Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Illinois Institute of Technology
Illinois Institute of Technology is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. It was established from the merger in 1940 of Lewis Institute; the university has programs in engineering, psychology, business, industrial technology, information technology and law. It traces its history to several 19th-century engineering and professional education institutions in the United States; the Institute of Design, Chicago-Kent College of Law, Midwest College of Engineering were merged into it. In 1890, when advanced education was reserved for society's elite, Chicago minister Frank Wakely Gunsaulus delivered what came to be known as the "Million Dollar Sermon." From the pulpit of his South Side church, near the site Illinois Institute of Technology now occupies, Gunsaulus said that with a million dollars he could build a school where students can learn to think in practical not theoretical terms. Inspired by Gunsaulus' vision, Philip Danforth Armour, Sr. gave $1 million to found the Armour Institute—and Armour, his wife, Malvina Belle Ogden Armour and their son J. Ogden Armour continued to support the university in its early years.
When Armour Institute opened in 1893, it offered professional courses in engineering, chemistry and library science. Illinois Tech was created in 1940 by the merger of Lewis Institute. Located on the west side of Chicago, Lewis Institute, established in 1895 by the estate of hardware merchant and investor Allen C. Lewis, offered liberal arts as well as science and engineering courses for both men and women. At separate meetings held by their respective boards on October 26, 1939, the trustees of Armour and Lewis voted to merge the two colleges. A Cook County circuit court decision on April 23, 1940 solidified the merger; the Institute of Design, founded in Chicago by László Moholy-Nagy in 1937, merged with Illinois Tech in 1949. Chicago-Kent College of Law, founded in 1887, became part of the university in 1969, making Illinois Institute of Technology one of the few technology-based universities with a law school. In 1969, the Stuart School of Management and Finance—now known as the Stuart School of Business – was established thanks to a gift from the estate of Lewis Institute alumnus and Chicago financier Harold Leonard Stuart.
The program became the Stuart School of Business in 1999. The Midwest College of Engineering, founded in 1967, joined the university in 1986, giving Illinois Tech a presence in west suburban Wheaton with what is today known as the Rice Campus—home to Illinois Tech's School of Applied Technology. In December 2006, the University Technology Park at Illinois Institute of Technology, an incubator and life sciences/tech start-up facility, was started in existing research buildings located on the south end of Main Campus; as of April 2014, the University Tech Park at Illinois Institute of Technology is home to many companies. Today, IIT is a private, Ph. D.-granting university with programs in engineering, human sciences, applied technology, business and law. It is one of 16 institutions that comprise the Association of Independent Technological Universities; the university and its contract research affiliate, IIT Research Institute, have an annual research volume of $130 million. Current research strengths include fluid dynamics and aerospace, synchrotron radiation science, environmental engineering and regulatory policy, polymer science and recycling, food safety and technology, transportation and infrastructure.
IIT has more than 40,000 living alumni and is known as the alma mater of accomplishments as well as of people. IIT and IITRI scientists and engineers have made some of the century's most important technological advances, such as the invention of magnetic recording and the development of re-entry technology for spacecraft. IIT architects have shaped the skyline of Chicago and cities throughout the world. IIT Research Institute has several locations throughout the United States, the university has five campuses in the Chicago area; the 120-acre Main Campus, centered at 33rd and State Streets in Chicago, as well as many of its buildings, was designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who directed the architecture program at IIT from 1938 to 1958 and was one of the 20th century's most influential architects. In 1976, the American Institute of Architects recognized the campus as one of the 200 most significant works of architecture in the U. S. S. R. Crown Hall, home of IIT College of Architecture, was named a National Historic Landmark in 2001, part of the IIT Main Campus was entered into the National Register of Historic Places in 2005.
