Johann Gottlieb Rall was a German colonel best known for his command of Hessian troops at the Battle of Trenton during the American Revolutionary War. Rall was born as a so-called "soldier child" in about 1726, he was a son of Captain Joachim Rall from Stralsund, who served in the regiment of Major General Donop. The first mention of Johann Rall was as a new cadet of the same regiment on March 1, 1740, commanded at this time by Colonel Prince Casimir von Isenburg of Isenburg-Birstein. In Hessian service, he was promoted to ensign on July 25, 1741. Rall was promoted to major on May 7, 1760, under Major General Bischhausen and transferred in January 1763 to the Stein garrison regiment, where he was appointed lieutenant colonel. On April 22, 1771, he was transferred to the Mansbach Infantry Regiment as a colonel, he became commander of the regiment in January 1772. During this time, Rall fought in the War of the Austrian Succession and participated in campaigns in Bavaria, on the Rhine, in the Netherlands, served in Scotland during the Jacobite rising of 1745.
He was involved in many battles. From September 1771 until August 1772, he was in Russia and fought for Catherine the Great under Count Orlov in the Fourth Russo-Turkish War. By 1776, Rall belonged to the infantry regiment of the 1st Division under General Phillip Leopold von Heister and commanded a Hessian Brigade of 1,200 men fighting for Great Britain in the American War of Independence, he was at the Battle of Brooklyn at Flatbush, the Battle of White Plains, Battle of Long Island, figured prominently in the Battle of Trenton. On the night of December 25–26, 1776 General George Washington crossed the Delaware River with his troops on the way to Trenton, New Jersey; the Hessian regiments, camped in and around Trenton commanded by Rall, were attacked and decisively defeated by the American Continental Army. The Hessians had let their guard down to celebrate the Christmas holiday, Rall himself was misled by John Honeyman, a spy of Washington who convincingly posed as a loyalist. According to one account, Rall was busy playing cards/chess the night before the attack at the home of Trenton merchant Abraham Hunt when he was handed a note from a local Loyalist who had seen Washington's forces gathering.
After receiving the message, placed it in his coat pocket without reading it. While leading his troops during the battle, Rall was mortally wounded, he was shot twice in the side and needed to be carried back to his headquarters set up in the house of Stacy Potts where he died that night. Before his death he requested a formal surrender to Washington; the note informing the colonel of the attack was found in his coat pocket. According to local tradition, Rall is buried in an unidentified grave in the churchyard of the First Presbyterian Church on East State Street in Trenton, where an inscription is dedicated to his memory. Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption – Site of his headquarters in Trenton, New Jersey GeneralDonald N. Moran, Johann Gottlieb Rall: Guilty of Tactical Negligence or Guiltless Circumstances? Trenton Historical Society "Rall, Johan Gottlieb". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. Johann Gottlieb Rall at Find a Grave
Bordentown, New Jersey
Bordentown is a city in Burlington County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 3,924; the population declined by 45 from the 3,969 counted in the 2000 U. S. Census, which had in turn declined by 372 from the 4,341 counted in the 1990 Census. Bordentown is located at the confluence of Blacks Creek and Crosswicks Creek; the latter is the border between Mercer Counties. Bordentown is 5.8 miles southeast of Trenton and 25.3 miles northeast of Philadelphia. It is included in the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area. Bordentown was incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on December 9, 1825, from portions within Chesterfield Township, it was reincorporated as a city on April 3, 1867, separated from Chesterfield Township c. 1877. Thomas Farnsworth, an English Quaker, was credited with being the first European settler in the Bordentown area in 1682, when he moved his family up river from Burlington, he made a new home on the windswept bluff overlooking the broad bend in the Delaware River.
The Farnsworth's cabin was situated near the northwest corner of Park Street and Prince Street where an 1883 frame house now stands. "Farnsworth Landing" soon became the center of trade for the region. Farnsworth is the namesake of one of Bordentown's main streets, Farnsworth Avenue. Joseph Borden, for whom the city is named, arrived in 1717, by May 1740 founded a transportation system to carry people and freight between New York City and Philadelphia; this exploited Bordentown's natural location as the point on the Delaware River that provided the shortest overland route to Perth Amboy, from which cargo and people could be ferried to New York City. By 1776, Bordentown was full of patriots. Patience Lovell Wright, America's first female sculptor, was creating wax busts in King George's court in England. However, Bordentown became a rabble-rousing hotbed. In addition to Joseph Borden's son, who became a colonel during the war, patriots Francis Hopkinson, Colonel Kirkbride, Colonel Oakey Hoagland and Thomas Paine resided in the area.
