Carl Zeiss AG

Carl Zeiss AG, branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems and optoelectronics, founded in Jena, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss. Together with Ernst Abbe and Otto Schott he laid the foundation for today's multi-national company; the current company emerged from a reunification of Carl Zeiss companies in East and West Germany with a consolidation phase in the 1990s. ZEISS is active in four business segments with equal revenue, Industrial Quality and Research, Medical Technology, Consumer Markets and Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology in 50 countries, has 30 production sites and around 25 development sites worldwide. Carl Zeiss AG is the holding of all subsidiaries within Zeiss Group, of which Carl Zeiss Meditec AG is the only one, traded at the stock market. Carl Zeiss AG is owned by the foundation Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung; the Zeiss Group has its headquarters in southern Germany, in the small town Oberkochen with its second largest and founding site being Jena in eastern Germany.

Controlled by the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung is the glass manufacturer Schott AG, located in Mainz and Jena. Carl Zeiss is one of the oldest existing optics manufacturers in the world. Carl Zeiss opened an optics workshop in Jena in 1846. By 1847 he was making microscopes full-time. By 1861 the Zeiss workshop was considered to be among the best scientific-instrument makers in Germany with about 20 people working in the company, business growing quickly. By 1866 Zeiss sold their 1,000th microscope. In 1872 physicist Ernst Abbe joined Zeiss and along with Otto Schott designed improved lenses for the optical instruments they were producing. After Carl Zeiss's death in 1888, the business was incorporated as the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung in 1889. By World War I, Zeiss was the world's largest location of camera production. Zeiss Ikon represented a significant part of the production along with dozens of other brands and factories, had major works at Dresden. In 1928 Hensoldt AG was acquired by Carl Zeiss and has produced the Zeiss binoculars and riflescopes since 1964 resulting in twin products being offered under both the Hensoldt and Zeiss brand names.

The Hensoldt System Technology division was continued by Zeiss under the Hensoldt name until 2006. As part of Nazi Germany Zwangsarbeiter program, Zeiss used forced labour during World War II; the destruction of the war caused many companies to divide into smaller subcompanies and others to merge. There was great respect for the engineering innovation that came out of Dresden—before the war the world's first 35 mm single-lens reflex camera, the Kine Exakta, the first miniature camera with good picture quality were developed there. At the end of the war, Jena was occupied by the United States Army; when Jena and Dresden were incorporated into the Soviet occupation zone East Germany, some parts of Zeiss Jena were relocated by the US army to the Contessa manufacturing facility in Stuttgart, West Germany, while the remainder of Zeiss Jena was reestablished by the German Democratic Republic as Kombinat VEB Zeiss Jena. The Soviet Army took most of the existing Zeiss factories and tooling as World War II spoils back to the Soviet Union, establishing the Kiev camera works.

The western business was restarted in Oberkochen, southwestern Germany, as Opton Optische Werke Oberkochen GmbH in 1946, which became Zeiss-Opton Optische Werke Oberkochen GmbH in 1947, but was soon renamed to Carl Zeiss. West German Zeiss products were labelled Opton for sale in the Eastern bloc, while East German Zeiss products were labelled "Zeiss Jena" or "Jena" for sale in Western countries. In 1973, the Western Carl Zeiss AG entered into a licensing agreement with the Japanese camera company Yashica to produce a series of high-quality 35 mm film cameras and lenses bearing the Contax and Zeiss brand names; this collaboration continued under Yashica's successor, until the latter ceased all camera production in 2005. Zeiss produced lenses for the space industry and, more has again produced high-quality 35 mm camera lenses; the eastern Zeiss Jena was well known for producing high-quality products. Following German reunification, VEB Zeiss Jena — reckoned as one of the few East German firms, potentially able to compete on a global basis — became Zeiss Jena GmbH, which became Jenoptik Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH in 1990.

In 1991, Jenoptik Carl Zeiss Jena was split in two, with Carl Zeiss AG taking over the company's divisions for microscopy and other precision optics and moving its microscopy and planetarium divisions back to Jena. Jenoptik GmbH was split off as a specialty company in the areas of photonics and mechatronics; the Hensoldt AG was renamed Carl Zeiss Sports Optics GmbH on 1 October 2006. The companies of the Zeiss Gruppe in and around Dresden have branched into new technologies: screens and products for the automotive industry, for example. Today, there are arguably three companies with Zeiss Ikon heritage: Zeiss Germany, the Finnish/Swedish Ikon, the independent eastern Zeiss Ikon. A division called. In 2005, the eyeglass division merged with U. S. company SOLA, which included the former American Optical Company. On 28 June 2013, Carl Zeiss announced its plan to rename the brand from "Carl Zeiss" to "Zeiss". All the products will be standardized under the Zeiss brand. In April 2019, Zeiss announced the acquisition of Braunschweig-based GOM.

