Zutphen is a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands. It lies some 30 km north-east of Arnhem, on the Eastern bank of the river IJssel at the point where it is joined by the Berkel, the name Zutphen appears to mean zuid-veen, or in English, south-fen. In 2005, the municipality of Zutphen was merged with the municipality of Warnsveld, the municipality had a population of 47,052 in 2014. About 300 AD a Germanic settlement was the first permanent town on a complex of low river dunes, whereas many such settlements were abandoned in the early Middle Ages, Zutphen on its strategic confluence of IJssel and Berkel stayed. After the incorporation of the IJssel lands in Charlemagnes Francia, Zutphen became a centre of governance under a count. The Normans raided and ravaged it in 882, afterwards a circular fortress was built to protect the budding town against Viking attacks. In the eleventh century Zutphen was a residence for a number of years, a pfalz was built, together with a large chapter church.
The counts of Zutphen acquired a lot of power, until the line of counts became extinct in the twelfth century. After the death of her father and her brother, the settlement received town rights between 1191 and 1196, making it one of the oldest towns in the country. This allowed it to govern and have a judicial court. Only Utrecht, and Deventer preceded it in receiving town rights, Zutphen, in turn, became the mother town of several other towns in Guelders, such as Arnhem, Doesburg, Harderwijk and Emmerich. It became part of the Hanseatic League, a group of towns with great wealth, during the 12th century coins were minted in Zutphen by the Counts of Guelders and Zutphen, Henry I and Otto I. Although the city had minting rights for a few centuries this was actively used during four periods, 1478-1480, 1582-1583, 1604–1605. The largest and oldest church of the city is the St. Walburgis church, the present Gothic building contains monuments of the former counts of Zutphen, a fourteenth-century candelabrum, an elaborate copper font, and a monument to the Van Heeckeren family.
The chapter-house of library contains a library which includes some valuable manuscripts. It is considered one of only 5 remaining medieval libraries in Europe and its fortifications were dismantled in 1874. In World War II the town was bombed several times by the allied forces because the bridge over the IJssel was vital to support the German troops at Arnhem after the Operation Market Garden, after two weeks of battle the town was liberated on 14 April 1945. After the war a renovation program started, the city center includes many monumental buildings dating back to the 14th and 15th centuries, and some even date back to the 13th century such as a retirement home area
Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral, Saint Petersburg
The Peter and Paul Cathedral is a Russian Orthodox cathedral located inside the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg, Russia. It is the first and oldest landmark in St. Petersburg, both the cathedral and the fortress were originally built under Peter the Great and designed by Domenico Trezzini. The cathedrals bell tower is the worlds tallest Orthodox bell tower, since the belfry is not standalone, but an integral part of the main building, the cathedral is sometimes considered the highest Orthodox Church in the world. There is another Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul Church in St. Petersburg, the current building, the first stone church in St. Petersburg, was designed by Trezzini and built between 1712 and 1733. Its gold-painted spire reaches a height of 123 metres and features at its top an angel holding a cross and this angel is one of the most important symbols of St. Petersburg. The cathedrals architecture features a unique iconostasis, however, at St. Peter and Paul, the iconostasis rises to form a sort of tower over the sanctuary.
The cathedral has a typical Flemish carillon, a gift of the Flemish city of Mechelen, the cathedral is dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul, the patron saints of the fortress. The current cathedral is the one on the site. The first, built soon after Peters founding of the city, was consecrated by Archbishop Iov of Novgorod the Great in April 1704, the cathedral was the cathedral church of the city until 1859 The current cathedral church of St. Petersburg is the Kazan Cathedral on Nevsky Prospect. The cathedral was closed in 1919 and turned into a museum in 1924 and it is still officially a museum, religious services, resumed in 2000. The cathedral houses the remains of almost all the Russian emperors and empresses from Peter the Great to Nicholas II and his family, among the emperors and empresses buried here was Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia for 34 years. Of the post-Petrine rulers, only Peter II and Ivan VI are not buried here, Peter II is buried in the Cathedral of Michael the Archangel in the Moscow Kremlin, Ivan VI was executed and buried in the fortress of Shlisselburg or Kholmogory.
