Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker. As for economic effects, research suggests that migration is beneficial both to the receiving and sending countries. Research, with few exceptions, finds that immigration on average has positive economic effects on the native population, but is mixed as to whether low-skilled immigration adversely affects low-skilled natives. Studies show that the elimination of barriers to migration would have profound effects on world GDP, with estimates of gains ranging between 67 and 147 percent. Development economists argue that reducing barriers to labor mobility between developing countries and developed countries would be one of the most efficient tools of poverty reduction; the academic literature provides mixed findings for the relationship between immigration and crime worldwide, but finds for the United States that immigration either has no impact on the crime rate or that it reduces the crime rate.
Research shows that country of origin matters for speed and depth of immigrant assimilation, but that there is considerable assimilation overall for both first- and second-generation immigrants. Research has found extensive evidence of discrimination against foreign born and minority populations in criminal justice, the economy, health care and politics in the United States and Europe; the term immigration was coined in the 17th century, referring to non-warlike population movements between the emerging nation states. When people cross national borders during their migration, they are called migrants or immigrants from the perspective of the country which they enter. From the perspective of the country which they leave, they are called outmigrant. Sociology designates immigration as migration; as of 2015, the number of international migrants has reached 244 million worldwide, which reflects a 41% increase since 2000. One third of the world's international migrants are living in just 20 countries.
The largest number of international migrants live in the United States, with 19% of the world's total. Germany and Russia host 12 million migrants each, taking the second and third place in countries with the most migrants worldwide. Saudi Arabia hosts 10 million migrants, followed by the United Arab Emirates. Between 2000 and 2015, Asia added more international migrants than any other major area in the world, gaining 26 million. Europe added the second largest with about 20 million. In most parts of the world, migration occurs between countries that are located within the same major area. In 2015, the number of international migrants below the age of 20 reached 37 million, while 177 million are between the ages of 20 and 64. International migrants living in Africa were the youngest, with a median age of 29, followed by Asia, Latin America/Caribbean, while migrants were older in Northern America and Oceania. Nearly half of all international migrants originate in Asia, Europe was the birthplace of the second largest number of migrants, followed by Latin America.
India has the largest diaspora in the world, followed by Russia. A 2012 survey by Gallup found that given the opportunity, 640 million adults would migrate to another country, with 23% of these would-be immigrant choosing the United States as their desired future residence, while 7% of respondents, representing 45 million people, would choose the United Kingdom; the other top desired destination countries were Canada, Saudi Arabia, Australia and Spain. One theory of immigration distinguishes between pull factors. Push factors refer to the motive for immigration from the country of origin. In the case of economic migration, differentials in wage rates are common. If the value of wages in the new country surpasses the value of wages in one's native country, he or she may choose to migrate, as long as the costs are not too high. In the 19th century, economic expansion of the US increased immigrant flow, nearly 15% of the population was foreign born, thus making up a significant amount of the labor force.
As transportation technology improved, travel time and costs decreased between the 18th and early 20th century. Travel across the Atlantic used to take up to 5 weeks in the 18th century, but around the time of the 20th century it took a mere 8 days; when the opportunity cost is lower, the immigration rates tend to be higher. Escape from poverty is a traditional push factor, the availability of jobs is the related pull factor. Natural disasters can amplify poverty-driven migration flows. Research shows that for middle-income countries, higher temperatures increase emigration rates to urban areas and to other countries. For low-income countries, higher temperatures reduce emigration. Emigration and immigration are sometimes mandatory in a contract of employment: religious missionaries and employees of transnational corporations, international non-governmental organizations, the diplomatic service expect, by definition, to work "overseas", they are referred to as "expatriates", their conditions of employment are equal to or better than those applying in the host country.
A hobo is a migrant worker or homeless vagrant one, impoverished. The term originated in the Western—probably Northwestern—United States around 1890. Unlike a "tramp", who works only when forced to, a "bum", who does not work at all, a "hobo" is a traveling worker; the origin of the term is unknown. According to etymologist Anatoly Liberman, the only certain detail about its origin is the word was first noticed in American English circa 1890. Liberman points out that many folk etymologies fail to answer the question: "Why did the word become known in California by the early Nineties?" Author Todd DePastino has suggested it may be derived from the term hoe-boy meaning "farmhand", or a greeting such as Ho, boy! Bill Bryson suggests in Made in America that it could either come from the railroad greeting, "Ho, beau!" or a syllabic abbreviation of "homeward bound". It could come from the words "homeless boy". H. L. Mencken, in his The American Language, wrote: Tramps and hobos are lumped together, but see themselves as differentiated.