Due to their well-published activity in Bordentown, the British retaliated. Hessians occupied the town in 1776, the British pillaged and razed the town during May and June 1778. Other notable people who have lived in the city include Clara Barton, who in 1852 started the first free public school in New Jersey and founded the American Red Cross. A recreation of her schoolhouse stands at the corner of Burlington streets; the Bordentown School operated from 1894 to 1955. Several years after the banishing of his family from France in 1816, arriving under vigilant disguise as the Count de Survilliers, Joseph Bonaparte, former King of Naples and Spain and brother to Napoleon I of France, established his residence in Bordentown, he lived there for 17 years, entertaining guests of great fame such as Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and the future 6th U. S. President, John Quincy Adams; the residents of Bordentown nicknamed the Count, "The Good Mr. Bonaparte", he built a lake near the mouth of Crosswicks Creek, about 200 yards wide and half a mile long.
On the bluff above it he built a new home, "Point Breeze". The current Divine Word Mission occupies its former site along Park Street. Today only vestiges of the Bonaparte estate remain. Much of it is the remains of a building remodeled in English Georgian Revival style in 1924 for Harris Hammon, who purchased the estate at Point Breeze as built in 1850 by Henry Becket, a British consul in Philadelphia. In addition to the rubble of this mansion and some hedges of its elaborate gardens, only the original tunnel to the river and the house of Bonaparte's secretary remain. Many descendants of Joachim Murat, King of Naples were born or lived in Bordentown, having followed their uncle Joseph there. After the Bonaparte dynasty was restored by Napoleon III, they moved back to France and were recognized as princes. In August 1831, master mechanic Isaac Dripps of Bordentown re-assembled the locomotive John Bull in just 10 days, it was built by Robert Stephenson and Company, in England, was imported into Philadelphia by the Camden and Amboy Railroad.
The next year it started limited service, the year after that regular service, to become one of the first successful locomotives in the United States. The John Bull is preserved at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. In 1866, Susan Waters moved into; this was a base from which she taught and produced over 50 of her works, many of which are painting of animals in natural settings and pastoral scenes. She was an early photographer. In 1876 she was asked to exhibit several of her works at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. In 1881, Rev. William Bowen purchased the old Spring Villa Female Seminary building and reopened it as the Bordentown Military Institute. In 1886, African-American Rev. Walter A. Rice established a private school for African-American children, the Manual Training and Industrial School for Colored Youth, in a two-story house at 60 West Street, which moved to Walnut Street on the banks of the Delaware, became a public school in 1894 under Jim Crow laws; the school, known as the Bordentown School, came to have a 400-acre, 30-building campus with two farms, a vocational/ technical orientation, a college preparatory program.
In 1909, the religious order Poor C
James Grant (British Army officer, born 1720)
James Grant, Laird of Ballindalloch was a British Army officer who served as a major general during the American War of Independence. He served as Governor of East Florida from 1763 to 1771, between 1773 and 1802 he had seats in the House of Commons. Grant was born on the family estate of Ballindalloch in Banffshire in the Northeast of Scotland, he began his military career by purchasing a commission as captain in the Royal Scots on 24 October 1744. The regiment was shipped to the Continent and Grant fought with them in the Battle of Fontenoy. By 1757, Grant was a major of the 77th Regiment of Foot, fighting in the French and Indian War. In 1758, he led part of the regiment in an expedition led by General John Forbes. On this expedition, he became acquainted with others who would play larger parts in the American Revolutionary War: George Washington, Francis Marion, Hugh Mercer, among others, he gained a contempt for the colonial or militia troops that would colour his views. In September, Grant was assigned to lead an advance part of around 800 men to determine the French strength at Fort Duquesne.
The force was made up of militia, but he took along a number of officers from the regulars, since he had little respect for the colonial troops. He decided to split his force hoping to encourage a French attack that he could surprise and overwhelm. Having no wilderness experience, he was ambushed himself by Indians and French on 14 September 1758. At this engagement, the Battle of Fort Duquesne, the British force was repelled with 342 men killed, wounded or captured; the prisoners consisted of 18 of his men. He was paroled soon after, tried to blame his defeat on the failure of the colonial militia to follow orders. In 1761, he commanded an expedition against the Cherokee during the Anglo-Cherokee War. After being stationed at Fort Ticonderoga, his regiment was moved to the Caribbean Theatre of the Seven Years' War, they fought at the Siege of Havana, held by Spanish forces, which ended in the surrender of the city. When the war was over, the regiment was disbanded in America in 1763. With the Treaty of Paris, Britain gained control of Florida from the Spanish.
