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Carl Maria von Weber

Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber was a German composer, pianist and critic, was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. Weber was born in Eutin, Bishopric of Lübeck, the eldest of the three children of Franz Anton von Weber and his second wife, Genovefa Weber, a Viennese singer; the "von" was an affectation. Both his parents were Catholic and came from the far south of Germany. Franz Anton began his career as a military officer in the service of the Duchy of Holstein, after being fired, went on to hold a number of musical directorships. In 1787 Franz Anton went on to Hamburg. Franz Anton's half-brother, married Cäcilia Stamm and had four musical daughters, Aloysia and Sophie, all of whom became notable singers. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart attempted composing several pieces for her, but after she rejected his advances, Mozart went on to marry Constanze. A gifted violinist, Franz Anton had ambitions of turning Carl into a child prodigy like Franz's nephew-by-marriage, Mozart.

Carl did not begin to walk until he was four. But by he was a capable singer and pianist. Weber's father gave him a comprehensive education, however interrupted by the family's constant moves. In 1796, Weber continued his musical education in Hildburghausen, where he was instructed by the oboist Johann Peter Heuschkel. On 13 March 1798, Weber's mother died of tuberculosis; that same year, Weber went to Salzburg to study with Michael Haydn, the younger brother of Joseph Haydn, who agreed to teach Carl free of charge. That year, Weber traveled to Munich to study with the singer Johann Evangelist Wallishauser and organist Johann Nepomuk Kalcher. 1798 saw the twelve-year-old Weber's first published work, six fughettas for piano, published in Leipzig. Other compositions of that period, among them a mass, his first opera, Die Macht der Liebe und des Weins, are lost. In 1800, the family moved to Freiberg in Saxony, where Weber 14 years old, wrote an opera called Das stumme Waldmädchen, produced at the Freiberg theatre.

It was performed in Vienna and Saint Petersburg. The young Weber began to publish articles as a music critic, for example in the Leipziger Neue Zeitung in 1801. In 1801, the family returned to Salzburg, he continued studying in Vienna with Georg Joseph Vogler, known as Abbé Vogler, founder of three important music schools. In 1803, Weber's opera, Peter Schmoll und seine Nachbarn was produced in Augsburg, gave Weber his first success as a popular composer. Vogler, impressed by his pupil's talent, recommended him to the post of Director at the Breslau Opera in 1804. Weber sought to reform the Opera by pensioning off older singers, expanding the orchestra, tackling a more challenging repertoire, his attempts at reform were met with strong resistance from the Breslau public. He left his post in Breslau in a fit of frustration and from 1807 to 1810, Weber served as private secretary to Duke Ludwig, brother of King Frederick I of Württemberg. Weber's time in Württemberg was plagued with troubles, he fell into debt and had an ill-fated affair with Margarethe Lang, a singer at the opera.

Furthermore, Weber's father Franz Anton misappropriated a vast quantity of Duke Ludwig's money. Franz Anton and Carl were charged with embezzlement and arrested on 9 February 1810. Carl was in the middle of a rehearsal for his opera Silvana when he was arrested and thrown in prison by order of the king. Though no one doubted Carl's innocence, King Frederick I had grown tired of the composer's pranks. After a summary trial and his father were banished from Württemberg. Carl remained prolific as a composer during this period, writing a quantity of religious music for the Catholic mass; this however earned him the hostility of reformers working for the re-establishment of traditional chant in liturgy. In 1810, Weber visited several cities throughout Germany. On 4 November 1817, he married a singer who created the title role of Silvana. In 1819, he wrote his most famous piano piece, Invitation to the Dance; the successful premiere of Der Freischütz on 18 June 1821 in Berlin led to performances all over Europe.

On the morning of the premiere, Weber finished his Konzertstück in F minor for Piano and Orchestra, he premiered it a week later. In 1823

Tammy Wynette

Tammy Wynette was an American country music singer-songwriter and one of country music's best-known artists and biggest-selling female singers. Wynette was called the "First Lady of Country Music", her best-known song, "Stand by Your Man", is one of the best-selling hit singles by a woman in the history of country music. Many of her hits dealt with classic themes of loneliness and the difficulties of life and relationships. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, Wynette charted 20 number-one songs on the Billboard Country Chart. Along with Loretta Lynn and Dolly Parton, she is credited with having defined the role of women in country music during the 1970s. Wynette's marriage to country music singer George Jones in 1969 created a country music "couple", following the earlier success of Johnny Cash and June Carter Cash. Though they divorced in 1975, the couple recorded a sequence of albums and singles together that hit the charts throughout the 1970s and early 1980s. Tammy Wynette was born Virginia Wynette Pugh near Tremont, the only child of Mildred Faye and William Hollice Pugh.

