Atlas Comics (1950s)
Atlas Comics is the 1950s comic-book publishing label that evolved into Marvel Comics. Magazine and paperback novel publisher Martin Goodman, whose business strategy involved having a multitude of corporate entities, used Atlas as the umbrella name for his comic-book division during this time. Atlas evolved out of Goodman's 1940s comic-book division, Timely Comics, was located on the 14th floor of the Empire State Building; this company is distinct from the 1970s comic-book company founded by Goodman, known as Atlas/Seaboard Comics. Atlas Comics was the successor of Timely Comics, the company that magazine and paperback novel publisher Martin Goodman founded in 1939, which had reached the peak of its popularity during the war years with its star characters the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner and Captain America; the early to mid-1950s found comic books falling out of fashion due to competition from television and other media. Timely stopped producing superhero comics with the cancellation of Captain America Comics at issue #75, by which time the series had been titled Captain America's Weird Tales for two issues, with the finale featuring only anthological suspense stories and no superheroes.
The company's flagship title, Marvel Mystery Comics, starring the Human Torch, had ended its run with #92 in June 1949, as had Sub-Mariner Comics with #32 the same month, The Human Torch with #35 in March 1949. Timely made one more attempt at superheroes with the publication of Marvel Boy #1-2, retitled Astonishing with issue #3 and continued the Marvel Boy feature through #6. In the absence of superheroes, Goodman's comic-book line expanded into a wide variety of genres, producing horror, humor, funny animal, crime, jungle, espionage, medieval adventure, Bible stories and sports comics; as did other publishers, Atlas offered comics about models and career women. Goodman began using the logo of the Atlas News Company, the newsstand-distribution company he owned, on comics cover-dated November 1951 though another company, Kable News, continued to distribute his comics through the August 1952 issues, with its "K" logo and the logo of the independent distributors' union appearing alongside the Atlas globe.
The Atlas logo united a line put out by the same publisher and freelancers through 59 shell companies, from Animirth Comics to Zenith Publications. Atlas attempted to revive superheroes in Young Men #24-28 with the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner and Captain America; the short-lived revival included restarts of Sub-Mariner Comics and Captain America. All three superheroes appeared in the final two issues of Men's Adventures. Goodman's publishing strategy for Atlas involved what he saw as the proven route of following popular trends in TV and movies — Westerns and war dramas prevailing for a time, drive-in movie monsters another time — and other comic books the EC horror line; as Marvel/Atlas editor-in-chief Stan Lee told comic-book historian Les Daniels, Goodman "would notice what was selling, we'd put out a lot of books of that type." Commented Daniels, "The short-term results were lucrative. While Atlas had some horror titles, such as Marvel Tales, as far back as 1949, the company increased its output in the wake of EC's success.
Lee recalled, "t was based on how the competition was doing. When we found that EC's horror books were doing well, for instance, we published a lot of horror books." Until the early 1960s, when Lee would help revolutionize comic books with the advent of the Fantastic Four and Spider-Man, Atlas was content to flood newsstands with profitable, cheaply produced product — despite itself, beautifully rendered by talented if low-paid artists. The Atlas "bullpen" had at least five staff writers besides Lee: Hank Chapman, Paul S. Newman, Don Rico, Carl Wessler, and, in the teen humor division, future Mad magazine cartoonist Al Jaffee. Daniel Keyes, future author of Flowers for Algernon, was an editor beginning 1952. Other writers freelance, included Robert Bernstein; the artists — some freelance, some on staff — included such veterans as Human Torch creator Carl Burgos and Sub-Mariner creator Bill Everett. The next generation included the prolific and much-admired Joe Maneely, who before his death just prior to Marvel's 1960s breakthrough was the company's leading artist, providing many covers and doing work in all genres, most notably on Westerns and on the medieval adventure Black Knight.
