brand that makes certain styles of flat caps. The style has remained popular among groups of people in the United Kingdom and North America; the cap is sometimes associated with older men in South Korea, but has been popular among some segments of younger people, for example, in cities such as Boston and Pittsburgh with a large Irish-American population. They are associated with skinheads and the Oi! and punk subcultures. It has sometimes worn back-to-front or cocked to the side, it is very common among men and women in San Francisco, California. In Turkey, it is popular amongst men working-class; the English rugby league team Featherstone Rovers supporters' nickname is "the Flat Cappers", because supporters in years gone by attended matches wearing them as did most other teams' supporters.
The black leather flat ca
A helmet is a form of protective gear worn to protect the head. More a helmet complements the skull in protecting the human brain. Ceremonial or symbolic helmets without protective function are sometimes worn. Soldiers wear helmets made from lightweight plastic materials; the word helmet is diminutive from a medieval word for protective combat headgear. The medieval great helm covers the whole head and is accompanied with camail protecting throat and neck as well. A helmet was a helm which covered the head only and protected it from injury in accidents. In civilian life, helmets are used for recreational sports. Since the 1990s, most helmets are made from resin or plastic, which may be reinforced with fibers such as aramids; some British gamekeepers during the 18th and 19th centuries wore helmets made of straw bound together with cut bramble. Europeans in the tropics wore the pith helmet, developed in the mid-19th century and made of pith or cork. Military applications in the 19th-20th centuries saw a number of leather helmets among aviators and tank crews in the early 20th century.
In the early days of the automobile, some motorists adopted this style of headgear, early football helmets were made of leather. In World War II, Soviet, German and French flight crews wore leather helmets, the German pilots disguising theirs under a beret before disposing of both and switching to cloth caps; the era of the First and Second World Wars saw a resurgence of metal military helmets, most notably the Brodie helmet and the Stahlhelm. Modern helmets have a much wider range of applications, including helmets adapted to the specific needs of many athletic pursuits and work environments, these helmets often incorporate plastics and other synthetic materials for their light weight and shock absorption capabilities; some types of synthetic fibers used to make helmets in the 21st century include Aramid and Twaron. Helmets of many different types have developed over time. Most early helmets had military uses, though some may have had more ceremonial than combat applcations. Two important helmet types to develop in antiquity were the Roman galea.
During the Middle Ages, many different military helmets and some ceremonial helmets were developed all being metal. Some of the more important medieval developments included the great helm, the bascinet, the frog-mouth helm and the armet; the great seal of Owain Glyndŵr depicts the prince of Wales & his stallion wearing full armour, they both wear protective headgear with Owain's gold dragon mounted on top, this would have been impractical in battle so therefore these would have been ceremonial. In the 19th century, more materials were incorporated, namely leather and pith; the pith helmet and the leather pickelhaube were important 19th century developments. The greatest expansion in the variety of forms and composition of helmets, took place in the 20th century, with the development of specialized helmets for a multitude of athletic and professional applications, as well as the advent of modern plastics. During World War I, the French army developed the Adrian helmet, the British developed the Brodie helmet, the Germans produced the Stahlhelm.
Flight helmets were developed throughout the 20th century. A multitude of athletic helmets, including football helmets, batting helmets, cricket helmets, bicycle helmets, motorcycle helmets and racing helmets, were developed in the 20th century. Helmets since the mid-20th century have incorporated lightweight plastics and other synthetic materials, their use has become specialized; some important recent developments include the French SPECTRA helmet, Spanish MARTE helmet or the American PASGT and Advanced Combat Helmet, or ACH. As the coat of arms was designed to distinguish noble combatants on the battlefield or in a tournament while covered in armour, it is not surprising that heraldic elements incorporated the shield and the helmet, these being the most visible parts of a knight's military equipment; the practice of indicating peerage through the display of barred or grilled helmets first appeared around 1587-1615, the heraldic convention of displaying helmets of rank in the United Kingdom, which came into vogue around Stuart times, is as follows: Sovereign: a gold barred-face helm placed affronté Peer's helmet: silver barred-face helm placed in profile Knight's or baronet's helmet: steel helm placed affronté with visor open Esquire's helmet: steel helm placed in profile with visor closedEarlier rolls of arms reveal, that early heraldic helmets were depicted in a manner faithful to the styles in actual military or tournament use at the time.