The Zeiss company was responsible for many innovations in optical design and e

Intellectual opportunism

Intellectual opportunism is the pursuit of intellectual opportunities with a selfish, ulterior motive not consistent with relevant principles. The term refers to certain self-serving tendencies of the human intellect involving professional producers and disseminators of ideas, who work with idea-formation all the time. Intellectual opportunism sometimes refers to a specific school or trend of thought, or to a characteristic of a particular intellectual development. Thus, a certain set of people who share ideas are said to display a tendency for "intellectual opportunism" with the connotation that they deliberately act intellectually in a certain way, to gain special favor with an authority, group or organization. At issue is the motive and intention involved in pursuing, creating, or expressing particular ideas, the relevant contrast is between: the intellectual's stated principles, versus ideas he publicly or outwardly supports, endorses or concerns himself with; the original intention of ideas such as it is understood, versus the uses they are put to."Theoretical opportunism" in science refers to the attempt to save a theory from refutation, or protect it from criticism, with the use of ad hoc methods that in some way lack deeper scientific consistency or credibility.

Theorists may believe so in the value of their own theory, that they try to explain away inconsistencies or contrary evidence – borrowing any idea that plausibly fits with the theory, rather than developing the theory in such a way, that it can account for the relevant evidence. The phenomenon of intellectual opportunism is associated by its critics with careerism and dubious, unprincipled self-promotion, where ideas become "just another commodity" or a "bargaining tool"; when human knowledge becomes a tradeable good in a market of ideas, all sorts of opportunities arise for huckstering, swindling and hustling with information in ways which are regarded as unprincipled, dubious or involve deceit of some sort. The intellectual opportunist adapts his intellectual concerns and utterances to "fit with the trend/fashion" or "fit the situation" or "with what sells" – with the motive of gaining personal popularity/support, protecting intellectual coherence, obtaining personal credit, acquiring privilege or status, persuading others, ingratiating himself, taking advantage or making money.

This assumes some degree of intellectual flexibility, agility or persuasiveness. The intellectual opportunist: "Holds his mouth where the money or the support is" or where the opportunities for self-advancement or self-promotion are. "Hires out" his own ideas for purposes that conflict with his real nature or the organization he works for, only for the purpose of gaining personal advantage. Latches onto any available ideas or "picks the brains of others" to advance or defend his own position. Compromises what he believes in, for the sake of some ulterior motive or purpose. Intellectual opportunism is therefore understood as a sign of lack of integrity or intellectual shallowness, to the extent that the opportunist is not concerned with the worth of the ideas in themselves, but only with how he can benefit from them himself by pursuing them; as a corollary, the intellectual opportunist is apt to change his opinions, "change his line" or arbitrarily, according to where he can gain personal advantage, in a manner not consistent or principled.

The implication is that ideas are no longer being pursued because of their intrinsic merit or worth, or out of a genuine concern with what is at stake in an argument or idea, but only because of the instrumental value of ideas, i.e. the selfish advantage that can be gained from pursuing some ideas in preference to other ones. Observably ventilating or "advertising" suitably formulated ideas is merely a means or a "tool" for self-advancement or the promotion of a group or organization, giving rise to accusations that the real intention of particular ideas is being twisted around to serve an alien or improper purpose; the general outcome may be that the ideas involved, though plausible at a superficial level, lack any deeper coherence, the coherence being ruled out by lack of regard for relevant principles. Intellectual "dilettantes" are regarded as opportunists, insofar as they like to side with whatever viewpoint seems to be popular or credible at the time. Intellectual opportunism may appear obvious or crass, if the selfish motives for engaging in it are clear.