They divided it into two colonies, James Grant was named governor of East Florida in 1764. He resided in the Governor's House, he ended Indian raids with the Treaty of Fort Picolata in attempts at maintaining peaceful relations between American Indian groups and Florida colonists and to entice future immigrants to his colony. During the Anglo-Cherokee War of 1759-1761, Grant had become familiar with systems of gift exchange and reciprocity used by Southeast Indian groups, which he sought to implement in Florida. Grant established the Florida-Georgia border. Grant's ventures were profitable, but most attempts failed to produce results, he encouraged new agriculture, setting up trade in cotton, indigo and cochineal. He gained and developed several plantations as grants. In 1771, illness forced him to return to England. Patrick Tonyn replaced him as governor. Grant appointed Dr. David Yeats, the Secretary of the Colony, to manage his plantations in his absence. Yeats' letters to Grant concerning the properties have long interested Florida colonial historians.
Back home in Scotland, Grant was elected to Parliament in 1773 as an MP for Tain Burghs. In the period leading up to the American Revolutionary War, he became one of the most outspoken of the anti-American members. In a speech early in 1775, he remarked that the colonists "...could not fight...", declared that he could "go from one end of America to other and geld all the males." By the summer of 1775, he was returned to active service, Colonel Grant was ordered to America. He arrived in Boston on 30 July. In the aftermath of the Battle of Bunker Hill, he urged General Gage to move the troops to New York City, to have room to manoeuvre, his advice was ignored at the time, he remained as a supernumerary until December, when he was made colonel and commander of the 55th Regiment of Foot. He would hold that command until 1791, his prediction that Boston was an untenable position was proved correct the following spring, and, on 17 March 1776, he accompanied the general withdrawal to Halifax, Nova Scotia.
By the summer of 1776, General William Howe had replaced Gage as commander, took Grant's advice about New York. Grant was given the provisional rank of major-general, played several key parts in Howe's movements. For the Americans, Howe refused advice from Grant, who proposed burning Boston, New York, Philadelphia; as the New York Campaign sought to give the British control of New York City, Grant had become Howe's primary planning officer. He developed two plans, each of, designed to both gain control of territory and to deal a serious or fatal blow to the American army; these resulted in the Battle of Brooklyn, Battle of White Plains. Both of these were British victories, as was the overall campaign, but General Washington avoided the death blow each time. In the Battle of Long Island on 26 and 27 August, Major General Grant led the division that landed on the left wing, he was to engage the American right and divert attention from Howe's flanking manoeuvre with the main body. An advance unit of his troops engaged the Americans at the Red Lion Inn, the first engagement of the battle.
Grant completed his mission, defeated the American General William Alexander's division. After the event, Grant was unfairly criticised by some for allowing the escape of most of this force, it is true that he had 7,000 men in ten regiments opposing Alexander's 1,600 Continentals, but there are two factors that miti
Battle of Long Island
The Battle of Long Island is known as the Battle of Brooklyn and the Battle of Brooklyn Heights. The victory over the Americans gave the British control of strategically important New York City, it was fought on August 27, 1776, was the first major battle of the American Revolutionary War to take place after the United States declared its independence on July 4, 1776. In troop deployment and combat, it was the largest battle of the entire war. After defeating the British in the Siege of Boston on March 17, 1776, commander-in-chief General George Washington brought the Continental Army to defend the port city of New York, located at the southern end of Manhattan Island. Washington understood that the city's harbor would provide an excellent base for the Royal Navy, so he established defenses there and waited for the British to attack. In July, the British under the command of General William Howe landed a few miles across the harbor from Manhattan on the sparsely-populated Staten Island, where they were reinforced by ships in Lower New York Bay during the next month and a half, bringing their total force to 32,000 troops.
Washington knew the difficulty in holding the city with the British fleet in control of the entrance to the harbor at the Narrows, he moved the bulk of his forces to Manhattan, believing that it would be the first target. On August 22, the British landed on the shores of Gravesend Bay in southwest Kings County, across the Narrows from Staten Island and more than a dozen miles south from the established East River crossings to Manhattan. After five days of waiting, the British attacked U. S. defenses on the Guan Heights. Unknown to the Americans, Howe had brought his main army around their rear and attacked their flank soon after; the Americans panicked, resulting in twenty percent losses through casualties and capture, although a stand by 400 Maryland and Delaware troops prevented a more substantial portion of the army from being lost. The remainder of the army retreated to the main defenses on Brooklyn Heights; the British dug in for a siege but, on the night of August 29–30, Washington evacuated the entire army to Manhattan without the loss of supplies or a single life.