Helmets portal Balaclava Cap Combat helmet Face shield Firefighter's helmet Helmet boxing The Stackhat "Helmets... A Medieval Note In Modern Warfare", August 1942, Popular Science evolution of military helmets
A top hat, beaver hat, high hat, silk hat, cylinder hat, chimney pot hat or stove pipe hat, sometimes known by the nickname "topper", is a tall, flat-crowned, broad-brimmed hat, worn by men from the latter part of the 18th to the middle of the 20th century. By the end of World War II, it had become a rarity in ordinary dress, though it continued to be worn in specific instances, such as state funerals by those occupying prominent positions in the Bank of England, by certain City stock exchange officials and when passing between the Law Courts and Lincoln's Inn, London by judges of the Chancery Division and Queen's Counsel; as of the early 21st century, top hats are still worn at some society events in the UK, notably at church weddings and racing meetings attended by members of the royal family, such as Royal Ascot. They remain part of the formal uniform of certain British institutions, such as the boy-choristers of King's College Choir, they are worn with morning dress or white tie, in dressage, as part of servants' or doormen's livery.
The top hat was associated with the upper class, was used by satirists and social critics as a symbol of capitalism or the world of business. The use of the top hat persisted in politics and international diplomacy for many years, including at U. S. presidential inaugurations, the last being worn at the inauguration of John Fitzgerald Kennedy in 1961. The top hat forms part of the traditional dress of Uncle Sam, a symbol of the United States striped in red and blue; the top hat is associated with stage magic, both in traditional costume and the use of hat tricks. One such trick involving a top hat is the famous "Pulling a Rabbit out of a Hat" trick. Instances of this trick date back to Louis Comte who performed the trick in 1814. According to fashion historians, the top hat may have descended directly from the sugarloaf hat. Gentlemen began to replace the tricorne with the top hat at the end of the 18th century; the first silk top hat in England is credited to George Dunnage, a hatter from Middlesex, in 1793.
The invention of the top hat is erroneously credited to a haberdasher named John Hetherington. Within 30 years top hats had become popular with all social classes, with workmen wearing them. At that time those worn by members of the upper classes were made of felted beaver fur; the hats became part of the uniforms worn by postmen. Between the latter part of 18th century and the early part of the 19th century, felted beaver fur was replaced by silk "hatter's plush", though the silk topper met with resistance from those who preferred the beaver hat; the 1840s and the 1850s saw it reach its most extreme form, with ever-higher crowns and narrow brims. The stovepipe hat was a variety with straight sides, while one with convex sides was called the "chimney pot"; the style we refer to as the stovepipe was popularized in the United States by Abraham Lincoln during his presidency. It is said. One of Lincoln's top hats is kept on display at the National Museum of American History in Washington, DC. During the 19th century, the top hat developed from a fashion into a symbol of urban respectability, this was assured when Prince Albert started wearing them in 1850.
Whether it directly affected or was coincidental to the decline of the beaver trade is debatable. James Laver once observed that an assemblage of "toppers" resembled factory chimneys and thus added to the mood of the industrial era. In England, post-Brummel dandies went in for swooping brims, their counterparts in France, known as the "Incroyables", wore top hats of such outlandish dimensions that there was no room for them in overcrowded cloakrooms until the invention of the collapsible top hat. A silk top hat is made from hatters' plush, a soft silk weave with a long, defined nap; this is rare now, since it is no longer in general production since the 1950s, it is thought that there are no looms capable of producing the traditional material any more. The standard covering is now fur melusine as Christys' calls it. A grey flat fur felt, it is common to see top hats in stiff wool felt and soft wool though these are not considered on the same level as the silk or fur plush or grey felt varieties.
