Carisoprodol, sold under the brand name Soma among others, is a medication used for musculoskeletal pain. Use is only approved for up to three weeks. Effects begin within half an hour and last for up to six hours, it is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache and sleepiness. Serious side effect may include addiction, allergic reactions, seizures. In people with a sulfa allergy certain formulations may result in problems. Safety during pregnancy and breastfeeding is not clear. How it works is not clear; some of its effects are believed to occur following being converted into meprobamate. Carisoprodol was approved for medical use in the United States in 1959, its approval in Europe was withdrawn in 2008. It is available as a generic medication. In the United States the wholesale cost is less than US$0.10 per dose. In 2016 it was the 181st most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 3 million prescriptions. In the United States, it is a Schedule IV controlled substance. Carisoprodol is meant to be used along with rest, physical therapy and other measure to relax muscles after strains and muscle injuries.
It is taken by the mouth three times a day and before bed. The usual dose of 350 mg is unlikely to engender prominent side effects other than somnolence, mild to significant euphoria or dysphoria, but the euphoria is short-lived due to the fast metabolism of carisoprodol into meprobamate and other metabolites. Carisoprodol has a unique mechanism of action, qualitatively different from that of meprobamate; the medication is well tolerated and without adverse effects in the majority of patients for whom it is indicated. In some patients, and/or early in therapy, carisoprodol can have the full spectrum of sedative side effects and can impair the patient's ability to operate a firearm, motor vehicles, other machinery of various types when taken with medications containing alcohol, in which case an alternative medication would be considered; the intensity of the side effects of carisoprodol tends to lessen as therapy continues, as is the case with many other drugs. Other side effects include: dizziness, headache, fast heart rate, upset stomach and skin rash.
The interaction of carisoprodol with all opioids, other centrally acting analgesics, but codeine, those of the codeine-derived subgroup of the semisynthetic class which allows the use of a smaller dose of the opioid to have a given effect, is useful in general and where skeletal muscle injury and/or spasm is a large part of the problem. The potentiation effect is useful in other pain situations and is especially useful with opioids of the open-chain class, such as methadone, ketobemidone and others. In recreational drug users, deaths have resulted from carelessly combining overdoses of hydrocodone and carisoprodol. Another danger of misuse of carisoprodol and opiates is the potential to aspirate. Meprobamate and other muscle-relaxing drugs were subjects of misuse in the 1950s and 60s. Overdose cases were reported as early as 1957, have been reported on several occasions since then. Carisoprodol is metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidneys so this drug must be used with caution with patients that have impaired hepatic or renal function.
Because of potential for more severe side effects, this drug is on the list to avoid for elderly people. Carisoprodol and related drugs such as tybamate, have the potential to produce physical dependence of the barbiturate type following periods of prolonged use. Withdrawal of the drug after extensive use may require hospitalization in medically compromised patients. In severe cases the withdrawal can mimic the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal including the lethal status epilepticus. Psychological dependence has been linked to carisoprodol use although this is much less severe than with meprobamate itself. Psychological dependence is more common in those who abuse carisoprodol and those who have a history of drug abuse, it may reach clinical significance before physiological tolerance and dependence have occurred and has been demonstrated to persist to varying degrees of severity for months or years after discontinuation. Discontinuation of carisoprodol, as with all GABA-ergics, can result in cognitive changes which persist for weeks, months, or even years including increased anxiety and depression, social withdrawal, hair-trigger agitation/aggression, chronic insomnia, new or aggravated phobias, reduced IQ, short term and long term memory loss, dozens of other sequelae.