A hobo or bo is a migrant laborer. Lower than either is the bum, who neither works nor travels, save when impelled to motion by the police, it is unclear when hobos first appeared on the American railroading scene. With the end of the American Civil War in the 1860s, many discharged veterans returning home began hopping freight trains. Others looking for work on the American frontier followed the railways west aboard freight trains in the late 19th century. In 1906, Professor Layal Shafee, after an exhaustive study, put the number of tramps in the United States at about 500,000, his article "What Tramps Cost Nation" was published by The New York Telegraph in 1911, when he estimated the number had surged to 700,000. The number of hobos increased during the Great Depression era of the 1930s. With no work and no prospects at home, many decided to travel for free by freight train and try their luck elsewhere. Life as a hobo was dangerous. In addition to the problems of being itinerant and far from home and support, plus the hostility of many train crews, they faced the railroads' security staff, nicknamed "bulls", who had a reputation of violence against trespassers.
Moreover, riding on a freight train is dangerous in itself. British poet W. H. Davies, author of The Autobiography of a Super-Tramp, lost a foot when he fell under the wheels when trying to jump aboard a train, it was easy to be trapped between cars, one could freeze to death in bad weather. When freezer cars were loaded at an ice factory, any hobo inside was to be killed. According to Ted Conover in Rolling Nowhere, at some unknown point in time, as many as 20,000 people were living a hobo life in North America. Modern freight trains are much faster and thus harder to ride than in the 1930s, but they can still be boarded in railyards. Many hobo terms have become part of common language, such as "big House", "glad rags", "main drag", others. To cope with the uncertainties of hobo life, hobos developed a system of a visual code. Hobos would write this code with chalk or coal to provide directions and warnings to others in "the brotherhood". A symbol would indicate "turn right here", "beware of hostile railroad police", "dangerous dog", "food available here", so on.
Some used signs: A cross signifies "angel food", that is, food served to the hobos after a sermon. A triangle with hands signifies. A horizontal zigzag signifies a barking dog. A square missing its top line signifies. A top hat and a triangle signify wealth. A spearhead signifies a warning to defend oneself. A circle with two parallel arrows means get out fast. Two interlocked circles, representing handcuffs, warn. A caduceus symbol signifies. A cross with a smiley face in one of the corners means the doctor at this office will treat hobos free of charge. A cat signifies. A wavy line above an X means a campsite. Three diagonal lines mean. A square with a slanted roof with an X through it means that the house has been "burned" or "tricked" by another hobo and is not a trusting house. Two shovels signify. Another version of the hobo code exists as a display in the Steamtown National Historic Site at Scranton, operated by the National Park Service. There is an exhibit of hobo codes at the National Cryptologic Museum in Annapolis Junction, Maryland.
The Free Art and Technology Lab released a QR Hobo Code, with a QR stenciler, in July 2011. An ethical code was created by Tourist Union #63 during its 1889 National Hobo Convention in St. Louis, Missouri; this code was voted upon as a concrete set of laws to govern the Nationwide Hobo Body. When in town, always respect the local law and officials, try to be a gentleman at all times. Don't take advantage of someone, in a vulnerable situation, locals or other hobos. Always try to find work if temporary, always seek out jobs nobody wants. By doing so you not only help a business along, but ensure employment should you return to that town again; when no employment is available, make your own work by using your added talents at crafts. Do not allow yourself to become a stupid drunk and set a bad example for locals' treatment of other hobos; when jungling in town, respect handouts, do not
Lars Trygg, was one of the recognized masters of 20th century wood carving, most famous for Scandinavian flat-plane style of woodcarving. Lars Trygg was born in Sweden, he was one of three children of Maria Axelina Andersson. Lars worked with his father carving wooden figures of various common people in the Scandinavian flat-plane style of woodcarving, he immigrated to Canada with his family in the late 1920s Between Lars Trygg his father and two brothers, they carved over 10,000 figures. Many of his carvings were sold to tourists for $10.00 USD. Adjusted for inflation what cost $10.00 in 1929 would cost $108.05 in 2005. Carl Johan Trygg and Carl Olof Trygg returned to Sweden, where they continued their careers. Carl Johan died there 1954 and Carl Olaf, based on the dates on his carvings, was producing figures well into the 1980s, it is not clear whether Lars Trygg returned to Sweden or stayed in Montreal, Canada Carl Johan Trygg Carl Olof Trygg Lars Trygg Nils E. TryggTrygg family woodcarvings are still sought after today as collectibles.