The state-of-the-art, 10-story Downtown Campus at 565 W. Adams Street houses Chicago-Kent College of Law, the Center for Financial Markets, the Master of Public Administration Program, Stuart School of Business. Institute of Design, an international leader in teaching systemic, human-centered design, is located at 350 N. LaSalle Street in Chicago's River North neighborhood; the 19-acre Daniel F. and Ada L. Rice Campus in west suburban Wheaton complements area community colleges, serving west suburban residents and employees in Illinois' high-tech corridor by offering graduate programs, upper-level undergraduate courses, continuing professional education; the five-acre Moffett Campus in southwest suburban Bedford Park houses the Institute for Food Safety and Health, including its National Center for Food Safety and Technology, a consortium of government and academia that seeks to improve the quality and safety of the nation's food supply. IIT continued to expand after the merger; as one of the fir
Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, monarch of many other states of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death. From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866 he was President of the German Confederation, he was the longest-reigning Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, as well as the third-longest-reigning monarch of any country in European history, after Louis XIV of France and Johann II of Liechtenstein. In December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the throne at Olomouc, as part of Minister President Felix zu Schwarzenberg's plan to end the Revolutions of 1848 in Hungary; this allowed Ferdinand's nephew Franz Joseph to accede to the throne. Considered to be a reactionary, Franz Joseph spent his early reign resisting constitutionalism in his domains; the Austrian Empire was forced to cede its influence over Tuscany and most of its claim to Lombardy–Venetia to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, following the Second Italian War of Independence in 1859 and the Third Italian War of Independence in 1866.
Although Franz Joseph ceded no territory to the Kingdom of Prussia after the Austrian defeat in the Austro-Prussian War, the Peace of Prague settled the German Question in favour of Prussia, which prevented the Unification of Germany from occurring under the House of Habsburg. Franz Joseph was troubled by nationalism during his entire reign, he concluded the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, which granted greater autonomy to Hungary and transformed the Austrian Empire into the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. He ruled peacefully for the next 45 years, but suffered the tragedies of the execution of his brother, the Emperor Maximilian of Mexico in 1867, the suicide of his only son and heir, Crown Prince Rudolf, in 1889, the assassination of his wife, Empress Elisabeth, in 1898. After the Austro-Prussian War, Austria-Hungary turned its attention to the Balkans, a hotspot of international tension because of conflicting interests with the Russian Empire; the Bosnian Crisis was a result of Franz Joseph's annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, occupied by his troops since the Congress of Berlin.
On 28 June 1914, the assassination of his nephew, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in Sarajevo resulted in Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against the Kingdom of Serbia, Russia's ally. That activated a system of alliances which resulted in World War I. Franz Joseph died on 21 November 1916, after ruling his domains for 68 years as one of the longest-reigning monarchs in modern history, he was succeeded by his grandnephew Charles. Franz Joseph was born in the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, the eldest son of Archduke Franz Karl, his wife Princess Sophie of Bavaria; because his uncle, from 1835 the Emperor Ferdinand, was weak-minded, his father unambitious and retiring, the young Archduke "Franzl" was brought up by his mother as a future Emperor with emphasis on devotion and diligence. Franzl came to idolise his grandfather, der Gute Kaiser Franz, who had died shortly before the former's fifth birthday, as the ideal monarch. At the age of thirteen, Franzl started a career as a colonel in the Austrian army.
From that point onward, his fashion was dictated by army style and for the rest of his life he wore the uniform of a military officer. Franz Joseph was soon joined by three younger brothers: Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian. Following the resignation of the Chancellor Prince Metternich during the Revolutions of 1848, the young Archduke, who it was expected would soon succeed his uncle on the throne, was appointed Governor of Bohemia on 6 April, but never took up the post. Instead, Franz was sent to the front in Italy, joining Field Marshal Radetzky on campaign on 29 April, receiving his baptism of fire on 5 May at Santa Lucia. By all accounts he handled his first military experience calmly and with dignity. Around the same time, the Imperial Family was fleeing revolutionary Vienna for the calmer setting of Innsbruck, in Tyrol. Soon, the Archduke was called back from Italy, joining the rest of his family at Innsbruck by mid-June, it was at Innsbruck at this time that Franz Joseph first met his cousin Elisabeth, his future bride a girl of ten, but the meeting made little impression.