Wynette's father was a farmer and local musician who died due to a brain tumor when Wynette was nine months old. Her mother worked in an office, as a substitute school teacher, on the family farm. At Pugh's death, Mildred left her daughter in the care of her parents and Flora Russell, moved to Memphis, Tennessee, to work in a defense plant during World War II. In 1946, Mildred married a farmer; the Russell home had running water. Wynette was raised with an aunt, Carolyn Russell, only five years older, more like a sister than an aunt; as a girl, Wynette taught herself to play a variety of musical instruments left behind by her father. Wynette attended Bellflower High School. A month before graduation, several months before her 18th birthday, she wed her first husband, Euple Byrd, he was a construction worker, but had trouble keeping a job, they moved several times. Wynette worked as a waitress, a receptionist, a barmaid, in a shoe factory. In 1963, she attended beauty college in Tupelo, where she learned to be a hairdresser.

She continued to renew her cosmetology license every year for the rest of her life – just in case she had to go back to a daily job. She left Euple before the birth of their third daughter. Wynette tried to earn extra money by performing at night. Euple did not support her ambition to become a country singer, according to Wynette, as she drove away he told her, "Dream on, Baby". Years he appeared at one of her concerts as she was signing autographs and asked for one, she signed it "Dream on, Baby." While working as a hairdresser in Midfield, Alabama, in 1965, Wynette sang on the Country Boy Eddie Show on WBRC-TV in Birmingham, which led to performances with country music star Porter Wagoner. In 1966, she moved with her three daughters from Birmingham to Nashville, Tennessee, in hopes of landing a recording deal. After being turned down she auditioned for Epic Records producer Billy Sherrill. Reluctant to sign her, Sherrill found himself in need of a singer for a Bobby Austin and Johnny Paycheck penned tune, "Apartment No. 9".

Upon hearing Wynette's version he was put her under contract. Once she was signed to Epic, Sherrill suggested. According to her 1979 memoir, Stand by Your Man, during their meeting, Wynette was wearing her long, blonde hair in a ponytail, Sherrill noted that she reminded him of Debbie Reynolds in the film Tammy and the Bachelor, he suggested "Tammy" as a possible name, so she became Tammy Wynette. Her first single, "Apartment No. 9", was released in December 1966, just missed the top 40 on the Country charts, peaking at number 44. It was followed by "Your Good Girl's Gon na Go Bad"; the song launched a string of top-ten hits that ran through the end of the 1970s, interrupted only by three singles that didn't crack the Top Ten. After "Your Good Girl's Gonna Go Bad" was a success, "My Elusive Dreams", a duet with David Houston, became her first number one in the summer of 1967, followed by "I Don't Wanna Play House" that year. "I Don't Wanna Play House" won Wynette a Grammy award in 1967 for Best Female Country Vocal Performance, one of two wins for Wynette in that category.

During 1968 and 1969, Wynette had five number-one hits – "Take Me to Your World", "D-I-V-O-R-C-E", "Stand by Your Man", "Singing My Song", "The Ways to Love a Man". "Stand by Your Man" was written in the Epic studio in just 15 minutes by Billy Sherrill and Wynette, was released at a time when the women's-rights movement was beginning to stir in the U. S; the message in the song stated a woman should stay with her man, despite his faults and shortcomings. It stirred up controversy and was criticized and it became a lightning rod for feminists; the song became successful, reaching the top spot on the Country charts, was a top-20 pop hit, peaking at number 19 on the Billboard pop charts in 1968, Wynette's only top-40 hit as a solo artist on the pop charts. In 1969, Wynette won the Grammy award for Best Female Country Vocal Performance for "Stand by Your Man", now, according to critics, considered a "classic" or country music "standard", she earned a gold record for Tammy's Greatest Hits, certified in 1970 by the RIAA.

