Barbizon is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in north-central France. It is located near the Fontainebleau Forest; the inhabitants are called Barbizonais. The Barbizon school of painters is named after the village. East Bergholt, England Szentendre, Hungary Asago, Hyogo prefecture, Japan Communes of the Seine-et-Marne department List of works by Henri Chapu INSEE Barbizon website 1999 Land Use, from IAURIF French Ministry of Culture list for Barbizon Map of Barbizon on Michelin Johnson, Clifton. "The Village of Jean-François Millet". The Outlook. 64: 275–284. Retrieved 2009-07-30
Fresco is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster. Water is used as the vehicle for the dry-powder pigment to merge with the plaster, with the setting of the plaster, the painting becomes an integral part of the wall; the word fresco is derived from the Italian adjective fresco meaning "fresh", may thus be contrasted with fresco-secco or secco mural painting techniques, which are applied to dried plaster, to supplement painting in fresco. The fresco technique has been employed since antiquity and is associated with Italian Renaissance painting. Buon fresco pigment is mixed with room temperature water and is used on a thin layer of wet, fresh plaster, called the intonaco; because of the chemical makeup of the plaster, a binder is not required, as the pigment mixed with the water will sink into the intonaco, which itself becomes the medium holding the pigment. The pigment is absorbed by the wet plaster; the chemical processes are as follows: calcination of limestone in a lime kiln: CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 slaking of quicklime: CaO + H2O → Ca2 setting of the lime plaster: Ca2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O In painting buon fresco, a rough underlayer called the arriccio is added to the whole area to be painted and allowed to dry for some days.
Many artists sketched their compositions on this underlayer, which would never be seen, in a red pigment called sinopia, a name used to refer to these under-paintings. Later,new techniques for transferring paper drawings to the wall were developed; the main lines of a drawing made on paper were pricked over with a point, the paper held against the wall, a bag of soot banged on them on produce black dots along the lines. If the painting was to be done over an existing fresco, the surface would be roughened to provide better adhesion. On the day of painting, the intonaco, a thinner, smooth layer of fine plaster was added to the amount of wall, expected to be completed that day, sometimes matching the contours of the figures or the landscape, but more just starting from the top of the composition; this area is called the giornata, the different day stages can be seen in a large fresco, by a sort of seam that separates one from the next. Buon frescoes are difficult to create because of the deadline associated with the drying plaster.
A layer of plaster will require ten to twelve hours to dry. Once a giornata is dried, no more buon fresco can be done, the unpainted intonaco must be removed with a tool before starting again the next day. If mistakes have been made, it may be necessary to remove the whole intonaco for that area—or to change them a secco. An indispensable component of this process is the carbonatation of the lime, which fixes the colour in the plaster ensuring durability of the fresco for future generations. A technique used in the popular frescoes of Michelangelo and Raphael was to scrape indentations into certain areas of the plaster while still wet to increase the illusion of depth and to accent certain areas over others; the eyes of the people of the School of Athens are sunken-in using this technique which causes the eyes to seem deeper and more pensive. Michelangelo used this technique as part of his trademark'outlining' of his central figures within his frescoes. In a wall-sized fresco, there may be ten to twenty or more giornate, or separate areas of plaster.
After five centuries, the giornate, which were nearly invisible, have sometimes become visible, in many large-scale frescoes, these divisions may be seen from the ground. Additionally, the border between giornate was covered by an a secco painting, which has since fallen off. One of the first painters in the post-classical period to use this technique was the Isaac Master in the Upper Basilica of Saint Francis in Assisi. A person who creates fresco is called a frescoist. A secco or fresco-secco painting is done on dry plaster; the pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg, glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall. It is important to distinguish between a secco work done on top of buon fresco, which according to most authorities was in fact standard from the Middle Ages onwards, work done a secco on a blank wall. Buon fresco works are more durable than any a secco work added on top of them, because a secco work lasts better with a roughened plaster surface, whilst true fresco should have a smooth one.