Following victory over the Italians at Custoza in late July, the court felt it safe to return to Vienna, Franz Joseph travelled with them. But within a few months Vienna again appeared unsafe, in September the court left once more, this time for Olomouc in Moravia. By now, Prince Alfred I of Windisch-Grätz, an influential military commander in Bohemia, was determined to see the young Archduke soon put on the throne, it was thought that a new ruler would not be bound by the oaths to respect constitutional government to which Ferdinand had been forced to agree, that it was necessary to find a young, energetic emperor to replace the kindly, but mentally unfit Ferdinand. By the abdication of his uncle Ferdinand and the renunciation of his father, the mild-mannered Franz Karl, Franz Joseph succeeded as Emperor of Austria at Olomouc on 2 December. At this time he first became known by his second as well as his first Christian name; the name "Franz Joseph" was chosen to bring back memories of the new Emperor's great-granduncle, Emperor Joseph II, remembered as a modernising reformer.
Under the guidance of the new prime mini
Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano was an influential German philosopher and priest whose work influenced not only students Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, Christian von Ehrenfels, but many others whose work would follow and make use of his original ideas and concepts. Brentano was born at Marienberg am Rhein, near Boppard, he was the son of Christian Brentano, the brother of Lujo Brentano, the nephew of Clemens Brentano and Bettina von Arnim. He studied philosophy at the universities of Würzburg, Berlin and Münster, he had a special interest in scholastic philosophy. He wrote his dissertation in 1862 at Tübingen under the title Von der mannigfachen Bedeutung des Seienden nach Aristoteles, his thesis advisor was Franz Jakob Clemens. Subsequently, he began to study theology and entered the seminary in Munich and Würzburg, he was ordained a Catholic priest on 6 August 1864. In 1865/66 he wrote and defended his habilitation thesis, Die Psychologie des Aristoteles, insbesondere seine Lehre vom Nous Poietikos, began to lecture at the University of Würzburg.
His students in this period included, among Carl Stumpf and Anton Marty. Between 1870 and 1873 Brentano was involved in the debate on papal infallibility. A strong opponent of such dogma, he gave up his priesthood and his tenure in 1873 and in 1879 left the church altogether, he remained, however religious and dealt with the topic of the existence of God in lectures given at the Universities of Würzburg and Vienna. In 1874 Brentano published his major work, Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. From 1874 to 1895 he taught at the University of Vienna. While he began his career as a full ordinary professor, he was forced to give up both his Austrian citizenship and his professorship in 1880 in order to marry, but he was permitted to stay at the university only as a Privatdozent. After his retirement in 1895, he moved to Florence in Italy, transferring to Zürich at the outbreak of the First World War, where he died in 1917. Brentano is best known for his reintroduction of the concept of intentionality—a concept derived from scholastic philosophy—to contemporary philosophy in his lectures and in his work Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt.
While simplistically summarised as "aboutness" or the relationship between mental acts and the external world, Brentano defined it as the main characteristic of mental phenomena, by which they could be distinguished from physical phenomena. Every mental phenomenon, is directed at an object; every belief, desire etc. has an object that they are about: the believed, the desired. Brentano used the expression "intentional inexistence" to indicate the status of the objects of thought in the mind; the property of being intentional, of having an intentional object, was the key feature to distinguish psychological phenomena and physical phenomena, because, as Brentano defined it, physical phenomena lacked the ability to generate original intentionality, could only facilitate an intentional relationship in a second-hand manner, which he labeled derived intentionality. Brentano introduced a distinction between genetic psychology and descriptive psychology: in his terminology, genetic psychology is the study of psychological phenomena from a third-person point of view, which involves the use of empirical experiments.
The aim of descriptive psychology, on the other hand, is to describe consciousness from a first-person point of view. The latter approach was further developed by the phenomenological tradition, he is well known for claiming that Wahrnehmung ist Falschnehmung, to say perception is erroneous. In fact he maintained that external, sensory perception could not tell us anything about the de facto existence of the perceived world, which could be illusion. However, we can be sure of our internal perception; when I hear a tone, I cannot be sure that there is a tone in the real world, but I am certain that I do hear. This awareness, of the fact that I hear, is called internal perception. External perception, sensory perception, can only yield hypotheses about the perceived world, but not truth. Hence he and many of his pupils thought that the natural sciences could only yield hypotheses and never universal, absolute truths as in pure logic or mathematics. However, in a reprinting of his Psychologie vom Empirischen Standpunkte, he recanted this previous view.