On September 28,2006,78 years after her death, Maria Feodorovna, Empress of Russia, was reinterred in the Cathedral of St Peter and Paul. Wife of Tsar Alexander III, and mother of Nicholas II, in 2005, the governments of Denmark and Russia agreed that the empresss remains should be returned to Saint Petersburg in accordance with her wish to be interred next to her husband. The bell tower is the dominant feature of cathedral and the fortress. It serves several functions as part of the structure, It is an architectural symbol and it is a part of the imperial tomb - the tombs are on the ground floor. It is a lightning rod protecting the cathedral and it is a viewing platform upon which excursions meet each hour from 12,00 till 18,00. It houses a carillon upon which concerts are periodically performed, when renovators were cleaning the angel on the spire in 1997, they found a note in a bottle left in one of the folds of the angels gown
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument, the history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have used for ritual, such as a trumpet to signal success on the hunt. Cultures eventually developed composition and performance of melodies for entertainment, Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications. The date and origin of the first device considered an instrument is disputed. The oldest object that some refer to as a musical instrument. Some consensus dates early flutes to about 37,000 years ago, many early musical instruments were made from animal skins, bone and other non-durable materials. Musical instruments developed independently in many populated regions of the world, contact among civilizations caused rapid spread and adaptation of most instruments in places far from their origin.
By the Middle Ages, instruments from Mesopotamia were in maritime Southeast Asia, development in the Americas occurred at a slower pace, but cultures of North and South America shared musical instruments. By 1400, musical instrument development slowed in areas and was dominated by the Occident. Musical instrument classification is a discipline in its own right, Instruments can be classified by their effective range, their material composition, their size, etc. However, the most common method, Hornbostel-Sachs, uses the means by which they produce sound. The academic study of instruments is called organology. Once humans moved from making sounds with their bodies—for example, by using objects to create music from sounds. Primitive instruments were designed to emulate natural sounds, and their purpose was ritual rather than entertainment. The concept of melody and the pursuit of musical composition were unknown to early players of musical instruments. A player sounding a flute to signal the start of a hunt does so without thought of the notion of making music.
Musical instruments are constructed in an array of styles and shapes
The Wanamaker Grand Court Organ, in Philadelphia is the largest fully functioning pipe organ in the world. The Wanamaker Organ is located within a spacious 7-story court at Macys Center City and played at least twice a day Monday through Saturday, and more frequently during the Christmas season. The organ is featured at several concerts held throughout the year, including events featuring the Friends of the Wanamaker Organ Festival Chorus. In its present configuration, the Wanamaker Organ has 28,604 pipes in 463 ranks, the organ console consists of six manuals with an array of stops and controls that command the organ. The organs String Division forms the largest single organ chamber in the world, the instrument features eighty-eight ranks of string pipes built by the W. W. Kimball Company of Chicago. The organ is famed for its sound, coming from pipes that are voiced softer than usual. The artistic obligation entailed by the creation of this instrument has always been honored, the organ, with its regular program of concerts and recitals, was maintained by Wanamakers throughout the chains history, even as the companys financial fortunes waned.
This level of dedication was maintained when corporate parentage shifted from the Wanamaker family to Carter Hawley Hale Stores followed by Woodward & Lothrop, Lord & Taylor, and finally to Macys. The Wanamaker Organ was originally built by the Los Angeles Art Organ Company and it was designed to be the largest organ in the world, an imitation of a full-size orchestra with particularly complete resources of full organ tone including mixtures. In addition to its console, the organ was originally equipped with a player that used punched rolls of paper. It was designed by renowned organ theorist and architect George Ashdown Audsley, wild cost overruns plagued the project, with the result that Harris was ousted from his own company. With capital from stockholder Eben Smith, it was reorganized as the Los Angeles Art Organ Company, the Fair began before the organ was fully installed in its temporary home, Festival Hall. It still was not entirely finished in September of that year, following the Fair, the organ was intended for permanent installation by the Kansas City Convention Center.
