Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie is one of the most important and most comprehensive biographical reference works in the German language. It was published by the Historical Commission of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences between 1875 and 1912 in 56 volumes, printed in Leipzig by Duncker & Humblot. The ADB contains biographies of about 26,500 people who died before 1900 and lived in the German language Sprachraum of their time and its successor, the Neue Deutsche Biographie, was started in 1953 and is planned to be ready in 2017. Reinert, Schrott, Ebneth, Rehbein, from Biographies to Data Curation - The Making of www. deutsche-biographie. de, in, BD2015. Biographical Data in a Digital World, Proceedings of the First Conference on Biographical Data in a Digital World 2015. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, April 9,2015, ed. by, serge ter Braake, Antske Fokkens, Ronald Sluijter, Thierry Declerck, Eveline Wandl-Vogt, CEUR Workshop Proceedings Vol-1399. Ebneth, Neue Deutsche Biographie, Historische Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie - full-text articles at German Wikisource, German Biography - complete full-text articles and further information
Ensign is the national flag flown on a vessel to indicate nationality. The ensign is the largest flag, generally flown at the stern of the ship, the naval ensign, used on warships, may be different from the civil ensign or the yacht ensign. Large versions of naval ensigns called battle ensigns are used when a warship goes into battle, the ensign differs from the jack which is flown from a jackstaff at the bow of a vessel. In its widest sense, an ensign is just a flag or other standard, the European military rank of ensign, once responsible for bearing a units standard derives from it. In contrast, the Arab rank of ensign, derives from the command of a unit or units with an ensign, not the carrier of such a units ensign, and is a general officer. In Arab armies, ensign is a title equivalent to a Western brigade. In nautical use, the ensign is flown on a ship or boat to indicate its appartenance, while this includes its nationality, it may well indicate more information rather than being the national flag itself.
This is particularly common for commonwealth and European countries, ensigns are usually at the stern flagstaff when in port, and may be shifted to a gaff or mast amidships when the ship is under way, becoming known as a steaming ensign. Vexillologists distinguish three varieties of a national flag used as an ensign, A civil ensign is worn by merchant. In some countries the yacht ensign, used on boats or ships instead of merchant vessels. A state ensign or government ensign is worn by government vessels, a naval ensign is used by a countrys navy. Such ensigns are strictly regulated and indicate if the vessel is a warship, a merchant ship, several Commonwealth countries national flags had their origin in the ensigns of their original colonising power, the United Kingdom. Most notable of these flags are those of Australia, New Zealand. It is likely that the original design from which the flag of the United States developed was strongly influenced by the British Red Ensign or the flag of the East India Company.
With the creation of independent air forces and the growth in aviation in the first half of the 20th century. These may be divided into air force ensigns and civil air ensigns, in heraldry, an ensign is the ornament or sign, such as the crown, coronet, or mitre, borne above the charge or arms. Distinguishing mark Maritime flag Znamierowski, the world encyclopedia of flags, The definitive guide to international flags, banners and ensigns
Battle of Prague (1757)
The battle is mentioned in the famous German ballad Lenore written in 1773 by Gottfried August Burger. After Frederick had forced the surrender of Saxony in the 1756 campaign and it was not in his nature, nor in his military strategy, simply to sit back and defend. He began drawing up plans for another bold stroke against Austria, in early spring the Prussian army marched in four columns over the mountain passes separating Saxony and Silesia from Bohemia. The four corps would unite at the Bohemian capital of Prague, though risky, because it exposed the Prussian army to a defeat in detail, the plan succeeded. After Fredericks corps united with a corps under Prince Moritz, and General Bevern joined up with Schwerin, the Austrians had not been idle. Here he established a position to the east of the town. The Austrian army under von Browne had taken up a near invincible position on the Ziska-, the town was on their left flank, with a steep gorge to the north, and to the west by a marshy slope with a brook at the bottom.
The Austrians drew up for battle facing north and east, Frederick ordered an immediate assault, but Schwerin convinced him to make a reconnaissance around the Austrian right flank. He returned with the information that gradually sloping green meadows offered a chance for attack at the Austrian rear. The Prussian army started marching around 7 am, and succeeded in staying out of sight till the Austrian generals noticed the movements around 10 am. Field Marshal von Browne shifted six infantry regiments to take up position to the south east, accompanied by General Winterfeldt, was finally prepared to attack. The attack was led by the infantry of Winterfeldt, the Prussian infantry soon found themselves not in meadows, but in the remains of fish ponds. While they struggled through, Winterfeldt was hit by a musketball, the Prussian infantry wavered and Schwerin rallied them, leading them from the front. He was hit several times by Austrian canister, when he heard the news, ordered the assault to continue.
At this time von Browne was mortally wounded by Prussian infantry fire, the final phase of the battle started around 3 pm, with Prussians engaging the still-forming Austrian line and outflanking them from the south. Charles withdrew into the town, the retreat being covered by his cavalry, the Austrians had lost 12,000 men and 4,500 prisoners. Having suffered over 14,000 casualties in his own army, losses hard to replace for the small Prussia and he calculated that 40,000 soldiers in addition to 75,000 inhabitants would soon consume the city stores. His calculation, did not take account the relief army Austria managed to field against him at the Battle of Kolin
Battle of Kunersdorf
At the Battle of Kunersdorf, in the Seven Years War on 12 August 1759, near Kunersdorf, immediately east of Frankfurt an der Oder, more than 100,000 men clashed in a decisive battle. Although Fredericks troops initially gained the hand in the battle. By afternoon, when the combatants were exhausted, fresh Austrian troops thrown into the fray made the difference and this is the only time in the Seven Years War that the Prussian Army, under Frederick, completely lost its discipline and disintegrated. With this loss and subsequently Berlin, were open to assault by the Russians and Austrians, surprisingly and Laudon did not follow up on the victory. Only 3,000 soldiers from Fredericks original 50,000 remained with him after the battle and this represented the penultimate success of the Russian Empire under Elizabeth of Russia and arguably was Fredericks worst defeat. Although the Seven Years War was a conflict, it took a specific intensity in the European theater based on the recently concluded War of the Austrian Succession.
The 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle concluded the war with Austria. Frederick II of Prussia, known as Frederick the Great, acquired the prosperous province of Silesia, Empress Maria Theresa of Austria had signed the treaty to gain time to rebuild her military forces and forge new alliances, she was intent upon regaining ascendancy in the Holy Roman Empire. In 1754, escalating tensions between Britain and France in North America offered the Empress the opportunity to regain her lost territories, France sought to break the British dominance of Atlantic trade. France and Austria put aside their old rivalry to form a coalition of their own and this series of political maneuvers became known as the Diplomatic Revolution. At the outset of the war, Frederick had one of the finest armies in Europe, his troops—any company—could fire at least four volleys a minute, and some of them could fire five. By the end of 1757, Prussia had achieve victories at Rossbach and Leuthen, in April 1758, Prussia and Britain concluded the Anglo-Prussian Convention.
Britain dispatched 7–9,000 troops to reinforce Fredericks brother-in-laws, Ferdinand evicted the French from Hanover and Westphalia and re-captured the port of Emden in March 1758, he crossed the Rhine with his own forces, causing general alarm in France. Despite Ferdinands victory over the French at the Battle of Krefeld, while Ferdinand kept the French occupied, Prussia had to contend with Sweden and Austria. By 1758, Frederick was increasingly concerned by the Russian advance from the east, just east of the Oder river in Brandenburg-Neumark, at the Battle of Zorndorf, on 25 August 1758 a Prussian army of 35,000 men fought a Russian army of 43,000. Both sides suffered casualties but the Russians withdrew, and Frederick claimed victory. At the Battle of Tornow on 25 September, a Swedish army repulsed six assaults by a Prussian army, by late summer, fighting had reached a draw, particularly after the Battle of Zorndorf. None of Prussias enemies seemed willing to take the steps to pursue Frederick into Prussia
Margraviate of Brandenburg
The Margraviate of Brandenburg was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806. Also known as the March of Brandenburg, it played a role in the history of Germany. Brandenburg developed out of the Northern March founded in the territory of the Slavic Wends and its ruling margraves were established as prestigious prince-electors in the Golden Bull of 1356, allowing them to vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. The state thus became known as Electoral Brandenburg or the Electorate of Brandenburg. The House of Hohenzollern came to the throne of Brandenburg in 1415, under Hohenzollern leadership, Brandenburg grew rapidly in power during the 17th century and inherited the Duchy of Prussia. The resulting Brandenburg-Prussia was the predecessor of the Kingdom of Prussia, although the electors highest title was King in/of Prussia, their power base remained in Brandenburg and its capital Berlin. Although the Margraviate of Brandenburg ended with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, despite its meager beginnings in the Holy Roman Empire, the Hohenzollern Kingdom of Prussia achieved the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire in 1871.
The Mark Brandenburg is still used today to refer to the federal state of Brandenburg in the Federal Republic of Germany. The territory of the margraviate, commonly known as the Mark Brandenburg, lies in present-day eastern Germany. Geographically it encompassed the majority of the present-day German states Brandenburg and Berlin, the Altmark, parts of the present-day federal state Brandenburg, such as Lower Lusatia and territory which had been Saxon until 1815, were not parts of the Mark. Colloquially but not accurately, the federal state Brandenburg is sometimes identified as the Mark or Mark Brandenburg, the region was formed during the ice age and characterized by moraines, glacial valleys, and numerous lakes. The territory is known as a Mark or march because it was a county of the Holy Roman Empire. The Mark is defined by two uplands and two depressions, the depressions are taken up by rivers and chains of lakes with marsh and boggy soil along the shores, once used for peat collection, the riverbanks are now mostly drained and dry.
The Northern or Baltic Uplands of the Mecklenburg Lake Plateau have only minor extensions into Brandenburg, the southern depression is generally to the north of this ridge and appears strikingly in the Spreewald. Between these two depressions is a low plateau that extends from the Poznań area westward to Brandenburg through Torzym, the Spree plateau, the region is predominantly marked by dry, sandy soil, wide stretches of which have pine trees and erica plants, or heath. However, the soil is loamy in the uplands and plateaus and, Mark Brandenburg has a cool, continental climate, with temperatures averaging near 0 °C in January and February and near 18 °C in July and August. Precipitation averages between 500 mm and 600 mm annually, with a modest summer maximum, by the 8th century, Slavic Wends, such as the Sprevjane and Hevelli, started to move into the Brandenburg area. They intermarried with Saxons and Bohemians, the Bishoprics of Brandenburg and Havelberg were established at the beginning of the 10th century
Litovel is a town in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic. Litovel lies in Upper-Morava Vale,233 metres above the sea level, thanks to its rich history Litovel has many historical monuments. Source, Czech Statistical Office The Town Hall lies on Přemysl Otakar Square, the City bought the building in 1557 and the town council moved in. It was reconstructed in 1572 and the Town Hall tower,72 metres tall, was built over Nečíz, a plague column stands near the Town Hall. It was constructed by Václav Render in 1724 in memory of the epidemic in 1714. The pillar is decorated with seven statues of plaque patrons and The Holy Virgin on the top, the Bridge of Saint John is a stone bridge over the river Morava. It was constructed in 1592, and it is the third oldest bridge in the Czech Republic, there is a brewery in Litovel. Pro-Ject brand turntables and audio equipment are manufactured in Litovel, west of Litovel at 49°4238 N and 17°323 E there was a transmitting facility with three guyed masts each 220 metres tall, which were arranged in a row.
The facility might have used for jamming programmes of Radio Free Europe on 720 kHz, the masts of the station were demolished, but the buildings are still in place. Villages Březové, Chudobín, Nasobůrky, Nová Ves, Savín, Tři Dvory, Unčovice and Víska are administrative parts of Litovel
Battle of Soor
The Battle of Soor was a battle between Frederick the Greats Prussian army and an Austro-Saxon army led by Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine during the War of the Austrian Succession. The battle occurred in the vicinity of Soor, known as Hajnice, the battle started with a failed Austrian surprise attack on the outnumbered Prussians. Despite initial setbacks the Prussian army managed to defeat the Austrians, three months after the battle of Hohenfriedberg, Frederick laid the Camp of Staudenz, initially planning to return to Berlin, in order to inspect the building work on his new palace of Sans Souci. Having stripped off many detachments during his march through Bohemia, Fredericks numbers had reduced to 22,500 men. Prince Charles discovered that Frederick had failed to occupy the Graner-Koppe, on 29 September, Charles attempted to flank the Prussian camp from the Königreich-Wald hills, and the following morning the Austrians took positions on the crucial Graner-Koppe hill. The 40, 200-strong Austrian army intended to destroy the Prussians in a surprise attack, Prussian scouts soon detected the Austrian presence, and drummers and trumpeters sounded the general alarm as Prussians began preparing for battle.
Austrian artillery proceeded to fire on the Prussian encampment, while the Prussian army marched into battle, Frederick ordered the cavalry to charge up the valley to the side of the hill in order to encircle the enemy. During the maneuver the cavalry came under fire, suffering heavy casualties. Despite the initial setback the vanguard regiments of the Gens D’Armes, coming under musket fire the Prussian cavalry withdrew into rear of the force. By the time of the retreat, Prussian grenadiers and the Anhalt infantry regiment began engaging the Austrian troops positioned on the hill. An Austrian counterattack, supported by fire, dealt significant damage to the Prussian infantry causing it to fall back. The Prussians launched a second assault consisting of Geist Grenadiers, Blanckensee, La Motte, the unwillingness of the Austrian artillery to risk firing at its own troops contributed to the fall of the summit. A number of Prussian regiments positioned south of Burkersdorf ignored orders to remain in the area, a bayonet charge led by Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick seized an Austrian battery, and the surprise attack led to the collapse of the Austrian line.
Despite the lack of an organised pursuit many Austrian infantrymen were captured by the Prussian cavalry regiments, a total of 856 Prussians were killed, while the injured or missing amounted to 3,055. Austrian and Saxon troops suffered 7,444 dead, injured or missing, pp 333–338 ISBN 0-89919-352-8 Chandler, The Art of Warfare in the Age of Marlborough. ISBN 0-946771-42-1 Duffy, The Army of Frederick the Great The Emperors Press pp 243–245, ISBN 1-883476-02-X Duffy, Frederick the Great, A Military Life Routledge pp 69–71 ISBN 0-415-00276-1
The Uckermark, a historical region in northeastern Germany, currently straddles the Uckermark District of Brandenburg and the Vorpommern-Greifswald District of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The region is named after the Uecker River, which is a tributary of the Oder, the rivers source is close to Angermünde, from where it runs northward to Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The Oder River, forming the German-Polish border, bounds the region in the east, the western parts of the Lower Oder Valley National Park are located in the Uckermark. In the Ice Age, glaciers shaped the landscape of the region, a climate change left a hilly area with several lakes formed by the melting ice, and humans started to settle the area. Megalithic-cultures arose, followed by Germanic cultures, from the 6th–12th centuries Polabian Slavs migrating from Eastern Europe moved westward into the Uckermark. The Slavs settling the terra Ukera became known as Ukrani and their settlement area was centered around the lakes Oberuckersee and Unteruckersee at the spring of the Uecker River.
In this region, burghs with a proto-town suburbium were set up at Drense, after the 983 revolt of the Obodrites and Liutizians, the area became independent again, yet remained under permanent military pressure, especially from Poland and the Holy Roman Empire. In 1172 Pomeranian dukes, vassals of the Duchy of Saxony, of the Holy Roman Empire, controlled the area. The early centers of the territory were the Seehausen Premonstratensian monastery, both the central city and the central monastery were set up beside the former Ukrani central burghs. The Margraviate of Brandenburg, holding claims on the Duchy of Pomerania, expanded north since the 1230s, in the 1250 Treaty of Landin, Barnim I conceded the Uckermark to John I and Otto III, Ascanian Margraves of Brandenburg. After the extinction of the Ascanians, the Pomeranian dukes reacquired a few border regions, Mecklenburg advanced into the Uckermark, but lost her gains in a 1323 war with Brandenburg. In the Pomeranian-Brandenburg War from 1329–33, Pomerania was able to defeat Brandenburg at Kremmer Damm, in the following years, control of the Uckermark was disputed by Brandenburg and Pomerania.
The Uckermark became part of Brandenburg-Prussia in 1618, but was ravaged during the Thirty Years War, frederick William, the Great Elector, invited large numbers of French Huguenots to resettle the Uckermark and his other territories by announcing the Edict of Potsdam. These Huguenots helped to develop the economy and culture of the Uckermark, in 1701 the territory became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars, the Uckermark became part of the Prussian Province of Brandenburg, the Uckermark was a battleground during World War II, with many of its towns being severely damaged. As part of East Germany after the war, the Uckermark was divided between Bezirk Neubrandenburg and Bezirk Frankfurt
Battle of Leuthen
The battle was fought at the Silesian town of Leuthen,10 kilometers northwest of Breslau. Within seven hours, the Prussians destroyed the Austrian force, erasing any advantage the Austrians had gained throughout the summer, within 48 hours, Frederick had laid siege to Breslau, which resulted in that citys surrender on 19–20 December. Leuthen was the last battle at which Prince Charles commanded the Austrian Army, his sister-in-law, Empress Maria Theresa, the battle established beyond doubt Fredericks military reputation in European circles. After Rossbach, the French refused to further in Austrias war with Prussia, after Leuthen. Although the Seven Years War was a conflict, it took a specific intensity in the European theater based on the recently concluded War of the Austrian Succession. The 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle concluded the war with Austria. Frederick II of Prussia, known as Frederick the Great, acquired the prosperous province of Silesia, Empress Maria Theresa of Austria had signed the treaty to gain time to rebuild her military forces and forge new alliances, she was intent upon regaining ascendancy in the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1754, escalating tensions between Britain and France in North America offered the Empress the opportunity to regain her lost territories, France sought to break the British dominance of Atlantic trade. France and Austria put aside their old rivalry to form a coalition of their own and this series of political maneuvers became known as the Diplomatic Revolution. After over-running Saxony, Frederick campaigned in Bohemia and defeated the Austrians on 6 May 1757 at the Battle of Prague, learning that French forces had invaded his allys territory of Duchy of Hanover, Frederick moved west. On 5 November 1757, he defeated the combined French and Austrian force at the Battle of Rossbach, in his absence, the Austrians had managed to slowly retake Silesia, Prince Charles had taken the city of Schweidnitz and moved on Breslau in lower Silesia. While heading back to Silesia, Frederick learned of the fall of Breslau and he and his 22,000 men covered 274 km in 12 days and, at Liegnitz, joined up with the Prussian troops who had survived the fighting at Breslau.
The augmented army of about 33,000 troops arrived near Leuthen,27 km west of Breslau, Frederick had one of the finest armies in Europe, his troops—any company—could fire at least four volleys a minute, and some of them could fire five. Most of Lower Silesia is a plain of fertile land. It includes black and alluvial soils near Breslau and in river valleys and its mild climate, water-rich river network, and fertile soils distributed between the Oder river and the foot of the Sudeten Mountains made it a coveted agricultural resource. In military terms, the area northwest of Breslau was predominantly flat, while the absence of steep hills made observation of an approaching enemy easy, the flatness precluded hiding maneuvers from ones enemies. The presence of alluvial soils guaranteed relatively soft ground, not as soft as Frederick faced outside Kunersdorf in 1758, a roadway connected the villages of Borna, Lissa with, across the Oder river and its tributaries, Breslau. Frederick had learned the countryside by heart on previous maneuvers, on 4 December 1757, astride his horse on the Schoen-Berg, a knoll about 1.5 km west of Borna, he surveyed the familiar landscape with his generals
Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world. When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicators, major is one rank senior to that of an army captain and it is considered the most junior of the field officer ranks. Majors are typically assigned as specialised executive or operations officers for battalion-sized units of 300 to 1,200 soldiers, in some militaries, notably France and Ireland, the rank of major is referred to as commandant, while in others it is known as captain-major. The rank of major is used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures, such as the Pennsylvania State Police, New York State Police, New Jersey State Police. As a police rank, major roughly corresponds to the UK rank of superintendent, the term major can be used with a hyphen to denote the leader of a military band such as in pipe-major or drum-major. Historically, the rank designation develops in English in the 1640s, taken from French majeur, in turn a shortening of sergent-majeur, which at the time designated a higher rank than at present