The additional a secco work would be done to make changes, sometimes to add small details, but because not all colours can be achieved in true fresco, because only some pigments work chemically in the alkaline environment of fresh lime-based plaster. Blue was a particular problem, skies and blue robes were added a secco, because neither azurite blue nor lapis lazuli, the only two blue pigments available, works well in wet fresco, it has become clear, thanks to modern analytical techniques, that in the early Italian Renaissance painters quite employed a secco techniques so as to allow the use of a broader range of pigments. In most early examples this work has now vanished, but a whole painting done a secco on a surface roughened to give a key for the paint may survive well
Östermalm is a 2.56 km² large district in central Stockholm, Sweden. With 71,802 inhabitants it is one of the most populous districts in Stockholm. It's an expensive area, having the highest housing prices in Sweden. During the reign of the ruler of all of Scandinavia, king Eric of Pomerania in the early 15th century, a royal cowshed/barn was erected on the lands of the village Vädla. Since the town of Stockholm had grown and started to encroach on the borders of that village, there were lots of complaints about animals causing damage in the town. In the 17th century, the inhabitants of Stockholm were allowed to keep their cattle there. In 1639, parts of the allocated land for the cowshed/barn were put up for development. In 1672 the eastern part became a military exercise field. During the following 200 years, it was the home of some higher officers but the majority of the inhabitants were poor. A new town plan presented around 1880 implied a grid of streets and avenues, to become lined with elegant houses, with 4–6 floors.
With this plan implemented it put an end to the rustic appearance of the district. The old official name "Ladugårdslandet" was replaced with "Östermalm". Since the Crown had been the owner of parts of the district for centuries a number of official buildings and higher public educational institutions were located in this area. In the 20th century, a large number of embassies, including those of America, France, Poland, Thailand and Malaysia were established in Östermalm; the Berwaldhallen, home of both the Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra and the Swedish Radio Choir, is situated on Dag Hammarskjölds väg, Östermalm. Diplomatstaden Eriksberg Lärkstaden Nedre Östermalm Villastaden Övre Östermalm Karlaplan: metro 13 Stadion: metro 14 Stockholm Östra/Tekniska Högskolan: suburban railway 27, 28, 29 and metro 14 Östermalmstorg: metro 13, 14 Stureparken Geography of Stockholm
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Poverty is a multifaceted concept, which may include social and political elements. Absolute poverty, extreme poverty, or destitution refers to the complete lack of the means necessary to meet basic personal needs such as food and shelter; the threshold at which absolute poverty is defined is considered to be about the same, independent of the person's permanent location or era. On the other hand, relative poverty occurs when a person who lives in a given country does not enjoy a certain minimum level of "living standards" as compared to the rest of the population of that country. Therefore, the threshold at which relative poverty is defined varies from country to another, or from one society to another. Providing basic needs can be restricted by constraints on government's ability to deliver services, such as corruption, tax avoidance and loan conditionalities and by the brain drain of health care and educational professionals.
Strategies of increasing income to make basic needs more affordable include welfare, economic freedoms and providing financial services. Poverty reduction is still a major issue for many international organizations such as the United Nations, the World Bank, United States Agency for International Development, Oxfam, CARE, World Vision International, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Red Cross among a plethora of others. In 2012 it was estimated that, using a poverty line of $1.25 a day, 1.2 billion people lived in poverty. Given the current economic model, built on GDP, it would take 100 years to bring the world's poorest up to the poverty line of $1.25 a day. UNICEF estimates; the World Bank forecasted in 2015 that 702.1 million people were living in extreme poverty, down from 1.75 billion in 1990. Extreme poverty is observed in all parts including developed economies. Of the 2015 population, about 347.1 million people lived in Sub-Saharan Africa and 231.3 million lived in South Asia.
According to the World Bank, between 1990 and 2015, the percentage of the world's population living in extreme poverty fell from 37.1% to 9.6%, falling below 10% for the first time. The People's Republic of China accounts for over three quarters of global poverty reduction from 1990 to 2005. Though, as noted, China accounted for nearly half of all extreme poverty in 1990. In public opinion around the world people surveyed tend to incorrectly think extreme poverty hasn't decreased. During the 2013 to 2015 period The World Bank reported that extreme poverty fell from 11% to 10%, however they noted that the rate of decline had slowed by nearly half from the 25 year average with parts of sub-saharan Africa returning to early 2000 levels; the World Bank attributed this to increasing violence following the Arab Spring, population increases in Sub-Saharan Africa, general African inflationary pressures and economic malaise were the primary drivers for this slow down. There is disagreement among experts as to what would be considered a realistic poverty rate with one considering it "an inaccurately measured and arbitrary cut off".
Some contend that a higher poverty line is needed, such as a minimum of $7.40 or $10 to $15 a day. They argue that these levels would better reflect the cost of basic needs and normal life expectancy. One estimate places the true scale of poverty much higher than the World Bank, with an estimated 4.3 billion people living with less than $5 a day and unable to meet basic needs adequately. It has been argued by some academics that the neoliberal policies promoted by global financial institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank are exacerbating both inequality and poverty. Poverty is the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money; the word poverty comes from Latin paupertās from pauper. There are several definitions of poverty depending on the context of the situation it is placed in, the views of the person giving the definition. Income Poverty: a family's income fails to meet a federally established threshold that differs across countries. United Nations: Fundamentally, poverty is the inability of having choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity.