Indeed, the console had a prominent K C on its music rack. This venture failed, bankrupting the L. A, Art Organ company after the Fair closed. There was a plan to exhibit the organ at Coney Island in New York City and it took thirteen freight cars to move it to its new home, and two years for installation. It was first played on June 22,1911, at the moment when British King George V was crowned. It was featured that year when U. S. President William Howard Taft dedicated the store, the first project to enlarge the organ was the addition of 8,000 pipes between 1911 and 1917
Campanology is the study of bells. It encompasses the technology of bells – how they are cast, tuned and sounded – as well as the history, methods and it is common to collect together a set of tuned bells and treat the whole as one musical instrument. In this sense, the word campanology is most often used in reference to relatively large bells and it is not usually applied to assemblages of smaller bells, such as a glockenspiel, a collection of tubular bells, or an Indonesian gamelan. A campanologist is one who studies campanology, though it is popularly mis-used to refer to a bell ringer, the carillon is a collection of tuned bells for playing conventional melodic music. The bells are stationary and struck by hammers linked to a clavier keyboard. The carillon of Kirk in the Hills, Bloomfield Hills, United States, along with the one at Hyechon College in Daejoen, modern large carillon edifices have been erected as stand-alone instruments across the world, for instance the Netherlands Carillon at Arlington National Cemetery.
The carillon in the Church of St Peter, Gwynedd, a carillon-like instrument with fewer than 23 bells is called a chime. American chimes usually have one to one and a half diatonic octaves, many chimes play an automated piece of music, such as clock chimes. Chime bells generally used to lack dynamic variation and inner tuning, or the balance of a bells complex sound. Since the 20th century, in Belgium and The Netherlands, clock chime bells have inner tuning and these chimes should not be confused with another musical instrument called chimes nor with a wind chime. The bells in Russian tradition are sounded by their clappers, attached to ropes, all the ropes are gathered in one place, where the bell-ringer stands. The ropes are not pulled, but rather pressed with hands or legs, since one end of every rope is fixed, and the ropes are kept in tension, a press or even a punch on a rope makes a clapper move. The Russian Tsar Bell is the largest extant bell in the world, in English style full circle ringing the bells in a church tower are hung so that on each stroke the bell swings through a complete circle, actually a little more than 360 degrees.
Each alternate pull or stroke is identified as either handstroke or backstroke - handstroke where the sally is pulled followed by a pull on the plain tail. At East Bergholt in the English county of Suffolk, there is a set of bells that are not in a tower and are rung full circle by hand. They are the heaviest ring of five listed in Doves Guide for Church Bell Ringers at 4.25 tons in total. These rings of bells have relatively few bells, compared with a carillon, six or eight-bell towers are common, to swing the heavy bells requires a ringer for each bell. Furthermore, the great inertias involved mean that a ringer has only a limited ability to retard or accelerate his/her bells cycle, along with the relatively limited palette of notes available, the upshot is that such rings of bells do not easily lend themselves to ringing melodies
Odeon Marble Arch
The Odeon Marble Arch was a cinema located opposite Marble Arch monument at the top of Park Lane, with its main entrance on Edgware Road, London. It operated in various forms from 1928 to 2016, and is most famous for housing a vast screen capable of screening films in 70mm. The cinema was first known as the Regal, opening on 29 November 1928 with Al Jolson in The Singing Fool, a 100-foot high facade was constructed in Portland stone. The auditorium was a riot of romanesque motifs and faux-decor, owing much to the style of the USA. Structured in traditional circle and stalls, the cinema was an addition to the West End. Within six months of opening, the cinema was taken over by ABC Cinemas and it was taken over by Odeon Cinemas. It was refurbished by the new owners, but shortly before re-opening it was damaged by one of the last V-1 flying bombs to hit London, so it remained closed until September 1945, when it was re-opened as the Odeon Marble Arch and continued as a first-run house. However, by the early 1960s its interior was decidedly faded and neglected, film-runs had by this point declined to minor circuit pictures or even dubbed foreign films, insufficient to fill its large house.