The standard crown shape nowadays is the'semi-bell crown'. Because of the rarity of vintage silk hats, the expense of modern top hats, the vintage/antique market is lively, with models in wearable condition hard to find. In the past, top hats were made by blocking a single piece of woo
A cap is a form of headgear. Caps have crowns that fit close to the head, they are designed for warmth, when including a visor used for blocking sunlight from the eyes. They come in many shapes and sizes, various different brands. Ascot cap Ayam Baggy green Balmoral Baseball cap Beanie Bearskin Beret Biretta Busby Cap and bells Cap of Maintenance Casquette Caubeen Caul Coif Combination cap Coppola Cricket cap Deerstalker Do-rag Dutch cap Fez Fitted cap Flat cap Forage cap Gandhi cap Garrison cap Glengarry Greek fisherman's cap International cap Juliet cap Karakul Kepi Kippah Knit cap Kufi Lika cap M43 field cap Mao cap Monmouth cap Newsboy cap Nightcap Nurse cap Ochipok Papakhi Patrol cap Peaked cap Phrygian cap Rastacap Sailor cap Shako Shower cap Sindhi cap Snapback Sports visor Square academic cap Stormy Kromer cap Swim cap Tam o' Shanter Taqiyah, worn by Muslim males Toque Trucker hat Tubeteika Ushanka Utility cover Zucchetto Bonnet, until about 1700, the usual word for brimless male headgear Cap, metaphorical term List of headgear
An ascot tie, or ascot or hanker-tie, is a neckband with wide pointed wings, traditionally made of pale grey patterned silk. This wide tie is patterned, folded over, fastened with a tie pin or tie clip, it is reserved for formal wear with morning dress for daytime weddings and worn with a cutaway morning coat and striped grey formal trousers. This type of dress cravat is made of a thicker, woven type of silk similar to a modern tie and is traditionally either grey or black; the ascot is descended from the earlier type of cravat widespread in the early 19th century, most notably during the age of Beau Brummell, made of starched linen and elaborately tied around the neck. In the 1880s, amongst the upper-middle-class in Europe men began to wear a more loosely tied version for formal daytime events with daytime full dress in frock coats or with morning coats, it remains a feature of morning dress for weddings today. The Royal Ascot race meeting at the Ascot Racecourse gave the ascot its name, although such dress cravats were no longer worn with morning dress at the Royal Ascot races by the Edwardian era.
The ascot was still worn for business with morning dress in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In British English, the casual form is called a cravat, or sometimes as a day cravat to distinguish it from the formal dress cravat, it is made from a thinner woven silk, more comfortable when worn against the skin with ornate and colourful printed patterns. Students at the United States Army Officer Candidate School wear ascots as part of their uniform, black for basic officer candidates and white for senior officer candidates. Pararescue trainees upon completion of extended training day are given a blue ascot. In the United States Navy the ascot is now worn for ceremonial purposes with Enlisted Full Dress Whites and Enlisted Full Dress Blue in the Ceremonial Guard. In the Dutch Army, it is a part of the uniform, for barrack use, the ascot is in the weapon colors, with a logo, when in combat uniform, a DPM or desert version is used; the Royal Danish Army employs an ascot for the ceremonial version of the barrack dress, its colors vary between each company.
"Uniform Regulations for the Army". Army Operational Command. DK: parawings.com. September 2012. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016. Villarosa, Riccardo: The Elegant Man - How to Construct the Ideal Wardrobe. Random House, 1992. ISBN 0-679-42101-7 How to tie the Ruche knot How to tie an Ascot Tie
The bowler hat known as a billycock, bob hat, bombín or derby, is a hard felt hat with a rounded crown created by the London hat-makers Thomas and William Bowler during 1849. It has traditionally been worn with semi-formal and informal attire; the bowler, a protective and durable hat style, was popular with the British and American working classes during the second half of the 19th century, with the middle and upper classes in the United Kingdom and the east coast United States. The bowler hat is said to have been designed during 1849 by the London hat-makers Thomas and William Bowler to fulfill an order placed by the company of hatters James Lock & Co. of St James's, commissioned by a customer to design a close-fitting, low-crowned hat to protect gamekeepers from low-hanging branches while on horseback at Holkham Hall, the estate of Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester in Norfolk. The keepers had worn top hats, which were knocked off and damaged; the identity of the customer is less certain, with many suggesting it was William Coke.