He attempted to do so without reworking the previous arguments within that work but it has been said that he was wholly unsuccessful. The new view states.
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
The Mayerling incident is the series of events surrounding the apparent murder–suicide of Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria and his lover, Baroness Mary Vetsera. Rudolf, married to Princess Stéphanie of Belgium, was the only son of Emperor Franz Joseph and Empress Elisabeth, heir apparent to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Rudolf's mistress was the daughter of a diplomat at the Austrian court; the bodies of the 30-year-old Archduke and the 17-year-old baroness were discovered in the Imperial hunting lodge at Mayerling in the Vienna Woods, 26.6 kilometres southwest of the capital, on the morning of 30 January 1889. The death of the crown prince had momentous consequences for the course of history in the nineteenth century, it had a devastating effect on the compromised marriage of the Imperial couple and interrupted the security inherent in the immediate line of Habsburg dynastic succession. As Rudolf had no son, the succession would pass to Franz Joseph's brother, Archduke Karl Ludwig, his eldest son, Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
This destabilization endangered the growing reconciliation between the Austrian and Hungarian factions of the empire, which became a catalyst of the developments that led to the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie by Gavrilo Princip, a Yugoslav nationalist and ethnic Serb, at Sarajevo in June 1914, the subsequent drift into the First World War. By 1889, many people at the court, including Rudolf's parents and his wife, knew that Rudolf and Mary were having an affair, his marriage to Stephanie was not a happy one and had resulted in the birth of only one daughter, known as Erzsi. On 29 January 1889, Franz Joseph and Elisabeth gave a family dinner party prior to leaving for Buda, in Hungary, on 31 January, he had arranged for a day's shooting at Mayerling hunting lodge early on the morning of the 30th, but when his valet Loschek went to call him, there was no answer. Count Joseph Hoyos, the Archduke's hunting companion, joined with no response, they tried to force the door. Loschek smashed in a panel with an axe to find the room shuttered and half-dark.
Rudolf was found sitting motionless by the side of the bed, leaning forward and bleeding from the mouth. Before him on the bedside table stood a glass and a mirror. Without closer examination in the poor light, Loschek assumed that the crown prince had drunk poison from the glass, since he knew strychnine caused bleeding. On the bed lay the body of Mary Vetsera; the mistaken impression that poison was involved, that the baroness had poisoned the crown prince and killed herself, would persist for some time. Hoyos did not look any closer, but took a special train to Vienna, he hurried to the Emperor's Adjutant General, Count Paar, requested him to break the appalling news to the Emperor. The stifling protocol that characterized every movement in the Hofburg swung ponderously into action. Baron Nopcsa, Controller of the Empress's Household, was sent for, he in turn sent for Countess Ida Ferenczy, Empress Elisabeth's favorite Hungarian lady-in-waiting, to determine how Her Majesty should be informed.
Elisabeth was at her Greek lesson, was impatient at the interruption. White to the lips, Ferenczy announced. Elisabeth replied that he must come back later; the countess insisted that he must be received finally being forced to add that there was grave news about the Crown Prince. This account comes from Ferenczy herself and Archduchess Marie Valerie, to whom Elisabeth dictated her memory of the incident, in addition to the description in her diary; the countess entered the room again to find Elisabeth weeping uncontrollably. At this point, the Emperor appeared outside her apartments, was forced to wait there with Nopcsa, controlling himself only with great effort; the Empress broke the news to her husband in private. The Minister for Police was summoned and the national security services sealed off the hunting lodge and the surrounding area; the body of Mary Vetsera was interred as soon without judicial inquiry and in secret. On behalf of the Emperor, Prime Minister Count Eduard Taaffe issued a statement at noon that Rudolf had died "due to a rupture of an aneurism of the heart".
The Imperial family and court were still under the impression that he had been poisoned and it appears that Mary's mother, Baroness Helene Vetsera believed this. It was only when the court medical commission headed by Dr. Widerhofer arrived in Mayerling that afternoon that a more accurate cause of death was established, not until 6 a.m. the following morning, when Widerhofer made his report to the Emperor, that the true state of affairs became known. The official gazette of Vienna still reported the original story that day: "His Royal and Imperial Highness, Crown Prince Archduke Rudolf, died yesterday at his hunting lodge of Mayerling, near Baden, from the rupture of an aneurism of the heart."Foreign correspondents descended on Mayerling and soon learned that Rudolf's mistress was implicated in his death. This first official version of a heart attack was dropped. At that stage, the "heart failure" version was amended, it was announced that the Archduke had first shot the baroness in a suicide pact and sat by her body for several hours before shooting himself.
