click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Carleton Watkins

Carleton E. Watkins was an American photographer of the 19th century. Born in New York, he moved to California and became interested in photography, he focused on landscape photography, Yosemite Valley was a favorite subject of his. His photographs of the valley influenced the United States Congress’ decision to preserve it as a National Park. Carleton E. Watkins was born on the eldest of eight children, his parents were a carpenter and an innkeeper. Born in Oneonta, New York, he was a hunter and fisherman and was involved in the glee club and Presbyterian Church Choir, his true middle name is the subject of debate: some sources give it as Eugene while others give it as Emmons. In 1851, Watkins and his childhood friend Collis Huntington moved to San Francisco with hopes of finding gold. Although they did not succeed in this specific venture, both became successful. Watkins became known for his photography skills, Huntington became one of the “Big Four” owners of the Central Pacific Railroad; this would be helpful for Watkins.

During the first two years in San Francisco, Watkins did not work in photography. He worked for his friend Huntington, delivering supplies to mining operations, he did this before working as a store clerk at a George Murray's Bookstore, near the studio of Robert H. Vance, a well-known Daguerreotypist. An employee of Vance's unexpectedly left his job, Watkins’ agreeable personality led to his looking after the studio. Before his work with Vance, Watkins knew nothing about photography. Vance showed him the basic elements of photography, planning to return and retake the portraits himself. However, when he came back, he found that Watkins had excelled at the art while he was away and his customers were satisfied. By 1858, Watkins was ready to begin his own photography business, he did many commissions, including “Illustrated California Magazine” for James Mason Hutchings and the documentation of John and Jessie Fremont's mining estate in Mariposa. He made Daguerreotype stereoviews at the “Almaden Quicksilver Mines.”

These were used in a publicized court case, which furthered his reputation as a photographer. In July 1861, Watkins made the decision that changed his career: he traveled to Yosemite, he brought his stereoscopic camera. The stereoscopic camera was used to give the subject depth, the mammoth-plate camera was used to capture more detail; the photographer returned with one hundred stereoview negatives. These were some of the first photographs of Yosemite seen in the East. In 1864, Watkins was hired to make photographs of Yosemite for the California State Geological Survey. In 1867, Watkins opened his first public gallery, in addition to sending his photographs to the Universal Exposition in Paris, where he won a medal; this became his lavish Yosemite Art Gallery. He displayed over a hundred large Pacific Coast views in addition over a thousand images available through stereoscopes. Despite his success as an artist, he was not successful as a businessman and ended up losing his gallery to his creditor J.

J. Cook. Not only did Watkins lose his studio to Cook, but he lost its contents; when Cook and photographer Isaiah Taber took over Yosemite Art Gallery, they began reproducing his work without giving him credit. The 19th century had no copyright laws covering photographs, there was nothing Watkins could do to combat this plagiarism. Subsequently, he began recreating the images he lost, calling it the “New Series.” Watkins met Frances Sneed photographing in Nevada. They became romantically involved in 1878 and were married a year on Watkins’ fiftieth birthday; the couple had two children: a daughter Julia in 1881, a son Collis in 1883. Watkins began to lose his sight in the 1890s, his last commission was from Phoebe Hearst to photograph her Hacienda del Pozo de Verona. Watkins was unable to complete this job because of health. In 1895–96, his lack of work led to an inability to pay rent; the Watkins family lived in an abandoned railroad car for eighteen months. Watkins kept the majority of his work in a studio on Market Street.

This studio was destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire, with countless pictures and the majority of his stereo views. After this horrific loss, he retired to Capay Ranch. Three years after Watkins retired to Capay Ranch, he was declared incompetent and put into the care of his daughter Julia, she cared for him for a year before committing him to the Napa State Hospital for the Insane in 1910, at which point Frances Watkins began referring to herself as a widow. Watkins was buried in an unmarked grave on the hospital grounds. Watkins photographed Yosemite and had a profound influence over the politicians debating its preservation as a national park, his photographs did more than just capture the national park. Half Dome, for example, did exist, but Watkins’ photographs brought it to people in a way that they could experience it, it became. His images had a more concrete impact on Yosemite becoming a national park than just encouraging people to visit, it is said. His photography was said to have influenced President Abraham Lincoln and was one of the major factors in Lincoln signing the Yosemite Grant in 1864, a bill that declared Yosemite Valley inviolable.