However research performed by a younger relation of the 1st Earl casts doubt on this story, it is now believed that the bowler was invented for Edward Coke, the younger brother of Thomas Coke, 2nd Earl of Leicester. When Edward Coke arrived in London on 17 December 1849 to collect his hat he placed it on the floor and stamped hard on it twice to test its strength; the bowler has had varying degrees of significance in British culture. They were popular among the working classes in the 19th century, from the early 20th century bowler hats were associated with businessmen working in the financial districts known as "City Gents"; the traditional wearing of bowler hats with City business attire declined during the 1970s. During modern times bowlers are not common, although the so-called City Gent remains a stereotype of Englishmen, wearing a bowler and carrying a rolled umbrella. For this reason, two bowler-hatted men were used in the logo of the British building society, Bradford & Bingley. In Scotland and Northern Ireland the bowler hat is worn traditionally by members of the main Loyalist fraternities such as the Orange Order, the Independent Loyal Orange Institution, the Royal Black Preceptory and the Apprentice Boys of Derry for their parades and annual celebrations.
The bowler, not the cowboy hat or sombrero, was the most popular hat in the American West, prompting Lucius Beebe to call it "the hat that won the West". Both cowboys and railroad workers preferred the hat because it would not blow off in strong wind while riding a horse, or when sticking one's head out the window of a speeding train, it was worn by both lawmen and outlaws, including Bat Masterson, Butch Cassidy, Black Bart, Billy the Kid. In the United States the hat came to be known as the derby, American outlaw Marion Hedgepeth was referred to as "the Derby Kid". In South America, the bowler, known as bombín in Spanish, has been worn by Quechua and Aymara women since the 1920s, when it was introduced to Bolivia by British railway workers. For many years, a factory in Italy manufactured such hats for the Bolivian market, but they are now made locally; the bowler hat became used famously by certain actors, such as Charlie Chaplin and Hardy, Curly Howard, John Cleese, by the fictional character of John Steed of The Avengers, played by Patrick Macnee.
In the 1964 film Mary Poppins, set in Edwardian London, 1910, the London banker George Banks wears a bowler. The British building society Bradford & Bingley registered more than 100 separate trademarks featuring the bowler hat, its long-running logo. In 1995 the bank purchased, for £2,000, a bowler hat which had once belonged to Stan Laurel; the bowler is part of the Droog uniform that the English character Alex wears in A Clockwork Orange to the extent that contemporary fancy dress outfits for this character reference the bowler hat. There was a chain of restaurants in Los Angeles, California known as Brown Derby; the first and most famous of these was shaped like a derby. A chain of Brown Derby restaurants in Ohio are still in business today. Many paintings by the Belgian surrealist artist René Magritte feature bowler hats; the Son of Man consists of a man in a bowler hat standing in front of a wall. The man's face is obscured by a hovering green apple. Golconda depicts "raining men" all wearing bowler hats.
Choreographer Bob Fosse incorporated bowler hats into his dance routines. This use of hats as a props, as seen in the 1972 movie Cabaret, would become one of his trademarks. Winston Churchill, Prime Minister during the 2nd World War and later; the Plug Uglies, a nineteenth-century American street gang, wore bowler hats stuffed with cloth or wool to protect their heads while fighting. John Bonham, drummer for Led Zeppelin wore a bowler hat. Charlie Chaplin wore a bowler hat as part of his'Little Tramp' costume. Edward Coke, for whom the first bowler hat was designed. Bing Crosby wears a bowler hat in the 1946 film Road to Utopia, among others. Alex, the protagonist of A Clockwork Orange, wears a bowler hat. Lou Costello of Abbott and Costello wore a bowler hat. Laurel and Hardy are known for wearing bowler hats. "Bowler Hat Guy," antagonist of the movie Meet the Robinsons, is named for his choice of hat. John Steed of The Avengers wore a variety of bowler hats throughout the series. Boy George wore a bowler hat during the 1980s.
