Central business district
A central business district is the commercial and business center of a city. In larger cities, it is synonymous with the city's "financial district". Geographically, it coincides with the "city centre" or "downtown", but the two concepts are separate: many cities have a central business district located away from its commercial or cultural city centre or downtown; the CBD is also the "city centre" or "downtown", but this is often not the case. Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the world. For example, London's "city centre" is regarded as encompassing the historic City of London and the mediaeval City of Westminster, whereas the City of London and the transformed Docklands area are regarded as its two CBDs. Mexico City has a historic city centre, the colonial-era Centro Histórico, along with two CBDs: the mid-late 20th century Paseo de la Reforma - Polanco, the new Santa Fe; the shape and type of a CBD always reflect the city's history. Cities with strong preservation laws and maximum building height restrictions to retain the character of the historic and cultural core will have a CBD quite a distance from the centre of the city.
This is quite common for European cities such as Vienna. In cities in the New World that grew after the invention of mechanised modes such as road or rail transport, a single central area or downtown will contain most of the region's tallest buildings and act both as the CBD and the commercial and cultural city center. Increasing urbanisation in the 21st century have developed megacities in Asia, that will have multiple CBDs scattered across the urban area, it has been said. No two CBDs look alike in terms of their spatial shape, however certain geometric patterns in these areas are recurring throughout many cities due to the nature of centralised commercial and industrial activities. In Australia the acronym CBD is used commonly to refer to major city "centres", it is used in particular to refer to the skyscraper districts in state capital cities such as Melbourne, Perth and Sydney. Melbourne is Australia's largest CBD with Sydney second and Brisbane third when judged by area size; the iTowers of Masa Square CBD were built for doing business tasks only.
It is located within Gaborone. In China terms "city centre" are used but a different commercial district outside of the historic core called a "CBD" or "Financial District" may exist. Large Chinese cities have multiple CBDs spread throughout the urban area. Cities traditionally being major cultural centres with many historic structures in the core such as Beijing, Suzhou or Xi'an will have the greenfield CBDs built adjacent to the urban core, similar to European cities. While other cities such as Guangzhou, Shanghai and Wuhan the city centre will house a number of CBDs in addition to greenfield CBDs built in the periphery. In France, the term « quartier d’affaires » may be used to describe the central business district; the main ones business districts in the country are as following: La Défense in Paris, which with 3,300,000 square metres of office space is Europe's leading business district in terms of area. La Part-Dieu in Lyon, is the 2nd largest business district in France and has nearly 1,600,000 square metres.
Euralille in Lille, is the 3rd business district of France with 1,120,000 square metres of offices. Euroméditerranée in Marseille, is the 4th business district in France with 650,000 square metres of offices. In Germany, the terms Innenstadt and Stadtzentrum may be used to describe the central business district. Both terms can be translated to mean "inner city" and "city centre"; some of the larger cities have more than one central business district, like Berlin, which has three. Due to Berlin's history of division during the Cold War, the city contains central business districts both in West and East Berlin, as well as a newly-built business centre near Potsdamer Platz; the city's historic centre — the location of the Reichstag building, as well as the Brandenburg gate and most federal ministries — was abandoned when the Berlin Wall cut through the area. Only after the reunification with the redevelopment of Potsdamer Platz, the construction of numerous shopping centers, government ministries, office buildings and entertainment venues, was the area revived.
In Frankfurt, there is a business district, in the geographical centre of the city and it is called the Bankenviertel. In Düsseldorf, there is a business district, located around the famous High-Street Königsallee with banks and offices. In Hong Kong, Sheung Wan and Causeway Bay are considered as the central business districts of Victoria City; the Yau Tsim Mong District has been considered the city centre of Kowloon before another core emerged in Cheung Sha Wan. As part of the Airport Core Programme, the Union Square project launched by the MTR Corporation has brought it another CBD in West Kowloon. With the latest implementation of "Energising Kowloon East" Scheme by the Hong Kong Government, Kowloon Bay and Kwun Tong Business Area have been redeveloped and transformed into CBDs; the CBDs of new towns and satellite cities such as Tuen Mun, Sha Tin and Tung Chung have been characterised by sky-scraping residential blocks on top of large shopping centres that provide services to local resi
Belmont is an outer suburb of the City of Brisbane, Australia. It is 12 kilometres south-east of the Brisbane CBD. While much of the suburb remains as undeveloped blocks of bush mixed with large rural properties, some areas have built-up residential estates. Two of Brisbane's main roads, the Gateway Motorway above and Old Cleveland Road underneath, cross at a large intersection in Belmont. Belmont has become an affluent suburb with large estates sitting on acres of land. Homes can range from around 3,500 square feet over. In the 2011 census, Belmont recorded a population of 4,594 people, 48.4 % male. The median age of the Belmont population was 37 years of age. 72.7% of people living in Belmont were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 69.8%. 81.9% of people spoke only English at home. The local indigenous people hunted and camped within the creeks and hills of Belmont, both before and after white settlement of the area. A corroboree ground existed on banks of Bulimba Creek and mineral springs near Mount Petrie were a popular camping spot for the Aboriginal people.
