Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions, Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway. The board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Education, BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria. no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the operation for research. As a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norways higher education, all their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. The purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines, since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries.
The target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries. BIBSYS is an administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS, BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Beer is the worlds oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drink, it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea. Most beer is flavoured with hops, which add bitterness and act as a natural preservative, the fermentation process causes a natural carbonation effect, although this is often removed during processing, and replaced with forced carbonation. Beer is sold in bottles and cans, it may be available on draught, particularly in pubs, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. The strength of beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume, archaeologists speculate that beer was instrumental in the formation of civilisations. Approximately 5000 years ago, workers in the city of Uruk were paid by their employers in beer, the earliest known chemical evidence of barley beer dates to circa 3500–3100 BC from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran.
The Ebla tablets, discovered in 1974 in Ebla, Syria, a fermented beverage using rice and fruit was made in China around 7000 BC. Unlike sake, mould was not used to saccharify the rice, almost any substance containing sugar can naturally undergo alcoholic fermentation. It is likely that many cultures, on observing that a liquid could be obtained from a source of starch. Bread and beer increased prosperity to a level that allowed time for development of other technologies, Beer was spread through Europe by Germanic and Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 BC, and it was mainly brewed on a domestic scale. The product that the early Europeans drank might not be recognised as beer by most people today, alongside the basic starch source, the early European beers might contain fruits, numerous types of plants and other substances such as narcotic herbs. What they did not contain was hops, as that was an addition, first mentioned in Europe around 822 by a Carolingian Abbot. Beer produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a scale, although by the 7th century AD, beer was being produced.
During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, the development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process and greater knowledge of the results. Today, the industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies. As of 2006, more than 133 billion litres, the equivalent of a cube 510 metres on a side, of beer are sold per year, the process of making beer is known as brewing. A dedicated building for the making of beer is called a brewery, a company that makes beer is called either a brewery or a brewing company. Beer made on a scale for non-commercial reasons is classified as homebrewing regardless of where it is made. Brewing beer is subject to legislation and taxation in developed countries, the UK government relaxed legislation in 1963, followed by Australia in 1972 and the US in 1978, allowing homebrewing to become a popular hobby
The Little Mermaid (statue)
The Little Mermaid is a bronze statue by Edvard Eriksen, depicting a mermaid. The sculpture is displayed on a rock by the waterside at the Langelinie promenade in Copenhagen and it is 1.25 metres tall and weighs 175 kilograms. Based on the tale of the same name by Danish author Hans Christian Andersen. In recent decades it has become a target for defacement by vandals. Mermaid is among iconic statues that symbolize cities, others include, Manneken Pis in Brussels, in several cases, cities have commissioned statues for such a purpose, such as with Singapores Merlion. The sculptor Edvard Eriksen created the statue, which was unveiled on August 23,1913. The statues head was modelled after Price, but as the ballerina did not agree to model in the nude, while the statue was away in Shanghai an authorised copy was displayed on a rock in the lake in Copenhagens nearby Tivoli Gardens. This statue has been damaged and defaced many times since the mid-1960s for various reasons, on April 24,1964, the statues head was sawn off and stolen by politically oriented artists of the Situationist movement, amongst them Jørgen Nash.
The head was never recovered and a new head was produced and placed on the statue, on July 22,1984, the right arm was sawn off and returned two days by two young men. In 1990, an attempt to sever the head left an 18 centimeters deep cut in the neck. On January 6,1998, the statue was decapitated again, the culprits were never found, but the head was returned anonymously to a television station. On the night of September 10,2003, the statue was knocked off its base with explosives, holes had been blasted in the mermaids wrist and knee. In 2004, the statue was draped in a burqa in a protest against Turkeys application to join the European Union, in May 2007, it was again found draped in Muslim dress and a head scarf. Paint has been poured on the several times, including one episode in 1963. On March 8,2006, a dildo was attached to the hand, green paint was dumped over it. It is suspected that this vandalism was connected with International Womens Day, the grave of Danish-American entertainer Victor Borge includes a copy as well.