The new cinema, built above the Marble Arch tube station, opening in 1967, the Odeon was the largest cinema constructed in the post-war years. The screen, measuring 75 feet by 30 feet, with a depth of curvature of 17 feet, was the largest in the country, projection was level, beaming from the rear of the stalls, allowing for an even image. The cinema was constructed to showcase films in the various 70mm processes, as well as conventional 35mm films, presentations included, Far from the Madding Crowd, A Bridge Too Far, Die Hard, Return of the Jedi, Lawrence of Arabia. Seating was 1360 in total, split between a spaciously raked circle and stalls, the auditorium was a cavernous space, with textured panelling on both side walls, partially concealing curtained backing. Variable lighting was installed in the rim of the ceiling to play different coloured schemes over the walls during intermissions. A single set of tabs revealed the immense screen, foyer areas were reached via escalator from a ground floor box office with a fish pond in the upper foyer.
A somewhat flatter screen was installed following the revival of Lawrence of Arabia to allow for a distorted view of the desert skylines. Digital sound was installed in the 1990s, including ceiling speakers, a special screening in September 1996 of Richard Attenboroughs Gandhi in 70mm and six-track magnetic sound marked the end of the Odeon as a single-screen cinema. In January 1997, the cinema reopened as a 5 screen multiplex, the projection team at the closing as a single screen, and the opening as a 5 screen were John Paish, Warren Dargavel, Steffan Laugharne, the late John Peck. On May 8th 2016, Odeon Marble Arch closed its doors for the final time, a complete list of films shown in 70 mm in London
A theatre organ is a distinct type of pipe organ originally developed to provide music and sound effects to accompany silent films during the first 3 decades of the 20th century. Theatre organs are usually identified by the distinctive horseshoe-shaped arrangement of stop tabs above, in organs installed in the UK, a common feature was large translucent surrounds extending from both sides of the console, with internal colored lighting. A spectacular original example is the so-called Rhinestone Barton, installed in 1928 in the former RKO Iowa Theatre, another original example is the 3/13 Barton from Ann Arbors historic Michigan Theatre. The organ was installed in 1927 and is currently played five nights during a week before most film screenings. As the concept of the organ was embraced, theatre organs began to be installed in other types of venues, such as civic auditoriums, sports arenas, private residences. One of the largest theatre ever built was the 6 manual 52 rank Barton installed in the massive Chicago Stadium.
There were over 7,000 such organs installed in America and elsewhere from 1915 to 1933, many organ builders supplied instruments to theatres. Many of the elements of the theatre organ simply allowed it to do its job better than anything else could. Although not all of these originated with Robert Hope-Jones, he was the first to successfully employ. Earlier church instruments used a linkage of rods and wires to connect the keys to the pipes. Unification Previously, each rank of pipes could be played on one manual at one pitch level. In other words, there was one pipe for each key on the keyboard, with the advent of unification, ranks were extended by adding more pipes and made playable at different pitch levels, and on different manuals. Thus, fewer ranks could be used in a variety of combinations and pitches. Horseshoe console To turn the pipe ranks on and off, the organ console used drawknobs placed on panels on both sides of the manuals. Using electricity, Robert Hope-Jones substituted tongue-shaped tabs arranged on a curved panel around and these stop tabs could be quickly and easily flipped up or down to select or deactivate any ranks of pipes.