Andrew Petrie had reported. The Hoop Pine brought timber cutters to the area in the 1850s and by the 1860s and 1870s the cleared land near the creeks and the rich soils from the cleared forests were used to grow sugar cane; as sugar production declined in southern Queensland, farmers moved to growing pineapples and small crops including tomatoes and grapes. Dairies and fodder farms were located in the area. August Charles Frederick Bernecker gave the name Belmont to his new estate outside of Brisbane and this name spread to the rest of the area. Belmont State School opened on 5 June 1876; the local government area Belmont Division was split from the Bulimba Division in 1894 and by 1901 this became the Belmont Shire. Belmont Shire was a larger area than Belmont today with parts now included in the suburb of Carindale and other suburbs. From 25 May 1912 the Belmont Shire Council operated the Belmont Tramway, a 3-foot 6 inches gauge steam tramway from Norman Park railway station to a terminus near the present State School.
The line closed following the amalgamation of Shire into the City of Greater Brisbane in 1925. The public school for the area is Belmont State School opened in 1876.. The Belmont Rifle Range hosts a number of sport shooting clubs, it was the venue for shooting events for the 1982 Commonwealth Games and will host again the same events in 2018 Commonwealth Games, site of the 2011 World Long Range Championships. To the south of the rifle range is Mount Petrie. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Belmont and Belmont Shire
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Westfield Carindale is a large shopping centre in Queensland located in the suburb of Carindale, east of Brisbane. The centre became the third-largest shopping centre in Australia on completion of redevelopment in 2012; the centre contains over 450 specialty stores and 6,000 car parking spaces. Other features include a food court, brand new Brisbane City Council Library, a state of the art luxury Glasshouse Dining Precinct. First opened in 1979, it was Brisbane's largest shopping centre. In 1996 Suncorp floated the property as the Suncorp Property Trust. In March 1999 it became the first centre in Queensland to have two Major Department Stores in the one centre, it was managed for twenty years by Jones Lang LaSalle until October 1999 when The Westfield Group launched a bid for Suncorps 50% of the trust. The Westfield bid was successful and the trust was renamed Carindale Property Trust in addition to a re-branding of the centre. Suncorp sold its remaining 50% as part of the sale of Suncorp Retail Property Fund to Lend Lease Groups Australian Prime Property Fund in 2001.
In October 2010, Westfield Carindale commenced a $300 million redevelopment which added 22,000 square metres of retail to the centre. Stage one of the project opened on 29 March 2012 and featured over 75 new retail tenancies in a new 2 level parallel mall, a full-line Coles Supermarket and a larger relocated Target Department Store. Stage Two of the development opened on 9 August 2012 and included a strong focus on Australian and International fashion brands. New precincts revealed top brands such as Adidas, Kookai, Leona Edmiston, Mecca Maxima and Scotch & Soda. Other features of the redevelopment includes a new Brisbane City Council Library, a new restaurant precinct and an improved car park management system which includes parking guidance assistance. Westfield Carindale is home to the newest'Event Cinemas' complex in Queensland In December 2013 Carindale opened their first indoor children's play centre'We Play' located on level 3 near the'Go Health gym'. Parents can drop off their child for a maximum of 2 hours whilst they go shop and have the We Play staff supervise.
Carindale bus station is a major transport hub for the area, providing access to three major universities, the Redland Shire and the Brisbane CBD. The proposed future Carindale busway station as part of the Eastern Busway will provide extra and more efficient public transport; the Brisbane City Council operate a public library in Westfield Carindale. Westfield Group Carindale, Queensland Official website
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
Mansfield is a suburb of Brisbane, situated 11 kilometres south-east of the CBD. It is located in the region of the city, now colloquially known as the "Bible Belt" due to the large number of people who have settled there to be close to Christian schools and churches, it was named after the Queensland governor of the time Sir Alan Mansfield. The suburb recorded a population of 8,700 at the 2016 Australian Census; the suburb has a moderate Greek presence with under 2.3% of the population speaking Greek as a first language. Part of the eastern boundary of the suburb is marked by the Gateway Motorway. In the 2011 census the population of Mansfield was 8,473, 48.2 % male. The median age of the Mansfield population was 38 years of 1 year above the Australian median. 69.8% of people living in Mansfield were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 69.8%. 76.1% of people spoke only English at home. The suburb has an agricultural past, consisting of dairy cattle and sheep grazing. Original fencelines can still be found in remaining pockets of bushland.