The Copenhagen Airport has a replica of the mermaid along with a statue of Andersen, some statues similar to The Little Mermaid are In Sicily. The first it placed in 1962 on the seafront in Giardini Naxos, a second always portraying a mermaid Post on a depth of sea about 18 meters
Philanthropy means etymologically, the love of humanity, in the sense of caring, nourishing and enhancing what it means to be human. In this meaning, it both the benefactor in their identifying and exercising their values, and the beneficiary in their receipt. A person who practices philanthropy is called a philanthropist, Philanthropy has distinguishing features from charity, not all charity is philanthropy, or vice versa, though there is a recognized degree of overlap in practice. The literal, classical definitions and understandings of the term philanthropy derive from its origins in the Greek φιλανθρωπία, the most conventional modern definition is private initiatives, for public good, focusing on quality of life. This combines the social scientific aspect developed in the century with the humanistic tradition. These distinctions have been analyzed by Olivier Zunz, and others, instances of philanthropy commonly overlap with instances of charity, though not all charity is philanthropy, or vice versa.
The difference commonly cited is that charity relieves the pains of social problems, the first use of the noun form philanthrôpía came shortly thereafter, in the early Platonic dialogue Euthyphro. Socrates is reported to have said that his out of his thoughts freely to his listeners was his philanthrôpía. In the second century CE, Plutarch used the concept of philanthrôpía to describe superior human beings and this Classically synonymous troika, of philanthropy, the humanities, and liberal education, declined with the replacement of the classical world by Christianity. During the Middle Ages, philanthrôpía was superseded by Caritas charity, selfless love, Philanthropy was modernized by Sir Francis Bacon in the 1600s, who is largely credited with preventing the word from being owned by horticulture. Bacon considered philanthrôpía to be synonymous with goodness, which correlated with the Aristotelian conception of virtue, in the 1700s, an influential lexical figurehead by the name of Samuel Johnson simply defined philanthropy as love of mankind, good nature.
This definition still survives today and is cited more gender-neutrally as the love of humanity. However, it was Noah Webster who would more accurately reflect the usage in American English. The precise meaning of philanthropy is still a matter of some contention, there are some working definitions to which the community associated with the field of philanthropic studies most commonly subscribes. The Greeks adopted the love of humanity as an ideal, whose goal was excellence —the fullest self-development, of a body and spirit. The Platonic Academys philosophical dictionary defined Philanthropy as a state of well-educated habits stemming from love of humanity, just as Prometheus human-empowering gifts rebelled against the tyranny of Zeus, philanthropic was associated with freedom and democracy. Both Socrates and the laws of Athens were described as philanthropic and democratic, gradually there emerged a non-religious agricultural infrastructure based on peasant farming organized into manors, which were, in turn, organized for law and order by feudalism.
Francis Bacon in 1592 wrote in a letter that his vast contemplative ends expressed his philanthropic, Henry Cockeram, in his English dictionary, cited philanthropy as a synonym for humanity—thus reaffirming the Classical formulation
A museum is distinguished by a collection of often unique objects that forms the core of its activities for exhibitions, research, etc. A museum normally has a policy for new acquisitions, so only objects in certain categories. The process by which an object is included in the collection is called accessioning. Museum collections, and archives in general, are catalogued in a collection catalogue, traditionally in a card index. Transferring collection catalogues onto computer-based media is an undertaking for most museums. All new acquisitions are normally catalogued on a computer in modern museums, there are collections of art, of scientific specimens, of historic objects, of living zoological specimens and much more. Because there are so many things to collect, most museums have an area of specialization. For example, a museum may only collect objects relevant to a particular county or even a single person. Art museums may focus on a period, such as modern art, very large museums will often have many subcollections, each with its own criteria for collecting. A natural history museum, for example, will have mammals in a collection from insects.
Because museums cannot collect everything, each new addition must be carefully considered as to its appropriateness for a given museums defined area of interest. Accessioning is the formal, legal process of accepting an object into a museum collection, because accessioning an object carries an obligation to care for that object in perpetuity, it is a serious decision. While in the past many museums accepted objects with little deliberation and these are typically set out as part of a museums Collections Management Policy or CMP. Several issues must be considered in the decision to accept an object, common issues include, Is the object relevant to the museums mission and its scope of collecting, as defined by its governing body. Was the object lawfully acquired and if foreign in origin, imported in compliance with international law, does the owner of an object have legal title to the object and therefore the right to transfer it. Are there any other parties with an interest in the object, is the object encumbered by any legal obligations or constraints.
Would the object pose any threats or dangers to other objects or staff, does the museum have the resources to properly care for the object Is the object encumbered by any donor restrictions. Answering these questions often required investigating an objects provenance, the history of an object from the time it was made, many museums will not accession objects that have been acquired illegally or where other parties have an interest in the object
The Carlsberg Group is a brewing company founded in 1847 by J. C. The companys first headquarters were located in Copenhagen, since Jacobsens death in 1887, the majority owner of the company has been the Carlsberg Foundation. The companys flagship brand is Carlsberg Beer but it brews Tuborg, Somersby cider, Russias best-selling beer Baltika, Belgian Grimbergen abbey beers, and more than 500 local beers. After merging with the assets of Norwegian conglomerate Orkla ASA in January 2001. After a failed attempt by Orkla, Carlsberg became the sole owner after purchasing Orklas share in the brewery in 2004. It is the leading beer seller in Russia with about a 40 percent share of the market, in 2009 Carlsberg ranked fourth worldwide, and employed around 45,000 people. Carlsberg was founded by J. C, Jacobsen, a philanthropist and avid art collector. With his fortune he amassed an art collection which is now housed in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in central Copenhagen. The first brew was finished on 10 November 1847, and the export of Carlsberg beer began in 1868 with the export of one barrel to Edinburgh, Jacobsens son Carl opened a brewery in 1882 named Ny Carlsberg forcing him to rename his brewery Gamle Carlsberg.
The companies were merged and run under Carls direction in 1906, Jacobsen set up the Carlsberg Laboratory in 1875, which worked on scientific problems related to brewing. It featured a Department of Chemistry and a Department of Physiology, the species of yeast used to make pale lager, Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, was isolated by Emil Christian Hansen at the laboratory in 1883 and bears its name, this was shared freely by Carlsberg. The Carlsberg Laboratory developed the concept of pH and made advances in protein chemistry, in 1972, the Carlsberg Research Centre was established and the Carlsberg Laboratory is now an independent unit of the Centre. Because of a conflict with his son Carl, Jacobsens brewery was left to the Foundation upon his death in 1887, the first brewery to be built outside Denmark was in Blantyre, Malawi in 1968. Carlsberg merged with Tuborg breweries in 1970 forming the United Breweries AS, Carlsberg became the sole owner of Carlsberg-Tetley in 1997. In 2008 Carlsberg Group, together with Heineken, bought Scottish & Newcastle, in 2013 the company joined leading alcohol producers as part of a producers commitments to reducing harmful drinking.
The old brewery in Copenhagen is currently open for tours, famous visitors have included Winston Churchill in 1950, Queen Elizabeth II in 1957, and Yuri Gagarin in 1962. The Carlsberg Group divides their operations into three areas, Northern & Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia. Baltic Beverages Holding is currently owned by Carlsberg, previously, it was a joint venture between Carlsberg and Scottish & Newcastle in Russia
Jens Vilhelm Dahlerup was a Danish architect who specialized in the Historicist style. Dahlerup was born outside Mariager in Northern Jutland, the son of a provost and he received his first drawing lessons in Århus in 1853, moving to Copenhagen to study at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts which he started in 1856. During his studies at the Academy, he won the Academys silver and gold medals several times, in 1871 he became a member of the Academy, in 1875 becoming a Professor. Dahlerup trained under G. F. Hetsch and J. H. Nebelong, from 1870 he was an artistic advisor for the Port of Copenhagen and for a while he served as the house architect of Tivoli Gardens. For many years he was the architect of Carl Jacobsen and is the architect behind many of the most known buildings at the Carlsberg site. W
Free Beer, originally known as Vores øl - An open source beer, is the first brand of beer with an open/free brand and recipe. The recipe and trademark elements are published under the Creative Commons CC BY-SA license, in December 2004 a group of IT University of Copenhagen students together with Superflex brewed a 100-liter batch of a dark heavy beer in their schools cafeteria. The group labeled the beer Vores øl, after a 1994 Carlsberg beer advertisement slogan, a website was created to promote the project and the beers recipe and label designs were published under an open source Creative Commons license, specifically the CC-BY-SA2.5 license. While unlike software cooking recipes arent copyrightable the share-alike/copyleft licensing approach is legally questionable, after the publication the project received an overall positive reception from international press and media for the political message. After the first Vores Øl brewing of the open-source beer concept, a new colorful, unusual Free Beer artwork should create associations with the 60s liberation and underline the freedom aspect of the concept.
While the first Vores øl recipe draw some criticism, the recipe was continuously updated and identified shortcomings got fixed. Originally, the homebrewing community complaint the quality of the process, making reference to the technical problems of when software instructions cannot be made into a functioning program, it was mentioned that if this recipe were source code, it would not compile. Because of the theme of the groups message, the correction. Due to the availability of the recipe and the many Free Beer brewings of breweries and individuals worldwide over the course of years, major Free Beer recipe iterations were developed in collaboration with a local Danish and experienced brewery, Skands in Brøndby. As previous recipe shortcomings were corrected, for instance the amount of sugar was decreased by 90%, the recipes version, which has now reached 4.1, illustrates the communitys continuous collaborative improvement progress, made possible by the open source nature of Free Beer. Under its free license, this free beer encourages others to tweak the recipe, commercial or amateur brewers are able to reuse the recipe.
Known derivatives include, Switzerland/Lausanne, Le Baiser de la Princesse, france/Schiltigheim, Affichage Libre, brewed specially for the 2011 edition of the Rencontres Mondiales du Logiciel Libre in Strasbourg. Switzerland/Zürich, In 2008, project 21s FreeBeer brewed by Wädi-Brau-Huus in Wädenswil with own recipe, united States/Rockville, Our Nations Attic - American Pale Ale, beer recipe and label under CC0, an American pale ale brewed by Living Proof Brewery in 2011. New Zealand/Wellington Yeastie Boys Digital IPA was released in late 2011, the Digital IPAs recipe has the been made widely available under a CC-SA-BY3.0 license to enable home brewers to brew their own versions. The commercial production for the German market failed mostly due to the Reinheitsgebot which forbids additions like Mate, in August 2012 a petition on We the people was successful and the Barack Obama administration released the recipe of a White House brewed Honey Ale to the public. Scotland/Ellon, Aberdeenshire, In February 2016 BrewDog open-sourced” its beer recipes to the public, since its first presentation, the Free Beer concept was often reported by international printed and online media, and discussed in specialist books regarding copyright.
The Free Beer project was well received by the FOSS and open content movement, for instance by Richard Stallman, Cory Doctorow. It was presented and sold on several technology conferences and meetings, for instance the Isummit 2008 and the RMLL2011,2012, the FSCONS2008 resulted in a CC-BY-SA licensed Ebook with the Free Beer artwork and title
Ceres Brewery was a brewery company located in Aarhus, Denmark. It was part of Royal Unibrew, the factories in central Aarhus, was closed in 2008 and the grounds are now being redeveloped into a new neighbourhood of the city, known as CeresByen. Ceres Brewery was founded by a grocer named Malthe Conrad Lottrup, with help from the chemists A. S. Aagard and Knud Redelien and it was named after the Roman goddess Ceres, and its opening was announced in the local newspaper, Stiftstidende, in 1856. The brewery was successful, and Lottrup became one of the most prominent people of Aarhus, after ten years, he expanded the brewery, adding a grand new building as his own private residence, where he entertained other local figures. Lottrups son-in-law, Laurits Christian Meulengracht, took over the running of the brewery after that and he sold it to another brewery, Østjyske Bryggerier A/S. The brewery gained more esteem in 1914, when it was made Purveyor to the Royal Danish Court, in 2008 the factory closed because the brewery could not live up to the expectations from its owner Royal Unibrew