Traps, toy counter, and effects Real musical instruments, not previously associated with the organ, were installed in the pipe chambers to be pneumatically operated at will by the organist. Such instruments as piano, cymbals, marimba, orchestra bells, castanets and even tuned sleigh bells could be played from the organ keyboards. Sound effects such as train and boat whistles, car horns, bird whistles, the fronts of these chambers were covered with a set of swell shades which opened and closed like venetian blinds
Diatonic and chromatic
They are very often used as a pair, especially when applied to contrasting features of the common practice music of the period 1600–1900. These terms may mean different things in different contexts, very often, diatonic refers to musical elements derived from the modes and transpositions of the white note scale C–D–E–F–G–A–B. In some usages it includes all forms of scale that are in common use in Western music. Chromatic most often refers to structures derived from the chromatic scale, in ancient Greece there were three standard tunings of a lyre. These three tunings were called diatonic and enharmonic, and the sequences of four notes that they produced were called tetrachords, a diatonic tetrachord comprised, in descending order, two whole tones and a semitone, such as A G F E. In the chromatic tetrachord the second string of the lyre was lowered from G to G♭, in the enharmonic tetrachord the tuning had two quarter tone intervals at the bottom, A G F E. For all three tetrachords, only the two strings varied in their pitch.
The term cromatico was occasionally used in the Medieval and Renaissance periods to refer to the coloration of certain notes, in works of the Ars Nova from the 14th century, this was used to indicate a temporary change in metre from triple to duple, or vice versa. This usage became common in the 15th century as open white noteheads became the standard notational form for minims. These uses for the word have no relationship to the meaning of chromatic. The term chromatic began to approach its modern usage in the 16th century, Medieval theorists defined scales in terms of the Greek tetrachords. The gamut was the series of pitches from which all the Medieval scales notionally derive, the origin of the word gamut is explained at the article Hexachord, here the word is used in one of the available senses, the all-encompassing gamut as described by Guido dArezzo. The intervals from one note to the next in this Medieval gamut are all tones or semitones, recurring in a pattern with five tones. The semitones are separated as much as they can be, between alternating groups of three tones and two tones, here are the intervals for a string of ascending notes from the gamut.
This would include the major scale, and the minor scale. There are specific applications in the music of the Common Practice Period, but not all writers, accept the natural minor as diatonic. Among such theorists there is no agreed general term that encompasses the major, inclusive usage Some writers consistently include the melodic and harmonic minor scales as diatonic also. For this group, every scale standardly used in common practice music, mixed usage Still other writers mix these two meanings of diatonic, and this can lead to confusions and misconceptions
Carillion plc is a British multinational facilities management and construction services company headquartered in Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange, and is a constituent of the FTSE250 Index, in September 2001, Carillion acquired the 51% of GT Rail Maintenance it did not already own, thereby creating Carillion Rail. In August 2002, Carillion bought Citex Management Services for £11.5 million and, in March 2005, then, in October 2008, Carillion bought Van Bots Construction in Canada for £14.3 million. Then, in October 2013, the company bought the facilities management business of John Laing, in August 2014, the company spent several weeks attempting a merger with rival Balfour Beatty. Three offers were made, the last bid, which valued Balfour Beatty at £2.1 billion, was rejected by the Balfour Beatty board on 19 August 2014. Balfour refused to allow an extension of time for negotiations which could have prompted a fourth bid, Carillion subsequently announced the same day it would no longer pursue a merger with its rival.
In December 2014, Carillion acquired a 60% stake in Rokstad Power Corporation, Carillion made two voluntary submissions to the House of Commons Scottish Affairs Committee, one in September 2012, and another in March 2013, relating to its involvement with TCA. As one of the contributors to the scheme, Carillion reported in August 2016 a non recurring operating charge of £10.5 million representing the compensation, Carillion provides facilities management services and undertakes a range of construction projects including roads and hospitals. Most of its business is in the United Kingdom, but it operates in several other regions, such as Canada, the Middle East. Carillion Rail carries out track renewals on the network. The Health and Safety Executive said that Carillion had failed to put up signs, in 2009, Ontario Ministry of Transportation awarded Carillion eight multi year contracts, for snow removal and salting operations on several four hundred series highways in Ontario
Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language and history. It is one of the communities and language areas of Belgium, the demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish. The official capital of Flanders is Brussels, although Brussels itself has an independent regional government, in historical contexts, Flanders originally refers to the County of Flanders, which around AD1000 stretched from the Strait of Dover to the Scheldt estuary. In accordance with late 20th century Belgian state reforms the area was made two political entities, the Flemish Community and the Flemish Region. These entities were merged, although geographically the Flemish Community, which has a cultural mandate, covers Brussels. Flanders has figured prominently in European history, as a consequence, a very sophisticated culture developed, with impressive achievements in the arts and architecture, rivaling those of northern Italy.