The effects and duration appear to be dose-dependent but are determined by the patients pattern of use, genetic predisposition to drug abuse, a history of substance abuse all increase the patients risk of persistent discontinuation syndrome symptoms. Treatment for physical withdrawal gener
The Cal Coast News is an online investigative news publication that serves the city of San Luis Obispo and the surrounding county. The online news site was founded by regional reporters Karen Velie and Dan Blackburn in 2008 under the previous title, "Uncovered SLO", at uncoveredslo.com. The newspaper is abbreviated as CCN. Cal Coast News was founded in 2008 by Dan Blackburn. From its inception, the online paper emphasized independent investigative journalism and tackled controversies in local government and industry. In 2012, an article by Cal Coast News inappropriately cited sources referencing a contractor's employment history and accusing him of mishandling hazardous waste. In 2017 the publication lost the resulting libel case and was asked to pay 1.1 million dollars in damages. After the case ended, Charles Tenborg, the Arroyo Grande waste-management business owner who sued the paper, purchased the LLC for the paper; the LLC name had been suspended by the Secretary of State after the libel case and Tenborg registered the name himself.
While Tenborg controlled the name Cal Coast News, he did not gain access to or control over the website where stories were being published, though rumors circulated that he and his co-claimants had taken over the paper. The case was being taken to the SLO County Superior Court in 2017. Subsequent investigations by the Cal Coast News into Tenborg led to claims that Tenborg had given false testimony during the libel suit. Tenborg tried to settle CCN's libel suit appeal out of court, but Blackburn and Velie rejected his demands. In 2019, the appeals court upheld the original libel verdict citing the lack of a full record of the original trial; as of 2019, Tenborg and his co-claimant Bill Worrell were under criminal investigation for fraud. As a result of the on-going controversy related to the libel suit and LLC purchase, former CCN editor Bill Loving and reporter Karen Velie left CCN to work for the Cal Coast Times. Former Los Angeles Times reporter, George Ramos, who played a key role in the paper's 1984 Pulitzer Prizewinning series on Hispanics was an editor at Cal Coast News.
Ramos was a professor at California Polytechnic State University when he died in 2011. In 2019, Aaron Ochs, a columnist from Morro Bay and frequent critic of Cal Coast News, published a book about the website called Defamers: How Fake News Terrorized a Community and Those Who Dared to Fight It.. In the book, Ochs alleged he was retaliated against by Velie and Cal Coast News contributors. Among other allegations, Ochs alleged that in 2014, Velie attempted to blackmail his former employer and threatened his family. Velie and Blackburn accused Ochs of being paid by government officials to criticize them, referring to him as a "government troll." In his book, Ochs detailed that in 2017, Velie attempted to file a restraining order against him for harassing and threatening her inside the San Luis Obispo courthouse. Ochs denied the allegations. In that case, the judge dismissed Velie's request. In 2019, a Cal Coast News reporter was temporarily jailed in the Geneva Airport for attempting to film people who were arriving to attend the Bilderberg conference.
In 2019, Cal Coast News released video footage of a physical assault of a woman at a bar by a San Luis Obispo city employee. The employee pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor to avoid more serious charges, but CCN's release of the video led to local outrage and the eventual firing of the city employee
The Committee on Coinage and Measures was a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives from 1864 to 1946. In 1864, the Committee on a Uniform System of Coinage and Measures was established to relieve the House Committee on Ways and Means of part of its workload; the name was shortened to Committee on Coinage and Measures in 1867. In 1921, the portion of the committee's jurisdiction relating to stabilization of the currency was transferred to the House Committee on Banking and Currency. Under the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946, the coinage portion of its jurisdiction was transferred to that committee, while its weights and measures jurisdiction was transferred to the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, thus dissolving the committee; the jurisdiction of the Committee on Coinage and Measures included the subjects listed in its name: coinage and measures. The coinage part of the jurisdiction included the defining and fixing of standards of value and the regulation of coinage and exchange.
This included the coinage of silver and the purchase of bullion, the exchange of gold coins for gold bars, the subject of mutilated coins, the coinage of souvenir and commemorative coins. The committee's jurisdiction included legislation related to mints and assay offices and the establishment of legal standards of value in the insular possessions; this article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Archives and Records Administration