Washington and the Continental Army were driven out of New York after several more defeats and forced to retreat through New Jersey and into Pennsylvania. In the first stage of the war, the British Army was trapped in the peninsular city of Boston and they abandoned it on March 17, sailing to Halifax, Nova Scotia to await reinforcements. Washington began to transfer regiments to New York City which he believed the British would next attack because of its strategic importance. Washington left Boston on April 4, arrived at New York on April 13, established headquarters at the former home of Archibald Kennedy on Broadway facing Bowling Green. Washington had sent his second in command Charles Lee ahead to New York the previous February to establish the city's defenses. Lee remained in New York City until March. Troops were in limited supply, so Washington found the defenses incomplete, but Lee had concluded that it would be impossible to hold the city with the British commanding the sea, he reasoned that the defenses should be located with the ability to inflict heavy casualties upon the British if any move was made to take and hold ground.
Barricades and redoubts were established in and around the city, the bastion of Fort Stirling across the East River in Brooklyn Heights, facing the city. Lee saw that the immediate area was cleared of Loyalists. Washington began moving troops to Brooklyn in early May, there were several thousand of them there in a short time. Three more forts were under construction on the eastern side of the East River to support Fort Stirling, which stood to the west of the hamlet of Brooklyn Heights; these new fortifications were Fort Putnam, Fort Greene, Fort Box. They lay from north to south, with Fort Putnam farthest to the north, Greene to the southwest, Box farther southwest; each of these defensive structures was surrounded by a large ditch, all connected by a line of entrenchments and a total of 36 cannons. Fort Defiance was being constructed at this time, located farther southwest, past Fort Box, near present-day Red Hook. In addition to these new forts, a mounted battery was established on Governors Island, cannons were placed at Fort George facing Bowling Green, more cannons placed at the Whitehall Dock, which sat on the East River.
Hulks were sunk at strategic locations to deter the British from entering the East River and other waterways. Washington had been authorized by Congress to recruit an army of up to 28,501 troops, but he had only 19,000 when he reached New York. Military discipline was inadequate. Petty internal conflict was common under the strain of a large number of people from different environments and temperaments in relative closeness. Commander of the artillery Henry Knox persuaded Washington to transfer 400 to 500 soldiers, who lacked muskets or guns, to crew the artillery. In early June and Greene inspected the land at the north end of Manhattan and decided to establish Fort Washington. Fort Constitution renamed Fort Lee, was planned opposite Fort Washington on the Hudson River; the forts were hoped to discourage the British ships from sailing up the Hudson River. On June 28, Washington learned that the British fleet had set sail from Halifax on June 9 and were heading toward New York. On June 29, signals were sent from men stationed on
Battle of Harlem Heights
The Battle of Harlem Heights was fought during the New York and New Jersey campaign of the American Revolutionary War. The action took place in what is now the Morningside Heights and east into the future Harlem neighborhoods of northwestern Manhattan Island in what is now New York City on September 16, 1776; the Continental Army, under Commander-in-chief General George Washington, Major General Nathanael Greene, Major General Israel Putnam, totaling around 9,000 men, held a series of high ground positions in upper Manhattan. Opposite was the vanguard of the British Army totaling around 5,000 men under the command of Major General Henry Clinton. An early morning skirmish between a patrol of Knowlton's Rangers and British light infantry piquets developed into a running fight as the British pursued the Americans back through woods towards Washington's position on Harlem Heights; the overconfident British light troops, having advanced too far from their lines without support, had exposed themselves to counter-attack.
Washington, seeing this, ordered a flanking maneuver which failed to cut off the British force but in the face of this attack and pressure from troops arriving from the Harlem Heights position, the outnumbered British retreated. Meeting reinforcements coming from the south and with the added support of a pair of field pieces, the British light infantry turned and made a stand in open fields on Morningside Heights; the Americans reinforced, came on in strength and there followed a lengthy exchange of fire. After two hours, with ammunition running short, the British force began to pull back to their lines. Washington cut short the pursuit, unwilling to risk a general engagement with the British main force, withdrew to his own lines; the battle helped restore the confidence of the Continental Army after suffering several defeats. It was Washington's first battlefield success of the war. After a month without any major fighting between the armies, Washington was forced to withdraw his army north to the town of White Plains in southeastern New York when the British moved north into Westchester County and threatened to trap Washington further south on Manhattan.