Rudolf and the Emper
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law and government. As a discipline, political economy originated in moral philosophy, in the 18th century, to explore the administration of states' wealth, with "political" signifying the Greek word polity and "economy" signifying the Greek word "okonomie"; the earliest works of political economy are attributed to the British scholars Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, although they were preceded by the work of the French physiocrats, such as François Quesnay and Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot. In the late 19th century, the term "economics" began to replace the term "political economy" with the rise of mathematical modelling coinciding with the publication of an influential textbook by Alfred Marshall in 1890. Earlier, William Stanley Jevons, a proponent of mathematical methods applied to the subject, advocated economics for brevity and with the hope of the term becoming "the recognised name of a science".
Citation measurement metrics from Google Ngram Viewer indicate that use of the term "economics" began to overshadow "political economy" around 1910, becoming the preferred term for the discipline by 1920. Today, the term "economics" refers to the narrow study of the economy absent other political and social considerations while the term "political economy" represents a distinct and competing approach. Political economy, where it is not used as a synonym for economics, may refer to different things. From an academic standpoint, the term may reference Marxian economics, applied public choice approaches emanating from the Chicago school and the Virginia school. In common parlance, "political economy" may refer to the advice given by economists to the government or public on general economic policy or on specific economic proposals developed by political scientists. A growing mainstream literature from the 1970s has expanded beyond the model of economic policy in which planners maximize utility of a representative individual toward examining how political forces affect the choice of economic policies as to distributional conflicts and political institutions.
It is available as a stand-alone area of study in certain universities. Political economy meant the study of the conditions under which production or consumption within limited parameters was organized in nation-states. In that way, political economy expanded the emphasis of economics, which comes from the Greek oikos and nomos. Political economy was thus meant to express the laws of production of wealth at the state level, just as economics was the ordering of the home; the phrase économie politique first appeared in France in 1615 with the well-known book by Antoine de Montchrétien, Traité de l’economie politique. The French physiocrats were the first exponents of political economy, although the intellectual responses of Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, David Ricardo, Henry George and Karl Marx to the physiocrats receives much greater attention; the world's first professorship in political economy was established in 1754 at the University of Naples Federico II in southern Italy. The Neapolitan philosopher Antonio Genovesi was the first tenured professor.
In 1763, Joseph von Sonnenfels was appointed a Political Economy chair at the University of Vienna, Austria. Thomas Malthus, in 1805, became England's first professor of political economy, at the East India Company College, Hertfordshire. In its contemporary meaning, political economy refers to different yet related approaches to studying economic and related behaviours, ranging from the combination of economics with other fields to the use of different, fundamental assumptions that challenge earlier economic assumptions: Political economy most refers to interdisciplinary studies drawing upon economics and political science in explaining how political institutions, the political environment, the economic system—capitalist, communist, or mixed—influence each other; the Journal of Economic Literature classification codes associate political economy with three sub-areas: the role of government and/or class and power relationships in resource allocation for each type of economic system. Much of the political economy approach is derived from public choice theory on the one hand and radical political economics on the other hand, both dating from the 1960s.
Public choice theory is a microfoundations theory, intertwined with political economy. Both approaches model voters and bureaucrats as behaving in self-interested ways, in contrast to a view, ascribed to earlier mainstream economists, of government officials trying to maximize individual utilities from some kind of social welfare function; as such and political scientists associate political economy with approaches using rational-choice assumptions in game theory and in examining phenomena beyond economics' standard remit, such as government failure and complex decision making in which context the term "positive political economy" is common. Other "traditional" topics include analysis of such public policy issues as economic regulation, rent-seeking, market protection, institutional corruption and distributional politics. Empirical analysis includes the influence of elections on the choice of economic policy and forecasting models of electoral outcome