The bill paved the way for the 1872 creation of Yellowstone National Park, and

Gnana Oli

Gnana Oli is a 1972 Tamil language drama film, directed by P. Madhavan, written by Vietnam Veedu Sundaram, starring Sivaji Ganesan in the lead role, it is a loose adaptation of Victor Hugo's Les Miserables. This film was remade in Hindi in Telugu as Chakravarthy. Anthony an orphan, warm-hearted, yet physically effervescent is a wooden casket maker by profession, he is a regular church bell ringer raised by the guidance of the kind church Father. He marries; the day his lady goes into labour, he agrees to fabricate a wooden coffin for a dying person for his plausible money needs. Whilst fabricating he is notified that, that person who seemed dying miraculously survived, leaving his half-done coffin to no use, much to his irritation. However, the Father arrives and informs Anthony that a daughter was born, but clarifies his half-done coffin was not a waste since his wife did not survive the labour. Shadowed with sadness, he raises his daughter, baptised by the father of the church. Life moves on. Years his teen-aged daughter, sent abroad for pursuing her education, comes home on holiday.

The eldest Father blesses both Marie and Anthony and expresses his desire for Marie to reach the pinnacle of her career and must be capable of building trust organisations, education systems and hospitals for the well-being of the needy. Anthony desires that his daughter fulfill father's wishes that he refuses to get her married to someone in near future. Lawrence, a police officer, Anthony's long-lost childhood friend are introduced to Anthony by the elder Father. A mutual and solid friendship bonds between the two. Curious about his friends' daughters' intelligence traits, Lawrence expresses his interest to meet Marie, which Anthony accedes to. Lawrence and Anthony arrive at Anthony's home and both get shocked seeing Anthony's daughter in a prurient position with an unknown male, infuriating Anthony as he always considered her his divine gift from God, lunges to kill her and her lover. Lawrence confronts Anthony's rage and stops him and gets his daughter to exchange rings as an informal marriage to her male lover in the place they were caught and makes Anthony swear not to make any worse of the situation in the name of the Lord.

Anthony, controlled by Lawrence's deed, informs this quagmire to the Father at the church the next day. The Father, seeking to correct things, makes Anthony arrange formally the marriage between the two. Anthony seeks the male friend. Tracing the boy as a different religion, Anthony meets a Hindu doctor who the boy claimed to be his father, but is devastated to found out he was a profuse liar. However, finding him, Anthony persuades him and pleads him to marry his daughter, but knowing his real playboy attitude, his atrocity in refusing to marry Marie anguishes Anthony, who forcibly brings the boy to the church in order to do his wedding with his daughter. But things go horribly, he had accidentally killed the boy in the scuffle though he didn't wish to. Lawrence arrives and arrests Anthony in front of the Father, who had no chances of helping his beloved son. Lawrence had to value his police job overseeing his friend's agony and loyalty to the eldest Father and the church and yet having him arrested.

Anthony is sentenced. A few days Anthony, behind bars, learns that his daughter disappeared, much to his pain. At the church, the aged Father tells Lawrence his last wish to see Anthony and requests his temporary bail, since he had become too old to visit prisons. Abiding by the Father's request, Lawrence agrees to take care of Anthony after his sentence, but until which he will sincerely adhere to his police duty. Attributing his short temper and roguish nature whenever he gets anguished was that which lead him to being guilty despite being innocent by heart, the father gives Anthony a holy candlestick and makes Anthony promise him such that he should become a person of grown wisdom and requests him to act with purity. Having lost all the loved ones, except Lawrence, who had to serve justice, makes Anthony grieve; until Anthony serves his sentence, Lawrence would only despise him. Remembering the Father's desire to build a good community of hospitals and educational institutions for the needy, knowing it was not possible without his daughter, he decides to do so himself, while both condole the eldest father's loss.

After 2 decades, Anthony returns a mature and disciplined as Mr. Arun, a millionaire, changed not to escape Lawrence or the law for the murder he had accidentally committed, but for the solemn promise he made to the late Father that raised him for serving the needs of poor that he himself wanted Marie to do as Anthony. Once he finishes serving the good deeds as per his father's wish, he would turn himself to the law for his crime, he had fulfilled all promises to his church Father of serving mankind. He comes back to the church where he rang the bell during his initial days and meets other children in the orphanage he founded and is on the verge of turning himself in to the law for his crime, he gets shocked to see his own daughter Marie as a teacher in that same church, who he had assumed expired. Before he could confess to Marie that he was none other than her own father, he comes to notice Lawrence was still around; as a guardian of Marie and her family, Lawrence was always around them fulfilling his promise of supporting his friend Anthony's family should he be absent.