After two defeats Washington retreated west across the Hudson River. On August 27, 1776, British troops under the command of General William Howe flanked and defeated the American army at the Battle of Long Island. Howe moved his forces and pinned the Americans down at Brooklyn Heights, with the East River to the American rear. On the night of August 29, General George Washington, Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, evacuated his entire army of 9,000 men and their equipment across the water to Manhattan. On September 15, Howe landed his army in an amphibious operation at Kip's Bay, on the eastern shore of Manhattan, along the East River. After a bombardment of the American positions on the shore, 4,000 British and Hessian troops landed, they fought the Battle of Kip's Bay; the American troops began to flee at the sight of the enemy, after Washington arrived on the scene and took immediate command, demanding that his soldiers fight, they refused to obey orders and continued to flee. After scattering the Americans at Kip's Bay, Howe landed 9,000 more troops, but did not cut off the American retreat from New York Town in the south of the island.
Washington had all of his troops in the city on their way to north along the westside of Manhattan to Harlem Heights by 4:00 pm and they all reached the fortifications on the Heights by nightfall. Early on September 16, Washington received reports, which proved to be unfounded, that the British were advancing. Washington, expecting an attack, had ordered a party of 150 men under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Knowlton to reconnoiter the British lines. At daybreak, Knowlton's troops were spotted by British pickets from Brigadier Alexander Leslie's Light Infantry brigade. Two or three companies of the 2nd Light Infantry Battalion advanced to attack the enemy to their front. For more than half an hour the skirmish continued, in the woods spanning two farm properties, Jones' and Hoaglandt's; when Knowlton realized that the numerically superior British forces were about to turn his flank, he ordered a retreat, conducted "without confusion or loss", although ten men had been lost in the initial skirmish.
The British followed in rapid pursuit. Knowlton's party emerged into the open on the edge of the woods overlooking a wide re-entrant known as the Hollow Way, which marked the forward edge of Washington's position; the rangers crossed into the American lines while the pursuing light infantry, on reaching the tree line, paused to reorganize. The sound of their bugle calls, whether calling the skirmishers to regroup or calling for reinforcements, to Colonel Joseph Reed, Washington's Adjutant General, were reminiscent of a fox hunt, seemed to him to be intended as an insult. About this time, elements of the 2nd and 3rd Light Infantry Battalions, along with the 42nd Highlanders were ordered up as reinforcements. Reed, who had gone forward to confer with Knowlton, rode back to brief Washington and encouraged him to reinforce the rangers. Washington, seeing an opportunity to revive the spirits of his men, devised a plan to entrap the unwary enemy patrol, he ordered troops forward to make a diversionary attack, in order to draw the British down into the Hollow Way, while another detachment moved around the British right flank to cut them off.
The diversionary party, composed of 150 volunteers, ran into the Hollow Way and began to engage the British, who responded by advancing down into the valley to occupy a wooded fenceline and returned fire. The volunteers were reinforced by a further 900 men and a prolonged exchange of fire ensued, although the two sides were too far apart to d
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor 0.35 miles from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island comprises four counties in the U. S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More than half of New York City's residents now live in Brooklyn and Queens. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area colloquially use the term Long Island to refer to Nassau and Suffolk Counties, which are suburban in character, conversely employing the term the City to mean Manhattan alone. Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is Long Island Sound, across which lie Westchester County, New York, the state of Connecticut. Across the Block Island Sound to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island. To the west, Long Island is separated from the island of Manhattan by the East River.
To the extreme southwest, it is separated from Staten Island and the state of New Jersey by Upper New York Bay, the Narrows, Lower New York Bay. To the east lie Block Island—which belongs to the State of Rhode Island—and numerous smaller islands. Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, with a maximum north-to-south distance of 23 miles between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles, Long Island is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the 1,214 square miles of the smallest U. S. state, Rhode Island. With a Census-estimated population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island is the most populated island in any U. S. state or territory, the 18th-most populous island in the world. Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile.
If Long Island geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States. S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse, featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties; as a hub of commercial aviation, Long Island contains two of the New York City metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport. Nine bridges and 13 tunnels connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut; the Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7. Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards.
Biotechnology companies and scientific research play a significant role in Long Island's economy, including research facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, the City University of New York, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine. Prior to European contact, the Lenape people inhabited the western end of Long Island, spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524; the eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of Algonquian languages. In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor and purportedly landed at Coney Island. Adriaen Block followed in 1615, is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands.
Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as Sewanhaka. Sewan was one of the terms for wampum, is translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island; the name "'t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. The English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, it is unclear. Another indigenous name from colonial time, comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means "the island that pays tribute." The first settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island. T