There was light development of industries related to agriculture, such as wool processing and scouring. The quarry once located on Ham and Wecker Roads, excavated large amounts of sandstone used throughout some of the historic landmarks of Brisbane, such as the Brisbane City Hall. Reopened, the "Rock Arena" at the Mansfield Tavern was in its heyday a popular venue for touring musical acts and has starred such acts as The Offspring, Hunters & Collectors, Statoz Quo, Hoodoo Gurus, The Angels and great British rock band The Cult. Large portions of Mansfield were constructed as government housing estates, however these have progressively been replaced by more modern private residences. Due the increasing unavailability and expense of land closer to the CBD, the area is experiencing a period of socio-economic growth and renewal. There is a medium-sized industrial estate situated in the northern part of the suburb, in which an Australia Post mail delivery centre is located. There are four schools within Mansfield.
The first of these schools to open was Mansfield State Primary School in 1970 and Mansfield State High School in 1974. Mansfield has regular bus services to the CBD and to the Westfield Garden City shopping centre at Upper Mount Gravatt. Arguably the greatest asset of the Mansfield area is its remaining pockets of bushland and parklands; the largest public park in Mansfield, Broadwater Park, is a reasonably large open space with barbecue areas and children's play equipment. Adjoining this parkland is a large bushland reserve which follows the course of Bulimba Creek. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Mansfield
South East Busway
The South East Busway is a grade separated bus-only road running south from the Brisbane central business district to Eight Mile Plains in Queensland, Australia. The busway was completed to Woolloongabba in September 2000 and to Eight Mile Plains in April 2001. An extension of the busway to School Road at Rochedale was completed in 2014. Busways were considered as one of the options when the Queensland Government developed the 25 year Integrated Regional Transport Plan. Other methods such as light and heavy rail were considered, it was recommended that a 75 km network of busway corridors to complement the existing Queensland Rail City network would suit best. Busways would allow buses to bypass peak hour congestion. Busway stations could be developed at key nodes to serve major activity centres, combining different routes would create high frequency services. In 1995, plans for a network of five busway corridors were conceived, linking with the rail network to improve public transport connectivity across the city.
The busways would improve the operation of the bus fleet, reducing maintenance and running costs and maximising the effectiveness of the region's investment in buses. In August 1996, the Queensland Government approved the South East Transit Project to manage the construction of both the northern section of the Pacific Motorway between Mount Gravatt and Logan City and a dedicated 2-lane, 2-way road for buses between the Brisbane CBD and Eight Mile Plains; the first section of busway between the existing Queen Street bus station and Woolloongabba was opened to services on 13 September 2000 to coincide with the start of the 2000 Olympic football tournament, for which some matches were held in Brisbane. It opened for outbound services only, with inbound services commencing on 23 October 2000; the second 13.2 km section of busway between Woolloongabba and Eight Mile Plains opened on 30 April 2001. Construction of the Eight Mile Plains to Rochedale extension to the Busway commenced in late 2012 and was completed in March 2014.
The extension was funded by the Queensland Government and formed part of the Federal Government's Gateway Upgrade South project. The busway extension terminates at School Road, Rochedale. No new busway stations were added by this extension; the busway commences at Queen Street bus station beneath the Brisbane central business district, crossing the Brisbane River via Victoria Bridge to the Cultural Centre busway station paralleling the rail lines to South Bank railway station before passing beneath under Stanley Street. It runs parallel to the Pacific Motorway to Eight Mile Plains. Brisbane Transport and Clarks Logan City Bus Service operate services along the full length of the busway while Mt Gravatt Bus Service and Transdev Queensland operate services between Griffith University and Eight Mile Plains; the Pacific Motorway enables better connections between the South East Busway and Loganholme with additional stations in between at Underwood and Paradise Road, for the benefit of Logan City Bus Service services travelling to the city.
As part of the Main Roads Pacific Motorway Transit Project, plans have been made to extend the South East Busway as far as Springwood bus station, including construction of the proposed Rochedale busway station. Real Time Passenger Information is displayed at each station, with fixed LED signs suspended above each platform; these signs present four lines of real-time estimated bus departure times, with data provided by Brisbane City Council's RAPID system. Media related to South East Busway at Wikimedia Commons