Others included Russ Heath, Gene Colan, the fledgling individualistic Steve Ditko. Some of Atlas' prominent Western titles, many reprinted in the 1970s, were Ringo Kid, with art by Maneely, Fred Kida and John Severin. Atlas published various children's and teen humor titles, including Dan DeCarlo's Homer, the Happy Ghost, Homer Hooper and the Joe Maneely-drawn Melvin the Monster. Sergeant Barney Barker, drawn by John Severin, was Atlas' answer to Sgt. Bilko. One of the most long-running titles was Millie the Model, which began as a Timely Comics humor book in 1945 and ran into the 1970s, lasting
Sun Girl (Marvel Comics)
Sun Girl is the name of two fictional superheroines appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The first Sun Girl was created by an unidentified writer, she first appeared in Sun Girl # 1, published by Timely Comics. Sun Girl starred in a namesake three-issue series cover-dated August to December 1948, she subsequently co-starred in stories of the original Human Torch in The Human Torch #32-35, Captain America Comics #69, Sub-Mariner Comics #29, Marvel Mystery Comics #88-91. She additionally starred in a solo story each in the first two of those Marvel Mystery issues; the Human Torch-Sun Girl story "The Ray of Madness" from The Human Torch #33 was reprinted decades in Marvel's Giant-Size Avengers #1. Sun Girl appears in flashback in the final two issues of the four-issue miniseries Saga of the Original Human Torch A new Sun Girl debuted in Superior Spider-Man Team-Up #1 and will appear as one of the main characters in the upcoming Marvel NOW! relaunch of the New Warriors. A personal secretary for Jim Hammond, the original Human Torch, during the post-war 1940s, Mary Mitchell falls in love with him and becomes his partner as well as his sidekick after Toro leaves to tend to his ailing foster mother.
In issue #32, Sun Girl helps the Torch clear the name of an innocent man accused of murder charges, by exposing the real culprit. They convince a retired doctor to perform surgery on a little girl who accidentally swallowed a diamond hidden in a lollypop. Mary leaves to go on her own adventures after that, she teams up with heroes besides the Torch, such as Captain America. After Toro returns she resumes her position as researcher. During the "Last Days" part of the Secret Wars storyline, Sun Girl was seen living at Valhalla Villas, she is among the residents that were temporarily de-aged during the final incursion between Earth-616 and Earth-1610. A new Sun Girl appears as one of the heroes temporarily possessed by the Carrion virus after she came in contact with William Allen. Sun Girl is attacked by The Superior Spider-Man; the Superior Spider-Man cures Sun Girl of the Carrion virus. Her identity is revealed to be Selah Burke, the daughter of Lightmaster at the time when the Superior Spider-Man made use of his Superior Six to combat the Wrecking Crew.
After the Superior Spider-Man fails and the now free Superior Six have captured him and taken hold of a machine that could destroy New York City, Selah manages to save Superior Spider-Man and destroy the machine. They part in bad terms, with Sun Girl thinking that Superior Spider-Man is a "jerk" due to his condescending attitude and insane brainwashing scheme. Selah next appeared in issue #1 of the 2014 New Warriors relaunch, helping to save the Morlocks from an attack by the mysterious Evolutionaries; when offered the opportunity to walk away by these attackers, she opts to sacrifice so the mutants can run away. Haechi uses his energy absorbing powers to shield her. Speedball and Justice enter the scene which makes the three attackers reevaluate their tactical position and flee as they were now outnumbered. Mary Mitchell is an expert in both Judo and Jiu Jutsu, she wields a Sunbeam Ray Gun which produces a bright blast of light as well as a lariat which she keeps in her emergency pouch. Selah Burke is a proficient engineer who creates a suit with a harness that grants her flight and the ability to project light blasts.
The suit is modified by the Superior Spider-Man. She wields pistols capable of firing concussive blasts, she developed and constructed her gear and weapons based on her father's light manipulation technology. Sun Girl at Marvel Wiki Sun Girl at Marvel Wiki
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Human Torch (android)
The Human Torch known as Jim Hammond, is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by writer-artist Carl Burgos, he first appeared in Marvel Comics #1, published by Marvel's predecessor, Timely Comics; the "Human" Torch was an android created by scientist Phineas Horton. He possessed the ability to surround himself with control flames. In his earliest appearances, he was portrayed as a science fiction monstrosity, but became a hero and adopted a secret identity as a police officer for the New York City Police Department; the Human Torch was one of Timely Comics' three signature characters, along with Captain America and Namor the Sub-Mariner. Like many superheroes, the Human Torch fell into obscurity by the 1950s. In 1961, Stan Lee and Jack Kirby repurposed his name and powers for a new character, Johnny Storm, a member of the Fantastic Four. Unlike Captain America and the Sub-Mariner, the original Human Torch has had only a small presence in the post-1950s Marvel comic books and is associated with the Golden Age.