The album was awarded platinum record status (awarded for albums selling in excess of 1,000

Obesity in Australia

According to 2007 statistics from the World Health Organization, Australia has the third-highest prevalence of overweight adults in the English-speaking world. Obesity in Australia is an "epidemic" with "increasing frequency." The Medical Journal of Australia found that obesity in Australia more than doubled in the two decades preceding 2003, the unprecedented rise in obesity has been compared to the same health crisis in America. The rise in obesity has been attributed to poor eating habits in the country related to the availability of fast food since the 1970s, sedentary lifestyles and a decrease in the labour workforce. Weight is measured by using the Body Mass Index scale; this is determined by dividing weight in kilograms by height in metres, squared. If someone is overweight their BMI will be at 25 or more. If someone is obese their BMI will be at 30 or more. 1 in 12 children are obese and 1 in 4 adults are obese In a study published in 2015 by the US Journal of Economics and Human Biology, obesity is found to have the largest impact on men aged over 75, women aged between 60–74.

In 2005, a study was conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics that compared the results of a 2004-05 survey with those conducted in the preceding 15 years. The results showed an increase in the proportion of adults who are overweight or obese. Over the four surveys, the number of overweight or obese adults increased from 4.6 million in 1989–90 to 5.4 million in 1995, 6.6 million in 2001 and 7.4 million in 2004–05. In 2007, the World Health Organization found that 67.4% of Australian adults are overweight, ranking 21st in the world, third out of the major countries in the English-speaking world, behind the United States and New Zealand. A 2005 WHO study found that just over 20% of Australian adults are obese, expected to rise to 29% in 2010 if current trends continue. About 29 to 30% of Australians are obese in 2017. In the 2005 National Health Survey, 53.6% of Australians reported being overweight with 18% falling into the "obese" category. Those numbers rose to 65% overweight and 29% obese in 2016.

This is nearly double the reported number from 1995, when 30% of adults were overweight and 11% were obese. Such representations would be skewed downward as people tend to overestimate their height and under-report their weight, the two key criteria to determine a BMI reading. In the National Health Survey, obesity reports were common across the board, with no major outliers. Victoria had the lowest incidence of obesity, at 17.0% of the population, with South Australia reporeting the highest numbers at 19.6%. By 2014, Canberra recorded an obesity rate of 25%, placing significant strain on ageing health care infrastructure. In a study conducted by The Obesity Society, between 2001 and 2025, the adult population prevalence of normal healthy weight will decrease from 40.6% to 22.9%. In conjunction with this, the prevalence of obesity will increase from 20.5% to 33.9%. It is estimated that by the time 25- to 29-year-olds of 2000 reach the age of 60–64, over one third will be obese. A recent study reported that based on figures from the National Health Survey and/or Australian Health Survey the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 56.3% in 1995 to $61.2 in 2007–2008 and 62.8% in 2011–2012.

This was attributed to an increase in the level of obesity from 18.7% to 27.5% over the period, with the proportion of overweight adults remaining similar. The study argues for preventive health measures to be gender-specific and specific to socioeconomic disadvantage within populations. Age-standardization of the 2011–12 Australian Health Survey was done in a recent study which reported 28.3% of Australian adults to be obese with 63.4% adults being overweight or obese. A subsequent analysis published in 2016 reported that despite of obesity and overweight together being the second highest contributor to the burden of disease in Australia the regular screening and recording of measures of obesity and overweight in primary care setting within regional Australian catchments was much lower than optimal. Indigenous Australians have Australia's highest level of obesity. A 2001 study showing that 31% of Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders were obese, nearly double the national average at that time.

The health and well being of Australian Indigenous youth is becoming concerning. A cross sectional study found that 46% of the total population, of participants, were overweight or obese. Of that population, 38% had enlarged waist circumferences, 43% had acanthosis nigricans present and 27% had hypertension. With this high population of overweight and obese Indigenous youth, it puts major implications on the public health system. A University of Alberta study, conducted in 2006, noted that 60% of Aboriginal Australians over the age of 35 in Western Australia tested positive for diabetes. Health issues such as heart disease and diabetes have lowered the life expectancy for Aboriginal Australians to 17 years below the national life expectancy, a gap that continues to grow. Professor Paul Zimmet at Monash University, who conducted the aforementioned study of diabetes rates amongst Asian immigrants, released figures at the Diabetes in Indigenous People Forum in Melbourne, estimating the rate of diabetes from poor diet at 24% of all Torres Strait Islanders and remarked that unless extra steps are taken with these groups and Torres Strait Islanders will die out within 100 years.

Individuals who migrate to Australia moving from a low income nation, have a greater tendency to undergo an increase in weight. A study done by Delavari et al. suggested tha