It means lack of basic capacity to participate in society. It means not having enough to feed and clothe a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having the land on which to grow one's food or a job to earn one's living, not having access to credit, it means insecurity and exclusion of individuals and communities. It means susceptibility to violence, it implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation. World Bank: Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, comprises many dimensions, it includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity. Poverty encompasses low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, inadequate physical security, lack of voice, insufficient capacity and opportunity to better one's life. Poverty is measured as either absolute or relative. In the United Kingdom, the second Cameron ministry came under attack for their redefinition of poverty.
Considering that two-thirds of people who found work were accepting wages that are below the living wage t
Blót is the term for "sacrifice" in Norse paganism. A blót could be dedicated to any of the Norse gods, the spirits of the land, to ancestors; the sacrifice involved aspects of a sacramental feast. The cognate term blōt or geblōt in Old English would have referred to comparable traditions in Anglo-Saxon paganism, comparanda can be reconstructed for the wider Germanic Indo-European; the word blót is an Old Norse strong neuter noun. The corresponding Old English neuter blōt may be influenced by Old Norse; the reconstructed Proto-Germanic form of the noun is *blōtą "sacrifice, worship". Connected to this is the Proto-Germanic strong verb *blōtaną with descendants in Gothic, Old Norse blóta, Old English blōtan and Old High German bluozan, all of which mean "to sacrifice, worship"; the word appears in a compound attested in Old Norse as blót-hús "house of worship" and in Old High German as bluoz-hūz "temple". With a different nominative affix, the same stem is found in the Proto-Germanic noun *blōstrą "sacrifice" — attested in Gothic * in - "worshipper of God" and Old High German bluostar "offering, sacrifice").
This stem is thought to be connected to the Proto-Germanic verb *blōaną "to blow. Sophus Bugge was the first to suggest a connection between blót and the Latin flamen, both words can be traced back to the Proto-Indo-European stem *bhlād- "to bubble forth; the verb blóta meant "to worship with sacrifice", or "to strengthen". The sacrifice consisted of animals or war prisoners, in particular pigs and horses; the meat was boiled in large cooking pits with heated stones, either indoors or outdoors. The blood was considered to contain special powers and it was sprinkled on the statues of the gods, on the walls and on the participants themselves, it was a sacred moment when the people gathered around the steaming cauldrons to have a meal together with the gods or the Elves. The drink, passed around was blessed and sacred as well and it was passed from participant to participant; the drink was beer or mead but among the nobility it could be imported wine. The old prayer was til árs ok friðar, "for a good year and frith" They asked for fertility, good health, a good life and peace and harmony between the people and the powers.
The autumn blót was performed in the middle of October, the Winter Nights, indicating the beginning of winter. The great midwinter blót, or Yule, took place in the middle of January. Freyr was the most important god at the Midwinter and autumn blót, Christmas ham is still a main Christmas course in parts of Scandinavia; the Summer blót was undertaken in the middle of April and it was given to Odin. They drank for victory in war and this blót was the starting date for Viking expeditions and wars. For the early Anglo-Saxons, November was known as Blōtmōnaþ, as this Old English passage points out: A building where the blót took place was called a hov and there are many place names derived from this in e.g. Scania, West Götaland and East Götaland. Excavations at the medieval churches of Mære in Trøndelag and at Old Uppsala provide the few exceptions where church sites are associated with earlier churches. There were other sacred places called Hörgr, Vé, Lund and Haug. Hörgr means altar consisting of a heap of stones, Lund means "grove" and Ve "sacred place".
The Christian laws forbade worshipping at the haug or haugr meaning "mound" or "barrow". The German historian Thietmar, Count of Merseburg wrote that the Daner had their main cult centre on Zealand at Lejre, where they gathered every nine years and sacrificed 99 people but horses and hens. There are however no historical records from Scandinavian sources nor any archeological findings supporting this. Archaeological excavations have indeed revealed Lejre to be of great importance and in fact the seat of the royal family dating to at least the Iron Age. There is not conclusive evidence that Lejre was the site of a main cult centre though, but excavations around lake Tissø not far to the West, have revealed an ancient hof of great importance. Snorri Sturluson relates of a meeting between the peasants of Trøndelag and king Haakon I of Norway, a meeting which ended in a religious feud centered around the blót. Haakon was raised at the Christian English court and had returned to claim the throne of his father Harald Fairhair and intended to Christianize the country.