In 2012, Hammond was ranked 28th in IGN's list of "The Top 50 Avengers". Following his debut in the hit Marvel Comics #1, the Human Torch proved popular enough that he soon became one of the first superheroes to headline a solo title. Through the 1940s, the Torch starred or was featured in Marvel Mystery Comics, The Human Torch, Captain America Comics #19, 21–67, 69, 76–77, as well as appearing in several issues of All Select Comics, All Winners Comics, Daring Comics, Mystic Comics, Young Allies Comics. Seeing a natural "fire and water" theme, Timely was responsible for comic books' first major crossover, with a two-issue battle between the Human Torch and the Sub-Mariner that spanned Marvel Mystery Comics #8–9—telling the same story from the two characters' different perspectives. Marvel Mystery Comics ended its run with #92, The Human Torch with #35, as superheroes in general faded in popularity. Timely Comics publisher Martin Goodman—who by the early 1950s had transitioned the company to its next iteration, as Atlas Comics—attempted to revive superheroes with the anthology comic Young Men #24–28, starring the Human Torch, along with the Sub-Mariner and Captain America.
The solo title The Human Torch returned for issues #36–38 before again being canceled. The Torch appeared in stories in the revived Captain America Comics and Sub-Mariner Comics, in the anthology Men's Adventures #28; the original Human Torch debuted in present-day Marvel Comics continuity in Fantastic Four Annual #4. Human Torch appeared as a regular character in the 2010–2013 Secret Avengers series, from issue #23 through its final issue #37. Starting in 2014, the Human Torch began appearing as a main character in the Marvel NOW! relaunch of The Invaders. The Human Torch was an android created by Professor Phineas T. Horton in his lab in Brooklyn, New York for scientific purposes. At a press-conference unveiling, Horton's creation burst into flames when exposed to oxygen; the android showed human-like sentience and awareness, but the spectators feared that he posed a safety threat. Public outcry led to the Torch being sealed in concrete, though he escaped due to a crack that let oxygen seep in.
The Torch inadvertently caused parts of New York City to burn and, after dealing with a mobster who wanted to gain advantage of his abilities for fire insurance, he learned to control his flame, rebelled against his creator, vowed to help humanity. The Torch first encountered and battled Namor the Sub-Mariner, he would join other heroes as war broke out in Europe, in the Pacific, to fight the Axis powers. In his solo title's debut issue, he acquired a young partner, Thomas "Toro" Raymond, the mutant son of two nuclear scientists whose exposure to radiation gave him the ability to control fire; the Human Torch joined the New York City police force as part of his "human cover" under the name James "Jim" Hammond. He would drop the human name and serve the police force outright as the Human Torch, fighting villains and his off-and-on foe, the Sub-Mariner. Both the Torch and the Sub-Mariner joined with Captain America and his partner Bucky as the core of the superhero team the Invaders, fighting Nazis during World War II.
With the Invaders, he battled the Liberty Legion. He gave a blood transfusion to Jacqueline Falsworth, giving her superhuman powers to become Spitfire; the Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America, Bucky banded together with the Whizzer, Miss America in post-war America in a subsequent super-team, the All-Winners Squad. In Marvel continuity, the Human Torch was responsible for the death of Adolf Hitler; when the Russians were invading Berlin, the Torch and Toro broke into Hitler's bunker just as he was about to commit suicide, to offer him the chance to surrender himself to the Americans, rather than the Russians. Hitler opened fire. In return, the Human Torch blasted fire at Hitler. Sometime afterward, the Torch was placed in dea
Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are businesses wishing to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message, it differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e. not directed to a particular individual. Advertising is communicated through various mass media, including traditional media such as newspapers, television, outdoor advertising or direct mail; the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement, or "ad" or advert for short. Commercial ads seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding", which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising.
Non-commercial entities that advertise more than consumer products or services include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes such as a public service announcement. Advertising may help to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Modern advertising originated with the techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most with the campaigns of Edward Bernays, considered the founder of modern, "Madison Avenue" advertising. Worldwide spending on advertising in 2015 amounted to an estimated US$529.43 billion. Advertising's projected distribution for 2017 was 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio. Internationally, the largest advertising-agency groups are Dentsu, Omnicom, WPP. In Latin, advertere means "to turn towards". Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia.
Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, present to this day in many parts of Asia and South America; the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell confectionery. Advertisement takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers. A copper printing plate dated back to the Song dynasty used to print posters in the form of a square sheet of paper with a rabbit logo with "Jinan Liu's Fine Needle Shop" and "We buy high-quality steel rods and make fine-quality needles, to be ready for use at home in no time" written above and below is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium. In Europe, as the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, the general population was unable to read, instead of signs that read "cobbler", "miller", "tailor", or "blacksmith", images associated with their trade would be used such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horseshoe, a candle or a bag of flour.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers to announce their whereabouts. The first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in "Les Crieries de Paris", a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England; these early print advertisements were used to promote books and newspapers, which became affordable with advances in the printing press. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. Thomas J. Barratt of London has been called "the father of modern advertising". Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an effective advertising campaign for the company products, which involved the use of targeted slogans and phrases. One of his slogans, "Good morning. Have you used Pears' soap?" was famous in its day and into the 20th century.
Barratt introduced many of the crucial ideas that lie behind successful advertising and these were circulated in his day. He stressed the importance of a strong and exclusive brand image for Pears and of emphasizing the product's availability through saturation campaigns, he understood the importance of reevaluating the market for changing tastes and mores, stating in 1907 that "tastes change, fashions change, the advertiser has to change with them. An idea, effective a generation ago would fall flat and unprofitable if presented to the public today. Not that the idea of today is always better than the older idea, but it is different – it hits the present taste."As the economy expanded across the world during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format led to the growth of mail-order advertising. In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles.
Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roo
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, one of the seven American uniformed services. Formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U. S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, it is the youngest branch of the U. S. Armed Forces, the fourth in order of precedence; the USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control; the U. S. Air Force is a military service branch organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the Air Force, through the Department of the Air Force, is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation.
The highest-ranking military officer in the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who exercises supervision over Air Force units and serves as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Air Force components are assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, neither the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Chief of Staff of the Air Force have operational command authority over them. Along with conducting independent air and space operations, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for land and naval forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field; as of 2017, the service operates more than 5,369 military aircraft, 406 ICBMs and 170 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget and is the second largest service branch, with 318,415 active duty airmen, 140,169 civilian personnel, 69,200 reserve airmen, 105,700 Air National Guard airmen. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF: In general, the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned.
It shall be organized and equipped for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The Air Force shall be responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. §8062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the USAF as: to preserve the peace and security, provide for the defense, of the United States, the Territories and possessions, any areas occupied by the United States. The stated mission of the USAF today is to "fly and win...in air and cyberspace". "The United States Air Force will be a trusted and reliable joint partner with our sister services known for integrity in all of our activities, including supporting the joint mission first and foremost. We will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance and Power for the nation".
The five core missions of the Air Force have not changed since the Air Force became independent in 1947, but they have evolved, are now articulated as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control. The purpose of all of these core missions is to provide, what the Air Force states as, global vigilance, global reach, global power. Air superiority is "that degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force". Offensive Counterair is defined as "offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, launch platforms, their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, but as close to their source as possible". OCA is the preferred method of countering air and missile threats since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source and enjoys the initiative.
OCA comprises attack operations, sweep and suppression/destruction of enemy air defense. Defensive Counter air is defined as "all the defensive measures designed to detect, identify and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace". A major goal of DCA operations, in concert with OCA operations, is to provide an area from which forces can operate, secure from air and missile threats; the DCA mission comprises both passive defense measures. Active defense is "the employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy", it includes both ballistic missile defense and air-breathing threat defense, encompasses point defense, area defense, high-value airborne asset defense. Passive defense is "measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative", it includes warning.
Captain America is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by cartoonists Joe Simon and Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in Captain America Comics #1 from Timely Comics, a predecessor of Marvel Comics. Captain America was designed as a patriotic supersoldier who fought the Axis powers of World War II and was Timely Comics' most popular character during the wartime period; the popularity of superheroes waned following the war and the Captain America comic book was discontinued in 1950, with a short-lived revival in 1953. Since Marvel Comics revived the character in 1964, Captain America has remained in publication; the character wears a costume bearing an American flag motif, he utilizes a nearly indestructible shield which he throws as a projectile. Captain America is the alter ego of Steve Rogers, a frail young man enhanced to the peak of human perfection by an experimental serum to aid the United States government's efforts in World War II.
Near the end of the war, he was trapped in ice and survived in suspended animation until he was revived in the present day. Although Captain America struggles to maintain his ideals as a man out of his time with its modern realities, he remains a respected figure in his community which includes becoming the long-time leader of the Avengers. Captain America was the first Marvel Comics character to appear in media outside comics with the release of the 1944 movie serial, Captain America. Since the character has been featured in other films and television series. In the Marvel Cinematic Universe, the character is portrayed by Chris Evans in Captain America: The First Avenger, The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Ant-Man, Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War, Captain Marvel, Avengers: Endgame. Captain America is ranked sixth on IGN's "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of All Time" in 2011, second in their list of "The Top 50 Avengers" in 2012, second in their "Top 25 best Marvel superheroes" list in 2014.
In 1940, writer Joe Simon conceived the idea for Captain America and made a sketch of the character in costume. "I wrote the name'Super American' at the bottom of the page," Simon said in his autobiography, decided: No, it didn't work. There were too many "Supers" around. "Captain America" had a good sound to it. There weren't a lot of captains in comics, it was as easy as that. The boy companion was named Bucky, after my friend Bucky Pierson, a star on our high school basketball team. Simon recalled in his autobiography that Timely Comics publisher Martin Goodman gave him the go-ahead and directed that a Captain America solo comic book series be published as soon as possible. Needing to fill a full comic with one character's stories, Simon did not believe that his regular creative partner, artist Jack Kirby, could handle the workload alone: I didn't have a lot of objections to putting a crew on the first issue... There were two young artists from Connecticut. Al Avison and Al Gabriele worked together and were quite successful in adapting their individual styles to each other.
Their work was not too far from Kirby's. If they worked on it, if one inker tied the three styles together, I believed the final product would emerge as quite uniform; the two Als were eager to join in on the new Captain America book. "You're still number one, Jack," I assured him. "It's just a matter of a quick deadline for the first issue." "I'll make the deadline," Jack promised. "I'll pencil it myself and make the deadline." I hadn't expected this kind of reaction... but I acceded to Kirby's wishes and, it turned out, was lucky that I did. There might have been two Als, but there was only one Jack Kirby... I wrote the first Captain America book with penciled lettering right on the drawing boards, with rough sketches for figures and backgrounds. Kirby did his thing, building the muscular anatomy, adding ideas and popping up the action as only he could, he tightened up the penciled drawings, adding detailed backgrounds and figures." Al Lieberman would ink that first issue, lettered by Simon and Kirby's regular letterer, Howard Ferguson.
Simon said. We wanted to have our say too." Captain America Comics #1 — cover-dated March 1941 and on sale December 20, 1940, a year before the attack on Pearl Harbor, but a full year into World War II — showed the protagonist punching Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. While most readers responded favorably to the comic, some took objection. Simon noted, "When the first issue came out we got a lot of... hate mail. Some people opposed what Cap stood for." The threats, which included menacing groups of people loitering out on the street outside of the offices, proved so serious that police protection was posted with New York Mayor Fiorello La Guardia contacting Simon and Kirby to give his support. Though preceded as a "patriotically themed superhero" by MLJ's The Shield, Captain America became the most prominent and enduring of that wave of superheroes introduced in American comic books prior to and during World War II, as evidenced by the unusual move at the time of premiering the character in his own title instead of an anthology title first.
This popularity drew the attention and a complaint from MLJ that the character's triangular