There are over 10,000 carved figures. Prices range from $50 to $500 depending upon the age and condition of the piece. Trygg woodcarvings can be identified by the dates on the bases. Signatures found are: Trygg carved on base. — Carl Johan Trygg C. J. Trygg — Carl Johan Trygg C. O. Trygg — Carl Olof Trygg L. Trygg — Lars Trygg N. E. Trygg — Nils Trygg Hand Carved by Trygg — Carl Johan Trygg or Carl Olaf, Lars, or Nils Carved by Trygg Jr. — Carl Olaf, Lars, or NilsMost of the carvings are dated and include the location carved. For example, you may find a carving with "C. O. Trygg 1961 Sweden" meaning it was carved by Carl Olof Trygg in 1961 while he was living in Sweden. Refsal, Harley. "Trygg Family: Prolific Carvers". Wood Carving Illustrated. Fall: 61–65. "Little Shavers Wood Carving Supply". A Brief History of North American Caricature Carving. Retrieved October 2005. "Wood Carving Illustrated". Editor's World. Archived from the original on 2003-01-24. Retrieved January 2003. "Wood Carving Illustrated". Editor's World.
Archived from the original on 2003-02-25. Retrieved February 2003
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, formally known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It had a population of 403,131 with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour; the regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth and Halifax County. Halifax is a major economic centre in Atlantic Canada with a large concentration of government services and private sector companies. Major employers and economic generators include the Department of National Defence, Dalhousie University, Saint Mary's University, the Halifax Shipyard, various levels of government, the Port of Halifax. Agriculture, mining and natural gas extraction are major resource industries found in the rural areas of the municipality. Halifax is located within the traditional ancestral lands of the Mi'kmaq indigenous peoples, known as Mi'kma'ki; the Mi'kmaq have resided in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island since prior to European landings in North America in the 1400s and 1500s to set up fisheries.
The Mi'kmaq name for Halifax is K'jipuktuk, pronounced "che-book-took". The first permanent European settlement in the region was on the Halifax Peninsula; the establishment of the Town of Halifax, named after the 2nd Earl of Halifax, in 1749 led to the colonial capital being transferred from Annapolis Royal. The establishment of Halifax marked the beginning of Father Le Loutre's War; the war began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports and a sloop of war on June 21, 1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax, the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq, which were signed after Father Rale's War. Cornwallis brought along their families. To guard against Mi'kmaq and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax, Bedford and Lawrencetown, all areas within the modern-day Regional Municipality. St. Margaret's Bay was first settled by French-speaking Foreign Protestants at French Village, Nova Scotia who migrated from Lunenburg, Nova Scotia during the American Revolution.
December 1917 saw one of the greatest disasters in Canadian history, when the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship carrying munitions, collided with the Belgian Relief vessel SS Imo in "The Narrows" between upper Halifax Harbour and Bedford Basin. The resulting explosion, the Halifax Explosion, devastated the Richmond District of Halifax, killing 2,000 people and injuring nearly 9,000 others; the blast was the largest artificial explosion before the development of nuclear weapons. Significant aid came from Boston; the four municipalities in the Halifax urban area had been coordinating service delivery through the Metropolitan Authority since the late 1970s, but remained independent towns and cities until April 1, 1996, when the provincial government amalgamated all municipal governments within Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality. The municipal boundary thus now includes all of Halifax County except for several First Nation reserves. Since amalgamation, the region has been known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, although "Halifax" has remained in common usage for brevity.
On April 15, 2014, the regional council approved the implementation of a new branding campaign for the region developed by the local firm Revolve Marketing. The campaign would see the region referred to in promotional materials as "Halifax", although "Halifax Regional Municipality" would remain the region's official name; the proposed rebranding was met with mixed reaction from residents, some of whom felt that the change would alienate other communities in the municipality through a perception that the marketing scheme would focus on Metropolitan Halifax only, while others expressed relief that the longer formal name would no longer be primary. Mayor Mike Savage defended the decision, stating: "I'm a Westphal guy, I'm a Dartmouth man, but Halifax is my city, we’re all part of Halifax. Why does that matter? Because when I go and travel on behalf of this municipality, there isn’t a person out there who cares what HRM means." Unlike most municipalities with a sizeable metropolitan area, the Halifax Regional Municipality's suburbs have been incorporated into the "central" municipality by referendum.
For example, the community of Spryfield, in the Mainland South area, voted to amalgamate with Halifax in 1968. The most recent amalgamation, which brought the entirety of Halifax County into the Municipality, has created a situation where a large "rural commutershed" area encompasses half the municipality's landmass; the Halifax Regional Municipality occupies an area of 5,577 km2, 10% of the total land area of Nova Scotia. The land area of HRM is comparable in size to the total land area of the province of Prince Edward Island, measures 165 km in length between its eastern and western-most extremities, excluding Sable Island; the nearest point of land to Sable Island is not in HRM, but rather in adjacent Guysborough County. However, Sable Island is considered part of District 7 of the Halifax Regional Council; the coastline is indented, accounting for its length of 400 km, with the northern boundary of the municipality being between 50–60 km inland. The coast is rock with small isolated sand beaches in sheltered bays.