In spite of the fact that the peasants had elected Haakon king at the Thing they opposed his religious ideas. It was an old custom, that when there was to be sacrifice all the bóndis should come to the spot where the temple stood and bring with them all that they required while the festival of the sacrifice lasted. To this festival all the men brought ale with them. Hlaut-staves were made, like sprinkling brushes, with which the whole of the altars and the temple walls, both outside and inside, were sprinkled over, the people were sprinkled with the blood; the fire was in the middle of the floor of the temple, over it hung the kettles, the full goblets were handed across the fire.
Interior design is the art and science of enhancing the interior of a building to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space. An interior designer is someone who plans, researches and manages such projects. Interior design is a multifaceted profession that includes conceptual development, space planning, site inspections, research, communicating with the stakeholders of a project, construction management, execution of the design. In the past, interiors were put together instinctively as a part of the process of building; the profession of interior design has been a consequence of the development of society and the complex architecture that has resulted from the development of industrial processes. The pursuit of effective use of space, user well-being and functional design has contributed to the development of the contemporary interior design profession; the profession of interior design is separate and distinct from the role of interior decorator, a term used in the US.
The term is less common in the UK, where the profession of interior design is still unregulated and therefore speaking, not yet a profession. In ancient India, architects used to work as interior designers; this can be seen from the references of Vishwakarma the architect - one of the gods in Indian mythology. Additionally, the sculptures depicting ancient texts and events are seen in palaces built in 17th-century India. In medieval times wall art paintings in India have been a common feature of palace like mansions known as havelis. While most traditional homes are done away with modern buildings, there are around 2000 havelis in the Shekhawati region of Rajashtan that display wall art paintings. In ancient Egypt, "soul houses" or models of houses were placed in tombs as receptacles for food offerings. From these, it is possible to discern details about the interior design of different residences throughout the different Egyptian dynasties, such as changes in ventilation, columns, loggias and doors.
Throughout the 17th and 18th century and into the early 19th century, interior decoration was the concern of the homemaker, or an employed upholsterer or craftsman who would advise on the artistic style for an interior space. Architects would employ craftsmen or artisans to complete interior design for their buildings. In the mid-to-late 19th century, interior design services expanded as the middle class in industrial countries grew in size and prosperity and began to desire the domestic trappings of wealth to cement their new status. Large furniture firms began to branch out into general interior design and management, offering full house furnishings in a variety of styles; this business model flourished from the mid-century to 1914, when this role was usurped by independent amateur, designers. This paved the way for the emergence of the professional interior design in the mid-20th century. In the 1950s and 1960s, upholsterers began to expand their business remits, they framed their business more broadly and in artistic terms and began to advertise their furnishings to the public.
To meet the growing demand for contract interior work on projects such as offices and public buildings, these businesses became much larger and more complex, employing builders, plasterers, textile designers and furniture designers, as well as engineers and technicians to fulfil the job. Firms began to publish and circulate catalogs with prints for different lavish styles to attract the attention of expanding middle classes; as department stores increased in number and size, retail spaces within shops were furnished in different styles as examples for customers. One effective advertising tool was to set up model rooms at national and international exhibitions in showrooms for the public to see; some of the pioneering firms in this regard were Waring & Gillow, James Shoolbred and Holland & Sons. These traditional high-quality furniture making firms began to play an important role as advisers to unsure middle class customers on taste and style, began taking out contracts to design and furnish the interiors of many important buildings in Britain.
This type of firm emerged in America after the Civil War. The Herter Brothers, founded by two German emigre brothers, began as an upholstery warehouse and became one of the first firms of furniture makers and interior decorators. With their own design office and cabinet-making and upholstery workshops, Herter Brothers were prepared to accomplish every aspect of interior furnishing including decorative paneling and mantels and ceiling decoration, patterned floors, carpets and draperies. A pivotal figure in popularizing theories of interior design to the middle class was the architect Owen Jones, one of the most influential design theorists of the nineteenth century. Jones' first project was his most important—in 1851, he was responsible for not only the decoration of Joseph Paxton’s gigantic Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition but the arrangement of the exhibits within, he chose a controversial palette of red and blue for the interior ironwork and, despite initial negative publicity in the newspapers, was unveiled by Queen Victoria to much critical acclaim.
His most significant publication was The Grammar of Ornament, in which Jones formulated 37 key principles of interior design and decoration. Jones was employed by some of the leading interior design firms of the day. In 1882, the London Directory of the Post Of