Belgium was one of the centres of the 19th century industrial revolution, Flanders is generally flat, and has a small section of coast on the North Sea. Much of Flanders is agriculturally fertile and densely populated, with a density of almost 500 people per square kilometer. It touches France to the west near the coast, and borders the Netherlands to the north and east, the Brussels Capital Region is an enclave within the Flemish Region. Flanders has exclaves of its own, Voeren in the east is between Wallonia and the Netherlands and Baarle-Hertog in the consists of 22 exclaves surrounded by the Netherlands. It comprises 6.5 million Belgians who consider Dutch to be their mother tongue, the political subdivisions of Belgium, the Flemish Region and the Flemish Community. The first does not comprise Brussels, whereas the latter does comprise the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Brussels, the political institutions that govern both subdivisions, the operative body Flemish Government and the legislative organ Flemish Parliament.
The two westernmost provinces of the Flemish Region, West Flanders and East Flanders, forming the central portion of the historic County of Flanders, a feudal territory that existed from the 8th century until its absorption by the French First Republic. Until the 1600s, this county extended over parts of France, one of the regions conquered by the French in Flanders, namely French Flanders in the Nord department. French Flanders can be divided into two regions, Walloon Flanders and Maritime Flanders. The first region was predominantly French-speaking already in the 1600s, the latter became so in the 20th century, the city of Lille identifies itself as Flemish, and this is reflected, for instance, in the name of its local railway station TGV Lille Flandres. The region conquered by the Dutch Republic in Flanders, now part of the Dutch province of Zeeland, the significance of the County of Flanders and its counts eroded through time, but the designation remained in a very broad sense. In the Early modern period, the term Flanders was associated with the part of the Low Countries
A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater, scraped or rubbed by hand, or struck against another similar instrument. The percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments, the percussion section of an orchestra most commonly contains instruments such as timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals and tambourine. However, the section can contain non-percussive instruments, such as whistles and sirens, percussive techniques can be applied to the human body, as in body percussion. On the other hand, keyboard instruments, such as the celesta, are not normally part of the percussion section, Percussion instruments may play not only rhythm, but melody and harmony. Percussion is commonly referred to as the backbone or the heartbeat of an ensemble, often working in close collaboration with bass instruments. In jazz and other popular ensembles, the pianist, drummer. Most classical pieces written for full orchestra since the time of Haydn and Mozart are orchestrated to place emphasis on the strings, however, often at least one pair of timpani is included, though they rarely play continuously.
Rather, they serve to provide additional accents when needed, in the 18th and 19th centuries, other percussion instruments have been used, again generally sparingly. The use of percussion instruments became more frequent in the 20th century classical music, in almost every style of music, percussion plays a pivotal role. In classic jazz, one almost immediately thinks of the rhythm of the hi-hats or the ride cymbal when the word swing is spoken. Because of the diversity of instruments, it is not uncommon to find large musical ensembles composed entirely of percussion. Rhythm and harmony are all represented in these ensembles, music for pitched percussion instruments can be notated on a staff with the same treble and bass clefs used by many non-percussive instruments. Music for percussive instruments without a pitch can be notated with a specialist rhythm or percussion-clef. The word percussion has evolved from Latin terms, percussio, as a noun in contemporary English it is described in Wiktionary as the collision of two bodies to produce a sound.
Hornbostel–Sachs has no high-level section for percussion, Most percussion instruments are classified as idiophones and membranophones.1 Concussion idiophones or clappers, played in pairs and beaten against each other, such as zills and clapsticks. 111.2 Percussion idiophones, includes many percussion instruments played with the hand or by a mallet, such as the hang and the xylophone. 21 Struck drums, includes most types of drum, such as the timpani, snare drum, (Included in most drum sets or 412. Stringed instruments played with such as the hammered dulcimer
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange