Tsuga is a genus of conifers in the pine family Pinaceae. The common name hemlock is derived from a similarity in the smell of its crushed foliage to that of the unrelated plant poison hemlock. Unlike the latter, Tsuga species are not poisonous, eight to ten species are within the genus, with four species occurring in North America and four to six in eastern Asia. They are medium-sized to large trees, ranging from 10–60 m tall, with a conical to irregular crown. The bark is scaly and commonly deeply furrowed, with the colour ranging from grey to brown, the branches stem horizontally from the trunk and are usually arranged in flattened sprays that bend downward towards their tips. Short spur shoots, which are present in gymnosperms, are weakly to moderately developed. The young twigs, as well as the portions of stem, are flexible. The stems are rough due to pulvini that persist after the leaves fall, the winter buds are ovoid or globose, usually rounded at the apex and not resinous. The leaves are flattened to slightly angular and range from 5–35 mm long and they are borne singly and are arranged spirally on the stem, the leaf bases are twisted so the leaves lie flat either side of the stem or more rarely radially.
Towards the base, the leaves narrow abruptly to a set on a forward-angled pulvinus. The petiole is twisted at the base so it is almost parallel with the stem, the leaf apex is either notched, rounded, or acute. The undersides have two white stomatal bands separated by an elevated midvein, the upper surface of the leaves lack stomata, except in T. mertensiana. They have one resin canal that is present beneath the single vascular bundle, the pollen cones grow solitary from lateral buds. They are 3–5 mm long, globose, or ellipsoid, and yellowish-white to pale purple, the pollen itself has a saccate, ring-like structure at its distal pole, and rarely this structure can be more or less doubly saccate. Maturation occurs in 5–8 months, and the seeds are shed shortly thereafter, the seed scales are thin and persistent. They vary in shape and lack an apophysis and an umbo, the bracts are included and small. The seeds are small, from 2 to 4 mm long and they contain small adaxial resin vesicles. Seed germination is epigeal, the seedlings have four to six cotyledons, mountain hemlock, T. mertensiana, is unusual in the genus in several respects
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
The Feather River is the principal tributary of the Sacramento River, in the Sacramento Valley of Northern California. The rivers main stem is about 71 miles long and its length to its most distant headwater tributary is about 220 miles. Its drainage basin is about 6,000 square miles, the main stem Feather River begins in Lake Oroville, where its four long tributary forks join together—the South Fork, Middle Fork, North Fork, and West Branch Feather Rivers. These and other tributaries drain part of the northern Sierra Nevada, the rivers drainage basin above Lake Oroville is 3,222 square miles, or about 53% of the whole. The Feather River and its forks were a center of gold mining during the 19th century. Since the 1960s, the river has provided water to central and southern California and its water is used for hydroelectricity generation. The river rises in four main forks in the Sierra Nevada which unite as arms of the Lake Oroville reservoir in the foothills 5 miles northeast of Oroville in eastern Butte County.
In terms of areas the largest is the North Fork. The Middle Fork is the second largest, draining about 32% of the upper basin, the South Fork and the West Branch are much smaller, each drains less than 5% of the upper basin. The main stem Feather River begins at Oroville Dam, the outlet of Lake Oroville, from there the river flows generally south across the Sacramento Valley, east of the Sutter Buttes, past Oroville and Yuba City-Marysville. The Feather receives the Yuba River from the east at Yuba City and it empties into the Sacramento River from the north, about 20 miles northwest of Sacramento. The North Fork Feather River begins in Feather River Meadows at the junction of Rice Creek and South Arm Rice Creek, the names and confluence locations of the streams in this area were changed by the Board on Geographic Names in 1927. USGS topographic maps, as of 1995, are mislabeled for South Arm, North Arm Rice Creek, Rice Creek, the North Forks length is about 102 miles, or about 112 miles including Rice Creek.
The total length of the Feather River from the source of Rice Creek to the Sacramento River is about 187 miles, from its source in Feather River Meadows the North Fork flows east. A tributary emerges from Buzzard Springs and flows into the Stump Ranch Marsh Area, where it joins the North Fork, which flows southeast to Lake Almanor. Below Canyon Dam the North Fork flows generally southwest through the Sierra Nevada, the East Branch is one of the major tributaries of the Feather River system. It originates at 40°2′16″N 120°58′57″W, at the confluence of Indian Creek, impounded at Antelope Dam, Indian Creek joins Spanish Creek to form the East Branch North Fork Feather River. From its source at the Indian and Spanish Creeks confluence, the East Branch North Fork flows west past Twain, the East Branchs main stem length is about 18 miles
Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, and erosion by water and glaciers. Magma rises from the mantle, causing the ground to swell upward, in way, flat areas of rock are uplifted. Plateaus can be built up by lava spreading outward from cracks, plateaus can be formed by the erosional processes of glaciers on mountain ranges, leaving them sitting between the mountain ranges. Water can erode mountains and other landforms down into plateaus, volcanic plateaus are produced by volcanic activity. The Columbia Plateau in the northwestern United States is an example, dissected plateaus are highly eroded plateaus cut by rivers and broken by deep narrow valleys. Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment, intermontane plateaus are the highest in the world, bordered by mountains. The Tibetan Plateau is one such plateau, Piedmont plateaus are bordered on one side by mountains and on the other by a plain or a sea. The Piedmont Plateau of the Eastern United States between the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coastal Plain is an example, continental plateaus are bordered on all sides by plains or oceans, forming away from the mountains.
The Tibetan plateau covers approximately 2,500,000 km2, the plateau is sufficiently high enough to reverse the Hadley cell convection cycles and to drive the monsoons of India towards the south. The second-highest plateau is the Deosai Plateau of the Deosai National Park at an elevation of 4,114 m. It is located in the Astore and Skardu districts of Gilgit-Baltistan, Deosai means the land of giants. The park protects an area of 3,000 km2 and it is known for its rich flora and fauna of the Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe ecoregion. In spring it is covered by sweeps of wildflowers and a variety of butterflies. The highest point in Deosai is Deosai Lake, or Sheosar Lake from the Shina language meaning Blind lake near the Chilim Valley. The lake lies at an elevation of 4,142 m, one of the highest lakes in the world, and is 2.3 km long,1.8 km wide, and 40 m deep on average. Some other major plateaus in Asia are, Armenian Highlands, Iranian plateau, Anatolian Plateau, Mongolian Plateau, and the Deccan Plateau.
This polar ice cap is so massive that the echolocation sound measurements of ice thickness have shown that parts of the Antarctic dry land surface have been pressed below sea level. Thus, if that same ice cap were removed, the large areas of the frozen white continent would be flooded by the surrounding Antarctic Ocean or Southern Ocean
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earths volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of plate hypothesis volcanism, Volcanism away from plate boundaries has been explained as mantle plumes. These so-called hotspots, for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the boundary,3,000 km deep in the Earth. Volcanoes are usually not created where two plates slide past one another. Erupting volcanoes can pose hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. Historically, so-called volcanic winters have caused catastrophic famines, the word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian Islands of Italy whose name in turn comes from Vulcan, the god of fire in Roman mythology.
The study of volcanoes is called volcanology, sometimes spelled vulcanology, at the mid-oceanic ridges, two tectonic plates diverge from one another as new oceanic crust is formed by the cooling and solidifying of hot molten rock. Most divergent plate boundaries are at the bottom of the oceans, most volcanic activity is submarine, black smokers are evidence of this kind of volcanic activity. Where the mid-oceanic ridge is above sea-level, volcanic islands are formed, for example, subduction zones are places where two plates, usually an oceanic plate and a continental plate, collide. In this case, the plate subducts, or submerges under the continental plate forming a deep ocean trench just offshore. In a process called flux melting, water released from the subducting plate lowers the temperature of the overlying mantle wedge. This magma tends to be very viscous due to its high content, so it often does not reach the surface. When it does reach the surface, a volcano is formed, typical examples of this kind of volcano are Mount Etna and the volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire.
Because tectonic plates move across them, each volcano becomes dormant and is eventually re-formed as the plate advances over the postulated plume and this theory is currently under criticism, however. The most common perception of a volcano is of a mountain, spewing lava and poisonous gases from a crater at its summit, however. The features of volcanoes are more complicated and their structure. Some volcanoes have rugged peaks formed by lava domes rather than a summit crater while others have features such as massive plateaus
Redding, officially the City of Redding, is the county seat of Shasta County, California, in the northern part of the state. It lies along the Sacramento River, which provided transportation and power in its early years, Interstate 5 bisects the entire city, which has a population of 89,861, from the south to north before it approaches Shasta Lake, located about 15 miles north of downtown. Redding is the largest city in the Shasta Cascade region, and it is the fourth-largest city in the Sacramento Valley, behind Sacramento, Elk Grove, the site of Redding was settled by Native Americans of the Wintu tribe around the year 1000. The original county seat was Shasta, located approximately 6 miles west on 299W, Redding became the county seat after the railroad was built. Situated along the Siskiyou Trail, Redding became a stop on a trade and travel route connecting Californias Central Valley, during the early 19th century, Hudsons Bay Company trappers and numerous European-American settlers passed through the site while traveling along the Siskiyou Trail.
The first European-American settler in the area was Pierson B and he was an admirer of John Sutter. In 1844, Reading received the Rancho Buena Ventura Mexican land grant for the occupied by todays Redding and Cottonwood, California. At the time it was the northernmost nonnative settlement in California, the railroad routed the tracks through an area known as Poverty Flats, stimulating the development of the European-American town of Redding. The railroad stop was named by the Southern Pacific for railroad man Benjamin B, in 1874 town residents changed the spelling of the name to Reading, to honor local pioneer Pierson B. But the railroad did not officially recognize the change and the town restored its original spelling, Redding was incorporated on October 4,1887 with a population of 600 people. By 1910, Redding had a population of 3,572 supported by a significant mineral extraction industry, with the decline of these industries, which had produced significant amounts of pollution damaging to local agriculture, the population dropped to 2,962 in 1920.
By 1930 the population had recovered to 4,188 and boomed during the 1930s with the construction of nearby Shasta Dam, in 1892 brothers John and Charles Ruggles thought that they could make some easy money by robbing a stagecoach. On May 10,1892, the brothers robbed the Weaverville stage, later, on May 12, the brothers stopped the stage again but Charles was hit with buckshot fired by a guard riding inside the coach. On July 24,1892, a lynch mob wearing masks entered the jail, in what became known as the lynching of the Ruggles brothers, the two men were hanged together from a derrick. The city did not grow markedly until the 1950s, stimulated by postwar expansion of the industry to satisfy pent-up demand for new housing across the country. In addition, construction of the Whiskeytown and Keswick dams brought many workers to the area, completion of Interstate 5 in the late 1960s brought a higher level of traffic and added to development. By 1970, Redding had grown to 16,659 people, in the 1970s, Redding annexed the town of Enterprise, located on the eastern bank of the Sacramento River.
The city acquired other county areas, increasing the population to around 35,000, Enterprise residents voted to support the annexation primarily to acquire less expensive electricity via Reddings municipal utility, which receives power from the dam
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Nature photography refers to a wide range of photography taken outdoors and devoted to displaying natural elements such as landscapes, wildlife and close-ups of natural scenes and textures. Nature photography tends to put an emphasis on the aesthetic value of the photo than other photography genres, such as photojournalism. Nature photography overlaps the fields of -- and is considered an overarching category including -- wildlife photography, landscape photography. Well known nature photographers include Frans Lanting, Galen Rowell, Mark Gray, Eliot Porter, wildlife photography is devoted to capturing animals in their natural habitats. The animals are often photographed in action, such as eating, alternatively, more static portraits may be used to show detail of the animal or to depict it in its environment. Captive or controlled animals are often photographed instead of wild specimens. The techniques of wildlife photography differ greatly from those used in landscape photography, wildlife is usually shot with long telephoto lenses from a great distance, the use of such telephoto lenses frequently necessitates the use of a tripod.
Many wildlife photographers use blinds or camouflage, the macro photography article explains close-up photography in general, this is a type of nature photography. While common macro subjects – bees, and so on – could be described as wildlife, many photographers record images of the texture in a stone, tree bark, leaf, or any of other small scenes. Many of these images are abstract, tiny plants and mushrooms are popular subjects. Close-up nature photography doesnt always need a true macro lens, color images are not a requirement of nature photography. Both men distinguish between photography as an art form and sensitometry, an accurate reproduction is not necessary. A number of concerns and debates surround the creation of nature photography. Wildlife photography Digiscoping Escape distance of animals Landscape photography
Pseudotsuga menziesii, commonly known as Douglas fir or Douglas-fir, is an evergreen conifer species native to western North America. The common name honors David Douglas, a Scottish botanist and collector who first reported the extraordinary nature, the common name is misleading since it is not a true fir, i. e. not a member of the genus Abies. For this reason the name is written as Douglas-fir. The specific epithet, menziesii, is after Archibald Menzies, a Scottish physician, Menzies first documented the tree on Vancouver Island in 1791. Colloquially, the species is known simply as Doug-fir or as Douglas pine. One Coast Salish name for the tree, used in the Halkomelem language, is lá, one variety, coast Douglas fir, grows in the coastal regions, from west-central British Columbia southward to central California. In Oregon and Washington, its range is continuous from the edge of the Cascades west to the Pacific Coast Ranges. In California, it is found in the Klamath and California Coast Ranges as far south as the Santa Lucia Range, in the Sierra Nevada, it ranges as far south as the Yosemite region.
It occurs from sea level along the coast to 1,800 m above sea level in the mountains of California. Further inland, coast Douglas fir is replaced by another variety, mexican Douglas fir, which ranges as far south as Oaxaca, is often considered a variety of P. menziesii. Coast Douglas fir is currently the second-tallest conifer in the world. Extant coast Douglas fir trees 60–75 m or more in height and 1. 5–2 m in diameter are common in old growth stands, Douglas firs commonly live more than 500 years and occasionally more than 1,000 years. The bark on trees is thin and gray. On mature trees, it is thick and corky, the shoots are brown to olive-green, turning gray-brown with age, though not as smooth as fir shoots, and finely pubescent with short, dark hairs. The buds are a distinctive, conic shape, 4–8 mm long. Unlike the Rocky Mountain Douglas fir, coast Douglas fir foliage has a noticeable sweet fruity-resinous scent, the mature female seed cones are pendulous, 5–8 cm long, 2–3 cm wide when closed, opening to a 4 cm width.
They are produced in spring, green at first, maturing orange-brown in the autumn 6–7 months later, the seeds are 5–6 mm long and 3–4 mm wide, with a 12–15-mm wing. The male cones are 2–3 cm long, dispersing yellow pollen in spring, in forest conditions, old individuals typically have a narrow, cylindric crown beginning 20–40 m above a branch-free trunk
Equestrianism, more often known as riding, horseback riding or horse riding, refers to the skill of riding, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch. They are used in sports including, but not limited to, endurance riding, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, polo, horse racing, driving. Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows, Horses are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding or hacking. There is public access to trails in almost every part of the world, many parks, ranches. Horses are used for therapeutic purposes, both in specialized paraequestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve health and emotional development. Horses are driven in harness racing, at shows and in other types of exhibition, historical reenactment or ceremony.
In some parts of the world, they are used for practical purposes such as farming. Horses continue to be used in service, in traditional ceremonies and volunteer mounted patrols. Riding halls enable the training of horse and rider in all weathers as well as indoor competition riding, though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden approximately 3500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests that horses were ridden long before they were driven, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2500 BC present the most direct evidence of horses used as working animals. In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as light, the horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation and agriculture. Horses lived in North America, but died out at the end of the Ice Age, Horses were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493.
Humans appear to have expressed a desire to know which horse were the fastest. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a history as well. Thoroughbreds have the pre-eminent reputation as a breed, but other breeds race. Under saddle, Thoroughbred horse racing is the most popular form worldwide, in the UK, it is known as flat racing and is governed by the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom
Pinus contorta, with the common names lodgepole pine and shore pine, and known as twisted pine, and contorta pine, is a common tree in western North America. It is common near the shore and in dry montane forests to the subalpine. Like all pines, it is an evergreen conifer, there are four subspecies of Pinus contorta, and one of them is sometimes considered to have two varieties. The subspecies are sometimes treated at the rank of variety, Bolanders beach pine, Bolander pine, endemic to NW California Coast, Near Threatened by fires and development Pinus contorta subsp. Contorta, Shore pine, Pacific Coast, southern Alaska to northern California. Pinus contorta subsp, contorta var. contorta, Shore pine, Pacific Coast, Northwest California through Alaska. Murrayana, Tamarack pine, or Sierra lodgepole pine, Cascade Range from Washington into Northern California, the Sierra Nevada, Lodgepole pine, Rocky Mountains, Colorado to Yukon and Saskatchewan, Aspen parkland and boreal forests. Depending on subspecies, Pinus contorta grows as a shrub or tree.
The shrub form is krummholz and is approximately 1 to 3 m high, the thin and narrow-crowned tree is 40 to 50 m high and can achieve up to 2 m in diameter at chest height. The murrayana subspecies is the tallest, the crown is rounded and the top of the tree is flattened. In dense forests, the tree has a slim, conical crown, the formation of twin trees is common in some populations in British Columbia. The elastic branches stand upright or overhang and are difficult to break, the branches are covered with short shoots that are easy to remove. The species name is contorta because of the twisted, bent pines found at coastal areas, Pinus contorta is occasionally known under several English names, black pine, scrub pine, and coast pine. Latifolia will hybridise with the closely related Jack pine, the egg-shaped growth buds are reddish-brown and between 20 and 30 mm long. They are short pointed, slightly rotated, and very resinous, spring growth starts in beginning of April and the annual growth is completed by early July.
The dark and mostly shiny needles are pointed and 4 to 8 cm long and 0.9 to 2 mm wide, the needle edge is weak to clearly serrated. The needles are in pairs on short shoots and rotated about the shoots longitudinal axes, in Alberta above 2,000 m,1 to 5 needles occur per short shoot. A population with a proportion of three-needled short shoots occurs in the Yukon. Needles live an average of four to six years, with a maximum of 13 years, the cones are 3–7 centimetres long
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is used as part of the name of some fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus. Trout are closely related to salmon and char, species termed salmon, a rainbow trout that spends time in the ocean is called a steelhead. Arctic char and brook trout are part of the char family, Trout are an important food source for humans and wildlife including brown bears, birds of prey such as eagles, and other animals. They are classified as oily fish, these colors and patterns form as camouflage, based on the surroundings, and will change as the fish moves to different habitats. In general trout that are about to breed have extremely intense coloration and they can look like an entirely different fish outside of spawning season. It is virtually impossible to define a color pattern as belonging to a specific breed, however, in general, wild fish are claimed to have more vivid colors.
Trout have fins entirely without spines, and all of them have an adipose fin along the back. The pelvic fins sit well back on the body, on side of the anus. The swim bladder is connected to the esophagus, allowing for gulping or rapid expulsion of air, unlike many other physostome fish, trout do not use their bladder as an auxiliary device for oxygen uptake, relying solely on their gills. There are many species, and even more populations, that are isolated from each other, the trout found in the eastern United States are a good example of this. Lake trout, like brook trout, belong to the char genus, Lake trout inhabit many of the larger lakes in North America, and live much longer than rainbow trout, which have an average maximum lifespan of 7 years. Lake trout can live many decades, and can grow to more than 30 kilograms, Trout are usually found in cool, clear streams and lakes, although many of the species have anadromous strains as well. Young trout are referred to as troutlet, troutling or fry and they are distributed naturally throughout North America, northern Asia and Europe.
Several species of trout were introduced to Australia and New Zealand by amateur fishing enthusiasts in the 19th century, the introduced species included brown trout from England and rainbow trout from California. The rainbow trout were a strain, generally accepted as coming from Sonoma Creek. The rainbow trout of New Zealand still show the tendency to run up rivers in winter to spawn. In Australia the rainbow trout was introduced in 1894 from New Zealand and is a popular gamefish in recreational angling