The largest coastal features include St. Margarets Bay, Halifax Harbour/Bedford Basin, Cole Harbour, Musquodoboit Harbour, Jeddore Harbour, Ship Harbour, Sheet Harbou
Carl Johan Trygg
Carl Johan Trygg, formally Carl Johan Thrygg knowns as C. J. Trygg, was one of the recognized masters of twentieth century woodcarving, most famous for Scandinavian flat-plane style of woodcarving. Between C. J. Trygg and his sons they carved over 10,000 figures. Many of his carvings were sold to tourists for $10.00 USD. Adjusted for inflation what cost $10.00 in 1929 would cost $108.05 in 2005. Carl Johan Trygg was born in 1887 in Sweden, he was one of nine children of S. Sgt Carl Oskar Thrygg. At the age of 12 he left his home to make a living on his own, he worked as a clockmaker, a shoemaker, he worked in a laundry, a logging mill. He began carving wooden figures of various common people in the Scandinavian flat-plane style of woodcarving, he married Maria Axelina Andersson in 1909. A year she gave birth to their son Carl Olaf Trygg. In 1915 at the age of 28, he had a show of his carvings in Sweden, it was after the success at this show. Carl Johan, at the age of 40, immigrated to Canada, he arrived in Halifax, Nova Scotia Canada on March 3, 1928.
That year his Wife Maria, his sons Carl Olof and Nils Johan, his daughter, Kally Maria Trygg arrived in Halifax. Carl Johan and his family settled in Montreal, Quebec and there they continued to carve. Carl Johan's three sons, Nils and Carl Olaf were woodcarvers. Another relative, Ellen Trygg carved figures in the flat plane style, her pieces are few and far between. Together they carved thousands of figures in the Scandinavian flat-plane style of woodcarving. Between C. J. Trygg and his sons they carved over 10,000 figures. Many of his carvings were sold to tourists for $10.00 USD. Adjusted for inflation what cost $10.00 in 1929 would cost $108.05 in 2005. Trygg was a craftsman in tune to the tourist trade. Trygg carved solo figures from basswood or pine, mounted them on a base, he had a stylized execution with clean cuts. A highlight of Trygg’s carvings is his use of vibrant paint, he painted his character’s clothing in plaid. Carl Johan Trygg and Carl Olof Trygg returned to Sweden, where they continued their careers.
Carl Johan died there 1954-02-12 in Glimminge, Västra Karup and Carl Olof, was producing figures well into the 1980s and he died in 1993-03-01 in Halmstad, Sweden. Carl Johan Trygg Carl Olof Trygg Nils Johan Trygg Lars TryggTrygg family wood carvings are still sought after today as collectibles. There are over 10,000 carved figures. Prices range from $50 to $500 depending upon the age and condition of the piece. Trygg woodcarvings can be identified by the dates on the bases. Signatures found are: Trygg carved on base. — Carl Johan Trygg C. J. Trygg — Carl Johan Trygg C. O. Trygg — Carl Olaf Trygg L. Trygg — Lars Trygg N. E. Trygg — Nils Trygg Hand Carved by Trygg — Carl Johan Trygg or Carl Olaf, Lars, or Nils Carved by Trygg Jr. — Carl Olaf, Lars, or NilsMost of the carvings are dated and include the location carved. For example, you may find a carving with "C. O. Trygg 1961 Sweden" meaning it was carved by Carl Olaf Trygg in 1961 while he was living in Sweden. ^ Carl Johan Trygg was born Carl Johan Thrygg.
It is unknown. ^ "Library and Archives Canada". Immigration Records. Retrieved November 16, 2005. Refsal, Harley. "Trygg Family: Prolific Carvers". Wood Carving Illustrated. Fall: 61–65. Refsal, Harley. Woodcarving in the Scandinavian Style. Sterling Publishing Co. Inc. New York, New York. P. 128. ISBN 0-8069-8633-6. "Little Shavers Wood Carving Supply". A Brief History of North American Caricature Carving. Retrieved October 2005. "Wood Carving Illustrated". Editor's World. Archived from the original on 2003-01-24. Retrieved January 2003. "Wood Carving Illustrated". Editor's World. Archived from the original on 2003-02-25. Retrieved February 2003. "Library and Archives Canada". Immigration Records. Retrieved November 2005
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th