Oddjob, Auric Goldfinger's manservant, uses his razor-edged bowler hat as a weapon In the 1964 James Bond movie Goldfinger. John D. Rockerduck possesses the distinctive character trait of e
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field is invisible but is responsible for the most notable property of a magnet: a force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, attracts or repels other magnets. A permanent magnet is an object made from a material, magnetized and creates its own persistent magnetic field. An everyday example is a refrigerator magnet used to hold notes on a refrigerator door. Materials that can be magnetized, which are the ones that are attracted to a magnet, are called ferromagnetic; these include the elements iron and cobalt, some alloys of rare-earth metals, some occurring minerals such as lodestone. Although ferromagnetic materials are the only ones attracted to a magnet enough to be considered magnetic, all other substances respond weakly to a magnetic field, by one of several other types of magnetism. Ferromagnetic materials can be divided into magnetically "soft" materials like annealed iron, which can be magnetized but do not tend to stay magnetized, magnetically "hard" materials, which do.
Permanent magnets are made from "hard" ferromagnetic materials such as alnico and ferrite that are subjected to special processing in a strong magnetic field during manufacture to align their internal microcrystalline structure, making them hard to demagnetize. To demagnetize a saturated magnet, a certain magnetic field must be applied, this threshold depends on coercivity of the respective material. "Hard" materials have high coercivity, whereas "soft" materials have low coercivity. The overall strength of a magnet is measured by its magnetic moment or, the total magnetic flux it produces; the local strength of magnetism in a material is measured by its magnetization. An electromagnet is made from a coil of wire that acts as a magnet when an electric current passes through it but stops being a magnet when the current stops; the coil is wrapped around a core of "soft" ferromagnetic material such as mild steel, which enhances the magnetic field produced by the coil. Ancient people learned about magnetism from lodestones which are magnetized pieces of iron ore.
The word magnet was adopted in Middle English from Latin magnetum "lodestone" from Greek μαγνῆτις meaning " from Magnesia", a part of ancient Greece where lodestones were found. Lodestones, suspended so they could turn, were the first magnetic compasses; the earliest known surviving descriptions of magnets and their properties are from Greece and China around 2500 years ago. The properties of lodestones and their affinity for iron were written of by Pliny the Elder in his encyclopedia Naturalis Historia. By the 12th to 13th centuries AD, magnetic compasses were used in navigation in China, the Arabian Peninsula and elsewhere; the magnetic flux density is a vector field. The magnetic B field vector at a given point in space is specified by two properties: Its direction, along the orientation of a compass needle, its magnitude, proportional to how the compass needle orients along that direction. In SI units, the strength of the magnetic B field is given in teslas. A magnet's magnetic moment is a vector.
For a bar magnet, the direction of the magnetic moment points from the magnet's south pole to its north pole, the magnitude relates to how strong and how far apart these poles are. In SI units, the magnetic moment is specified in terms of A·m2. A magnet both responds to magnetic fields; the strength of the magnetic field it produces is at any given point proportional to the magnitude of its magnetic moment. In addition, when the magnet is put into an external magnetic field, produced by a different source, it is subject to a torque tending to orient the magnetic moment parallel to the field; the amount of this torque is proportional both to the external field. A magnet may be subject to a force driving it in one direction or another, according to the positions and orientations of the magnet and source. If the field is uniform in space, the magnet is subject to no net force, although it is subject to a torque. A wire in the shape of a circle with area A and carrying current I has a magnetic moment of magnitude equal to IA.
The magnetization of a magnetized material is the local value of its magnetic moment per unit volume denoted M, with units A/m. It is a vector field, rather than just a vector, because different areas in a magnet can be magnetized with different directions and strengths. A good bar magnet may have a magnetic moment of magnitude 0.1 A•m2 and a volume of 1 cm3, or 1×10−6 m3, therefore an average magnetization magnitude is 100,000 A/m. Iron can have a magnetization of around a million amperes per meter; such a large value explains. Two different models exist for magnets: atomic currents. Although for many purposes it is convenient to think of a magnet as having distinct north and south magnetic poles, the concept of poles should not be taken literally: it is a way of referring to the two different ends of a magnet; the magnet does not have distinct south particles on opposing sides. If a bar magnet is broken into two pieces, in an attempt to separate the north and south poles, the result will be two b