It may be difficult to detect if: the intellectual opportunist is clever and intelligent, while his audience is not, or his audience lacks sufficient relevant information to "judge the intellectual act". A clever intellectual opportunist may be able to reconcile his changing stories and his ulterior selfish motives in such a way, that his intellectual concerns seem principled and consistent, it is difficult to distinguish between legitimately seizing an intellectual opportunity with sincere motives, using an intellectual opportunity for some selfish, ulterior motive. The intellectual opportunist is himself not aware of his own opportunism, i.e. what it means, or what its broader significance is, regarding his own pursuit of intellectual opportunities as legitimate. In this case, the true motives or the effects of a course of action may be unclear or in dispute; the relevant and appropriate moral norms are themselves in dispute, so that the validity of the assessment of "opportunism" in intellectual behaviour depends on "poi


The Semang are a Negrito ethnic group of the Malay Peninsula. They are found in Perak, Pahang and Kedah of Malaysia, they have been recorded to have lived here since before the 3rd century. They are ethnologically described as nomadic hunter-gatherers. See Bajaus and Aetas; the Semang are grouped together with other Orang Asli tribes. They preferred to trade with the local populations, but at other times they were subjected to exploitation and slavery by Malays or forced to pay tribute. For more than one thousand years, some of the Negritos from the southern forests were enslaved and exploited until modern times, whilst others remain in isolation. In Malaysia they are called Negrito or Semang; the first term has an outright racial context, as Negrito in Spanish language means "little negro". In the past, eastern groups of Semang people have been called Pangan. Lowland Semang tribes are known as Sakai, although this term is considered to be derogatory by the Semang. Malaysian Semang are included as part of the Orang Asli.

Orang Asli includes 18 recognized tribes that are divided into 3 groups namely the Negrito and Proto-Malay. The group of Negrito consists of 6 tribes that are known as the Kensiu people, Kintaq people, Lanoh people, Jahai people, Mendriq people and Batek people. All Orang Asli are under the care of the state government, namely the Department of Orang Asli Development; the three category division of the indigenous population was inherited by the Malaysian government from the British administration of the colonial era. It is based on racial concepts, according to which the Negrito were seen as the most primitive race leading the vagrant way of life of hunter-gatherers; the Senoi were considered more developed, the Proto-Malay were placed at the same level with the Malaysian Malay Muslims. In Thailand, the term Orang Asli is not used. There the Negrito people are called Sakai or Ngopa; the first term is negatively perceived by the Semang themselves, it has a Malay language origin and used to refer the Semang and other Orang Asli groups as savages, subjects or slaves.

In Malaysia, this term has been denied. The Thai government does not recognize the Semang people. However, the existence of the Sakai people, is an exception, are recognized at the official level; this is due to the fact that this small ethnic group is under the personal protection and patronage of the royal family of Thailand. The Thais perceive a backward group of the population; the Semang differ from their neighbouring ethnic groups not only in terms of lifestyle, but in terms of anthropological grounds. They belong to the so-called Negrito race, where the main features of which are such as short stature of growth, dark skin, curly hair, wide nose, thick lips, round eyes and low cheekbones. Other representatives of this race are the indigenous inhabitants of the Andaman Islands in India and the Aeta people in the Philippines; the Semang are an ethnic group that are only conventionally united on the basis of racial and cultural characteristics. They do not have a sense of common ethnic identity.

In total there are at least ten tribal groups of the Orang Asli ethnic group that are classified as "Semang" in Malaysia:- Kensiu people, live in the northern part of Kedah, near the borders with Thailand. Most of them settled in the district village, Kampung Lubuk-Legong, in Baling District, Kedah. Kintaq people have only one village, located near the city Gerik in Hulu Perak District, Perak. Traditionally they wandered around Klian Intan in Hulu Perak District and near Baling District in Kedah. Lanoh people, is located in three villages situated in the Hulu Perak District in the northwest of Perak near Gerik. Among this people there are distinct tribal groups such as the Lanoh Yir, Lanoh Jengjeng and others. Semnam people, are not included in the official list of JAKOA, however they are grouped as part of the Lanoh people, they live at the Ayer Bal River near Kampung Kuala Kenering in the Hulu Perak District, west of Gerik. Sabub'n people, are grouped together with the Lanoh people; the remnants of this nearly extinct tribe, along with other Lanoh people groups live near Lenggong and Gerik in Hulu Perak District.

Jahai people, live in the mountains separating the states of Perak and Kelantan, at south of the borders of Thailand. This is the only mountain, their settlements along rivers or near lakes. In Perak they live along rivers such as Sungai Banun, Sungai Tiang and near Temenggor Lake in the Hulu Perak District. In Kelantan, the Jahai people are concentrated along rivers namely Sungai Rual and Sungai Jeli in Jeli District. Mendriq people, they live in several villages along the middle reaches of the Kelantan River in the remotes of Gua Musang District in the southern state of Kelantan. Batek people:- Bateg Deq people, live at the Aring River in southern Kelantan in the neighbouring districts of Terengganu and Pahang. JAKOA does not distinguish between different Batek people groups. Bateg Nong people, is another Batek people group