Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist and physician who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in southern Sweden, he received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands, he returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals and minerals, while publishing several volumes, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death. Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist." Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum and "The Pliny of the North". He is considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus's remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself. Linnaeus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707, he was the first child of Christina Brodersonia. His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus, Emerentia Linnæa, his father taught him Latin as a small child.

One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister, the curate of the small village of Stenbrohult in Småland. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Samuel Brodersonius. A year after Linnaeus's birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult; the family moved into the rectory from the curate's house. In his early years, Linnaeus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and showed flowers to Linnaeus and told him their names. Soon Linnaeus was given his own patch of earth. Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent surname. Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson; when Nils was admitted to the University of Lund, he had to take on a family name. He adopted the Latinate name Linnæus after a giant linden tree, lind in Swedish, that grew on the family homestead.

This name was spelled with the æ ligature. When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus, with his father's family name; the son always spelled it with the æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in publications. Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson, as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus. Linnaeus's father began teaching him basic Latin and geography at an early age; when Linnaeus was seven, Nils decided to hire a tutor for him. The parents picked a son of a local yeoman. Linnaeus did not like him, writing in his autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a child's talents than develop them". Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower Grammar School at Växjö in 1717. Linnaeus studied going to the countryside to look for plants, he reached the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, interested in botany. Lannerus gave him the run of his garden, he introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland and a teacher at Katedralskolan in Växjö.

A botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus's interest in botany and helped him develop an interest in medicine. By the age of 17, Linnaeus had become well acquainted with the existing botanical literature, he remarks in his journal that he "read day and night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm Book of Herbs, Tillandz's Flora Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus Upsaliensis...."Linnaeus entered the Växjö Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied Greek, Hebrew and mathematics, a curriculum designed for boys preparing for the priesthood. In the last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus's father visited to ask the professors how his son's studies were progressing. Rothman believed otherwise; the doctor offered to have Linnaeus live with his family in Växjö and to teach him physiology and botany. Nils accepted this offer. Rothman showed Linnaeus that botany was a serious sub

Aircraft ground handling

In aviation, aircraft ground handling defines the servicing of an aircraft while it is on the ground and parked at a terminal gate of an airport. Many airlines subcontract ground handling to airports, handling agents or to another airline. According to the International Air Transport Association, conservative estimates indicate airlines outsource more than 50 per cent of the ground handling that takes place at the world's airports. Ground handling addresses the many service requirements of an airliner between the time it arrives at a terminal gate and the time it departs on its next flight. Speed and accuracy are important in ground handling services in order to minimize the turnaround time. Faster turnarounds for lower ground times are correlated to better profits. Airlines with less-frequent service or fewer resources at a particular location sometimes subcontract ground handling or on-call aircraft maintenance to another airline, as it is a short-term cheaper alternative to setting up its own ground handling or maintenance capabilities.

Airlines may participate in an industry-standard Mutual Assistance Ground Service Agreement. The MAGSA is published by the Air Transport Association and is used by airlines to assess prices for maintenance and support to aircraft at so-called MAGSA Rates, which are updated annually based on changes in the U. S. Producer Price Index. Airlines may choose to contract for ground handling services under the terms of a Standard Ground Handling Agreement published in the International Air Transport Association Airport Handling Manual. Airlines may contract for ground handling services under non-standard terms. Most ground services are not directly related to the actual flying of the aircraft, instead involve other tasks; the major categories of ground handling services are described below. The primary aim of this service offering is to ensure passenger comfort. While cabin cleaning comprises the bulk of the effort, it includes tasks such as replenishing onboard consumables and washable items like pillows and blankets.

Catering includes the unloading of unused food and drink from the aircraft, the loading of fresh food and drink for passengers and crew. Airline meals are delivered in Airline service trolleys. Empty or trash-filled trolley from the previous flight are replaced with fresh ones. Meals are prepared on the ground in order to minimize the amount of preparation required in the air. While some airlines provide their own catering, others have either owned catering companies in the past and divested themselves of the companies, or have outsourced their catering to third-party companies. Airline catering sources include the following companies: Airline Services & Logistics PLC American Airlines Atlas Catering Cara Operations Cathay Pacific's Cathay Pacific Catering Services Chelsea Food Services DHL Gate Gourmet KLM's KLM Catering Services LSG Sky Chefs Newrest Q Catering Servair Thai Airways's Thai Catering Services United Airlines This includes services on the ramp or apron, such as: Guiding the aircraft into and out of the parking position, Towing with pushback tractors Lavatory drainage Water cartage Air conditioning Airstart units Luggage handling by means of beltloaders and baggage carts Gate checked luggage handled on the tarmac as passengers disembark Air cargo handling by means of cargo dollies and cargo loaders Catering trucks Refueling, which may be done with a refueling tanker truck or refueling pumper Ground power Passenger stairs Wheelchair lifts, if required Hydraulic mules Deicing This includes services inside the airport terminal such as: Providing check-in counter services for the passengers departing on the customer airlines.

Providing gate arrival and departure services. The agents are required to meet a flight on arrival as well as provide departure services including boarding passengers and closing the flight. Staffing the transfer counters, customer service counters and airline lounges; this service dispatches the aircraft, maintains communication with the rest of the airline operation at the airport and with Air Traffic Control. Biman Bangladesh Airlines Air India Air Transport Services Limited - All Indian Airports - presently providing services at 74 airports in India. Air India SATS - Delhi, Bangalore, Mangalore Bhadra International India Pvt Ltd - Chennai Bird Worldwide Flight Services Pvt Ltd - Delhi, Mumbai & Kochi Globe Ground India - Ahmadabad, Bangalore & Goa Indo Thai Airport Management Services Pvt Ltd - Amritsar, Lucknow & Mohali Agile Airport Services Pvt Ltd - presently providing services at 8 airports in India. Qatar Aviation Services - Delhi Cathay Pacific Hong Kong Airport Services Hong Kong Aviation Ground Services Jardine Aviation Services SATS HK United Airlines All Nippon Airways JAL Ground Service Japan Airport Ground Handling Japan Airport Service Co. Ltd.

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Thomas Fenner House

The Thomas Fenner House or the "Sam Joy Place" is an historic stone-ender house on 43 Stony Acre Drive in Cranston, Rhode Island. It is one of the oldest surviving houses in Rhode Island; the house was built as a farmhouse around 1677 after King Philip's War by Captain Arthur Fenner for his son Major Thomas Fenner. The house was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1990, it is owned and is not open to the public. Captain Arthur Fenner's first home was burnt to the ground in King Philip's War where he was appointed Captain of the militia and was "one who staid and went not away" in the defense of Providence. Arthur's original homestead was built in 1662. After the war, he rebuilt his home in 1677 and he built, for his son, the Major Thomas Fenner house; the "Fenner Castle" stood until 1895. Arthur's grandson was Governor Arthur Fenner who donated a piece of wood from Captain Arthur's "Fenner Castle" for what is now the RI Mace, he did so to honor his grandfather, Captain Arthur Fenner who so bravely defended Providence from the Indians.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Providence County, Rhode Island Cranston Historical Society information about the house An audio slideshow about the Fenner house Historic American Buildings Survey No. RI-72, "Thomas Fenner House, 1538 Plainfield Street, Providence County, RI", 16 photos, supplemental material