Anthony's escape led the police department to suspect Lawrence since they were once best friends, hence his promotion was denied. However, he stuck around Marie hopi

2011 U.S. Men's Clay Court Championships

The 2011 U. S. Men's Clay Court Championships was a tennis tournament played on outdoor clay courts, it was the 43rd edition of the U. S. Men's Clay Court Championships, was an ATP World Tour 250 event, it took place at River Oaks Country Club in Houston, United States, from April 4 through April 10, 2011. Ryan Sweeting defeated 6 -- 4, 7 -- 6 It was Sweeting's 1st career title. Bob Bryan / Mike Bryan defeated John Isner / Sam Querrey, 6–7, 6–2, Rankings and seedings are as of March 21, 2011; the following players received wildcards into the main draw: James Blake Ryan Harrison Ryan SweetingThe following players received entry via qualifying: Franko Škugor Ivo Karlović Tim Smyczek Paul Capdeville Kevin Anderson Juan Ignacio Chela Lleyton Hewitt Denis Istomin Official website

Kyle Forester

Kyle Forester is a multi-instrumentalist and singer-songwriter best known as a member of the band Crystal Stilts. Forester joined The Ladybug Transistor in 2006, participating in the recording of the Here Comes the Rain EP, he joined Crystal Stilts that same year, first appearing on record on the single "Love is a Wave". In 2009, Forester recorded the soundtrack for the film Breaking Upwards. In April 2016, Forester was asked by Jarvis Taveniere to join the DIY pioneers Woods as a multi-instrumentalist focusing on Rhodes and percussion, he has chosen to miss important gigs to focus on his solo career. On May 20, 2016, Forester released Kyle Forester on Flying Moonlight Records; as Solo Artist Breaking Upwards Kyle Forester With The Ladybug Transistor Here Comes the Rain Can't Wait Another Day Clutching Stems With Crystal Stilts "Love Is a Wave" b/w "Sugarbaby" 7" "Shake the Shackles" 7" In Love with Oblivion Radiant Door EP "Precarious Stair" b/w "Temptation Inside Of Your Heart" "Through the Floor" 7" Nature Noir With People 3xaWoman

Sambal

Sambal is an Indonesian chili sauce or paste made from a mixture of a variety of chili peppers with secondary ingredients such as shrimp paste, ginger, scallion, palm sugar, lime juice. Sambal is an Indonesian loan-word of Javanese origin, it is native to the cuisines of Indonesia, popular in Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Singapore. It has spread through overseas Indonesian populations to the Netherlands and Suriname. Various recipes of sambals are served as hot and spicy condiments for dishes, such as lalab, ikan bakar, ikan goreng, ayam goreng, ayam penyet, iga penyet and various soto soup. There are 212 variants of sambal in Indonesia, with most of them originated from Java. Sambal is described as Indonesian relish, it was indeed developed within the Indonesian archipelago. However, its main ingredient, chili pepper of the genus Capsicum, is not native to Southeast Asia. Common variants used in sambal recipes include green chili pepper; these variants are native to the Western Hemisphere and were introduced to the Indonesian archipelago in the 16th century by Portuguese and Spanish sailors during the Columbian exchange.

Curiously, people of the Indonesian archipelago were familiar with a type of hot and spicy relish prior to the 16th century. A hot spice called "cabya" had become a valuable commodity in the Javanese market as early as the ancient Mataram Kingdom era circa 10th century; the 14th century Majapahit Javanese Nagarakretagama manuscript mentions lombok mirah island, identified as Lombok island, the area that produced a spice called red lombok. In today's modern Javanese, the term lombok refers to'chili pepper', yet the term originally referred to a native hot spice prior to the introduction of capsicum; the Indonesian languages terms for'chili pepper' are cabai or cabe, yet the word'cabya' is mentioned in several ancient inscriptions and texts found in Java from the 10th century CE. Cabya is a reference to the Javanese long pepper or Balinese long pepper. Historian suggest that prior of the introduction of Capsicum from the Americas in the 16th century, it was cabya that used and cultivated as a hot spice in Java.

Cabya is still used in Java, but the overwhelming popularity of the capsicum plants pushed out cabya consumption until it was only used in traditional herbal medication and in making jamu. Nowadays, the plant is considered rare. Other historian suggests that it was ginger, used as a hot spice agent in the ancient form of sambal. Ginger and andaliman are among the earliest hot spices used in early sambal-like hot relish, followed by the introduction of pepper circa 12th century from India, the introduction of chili pepper from the Americas in the 16th century; the Javanese manuscript Serat Centhini records 16 sambal variants in Java. The recipe book Mustika Rasa and composed by Hartini Sukarno, presented 63 recipes of sambals. In 2017, Murdijati Gardjito, a food researcher from Gadjah Mada University, has identified hundreds variants of sambals in Indonesia. Java has the most of variants with 43 percent of sambal variants, Sumatra has 20 percent and West Nusa Tenggara has 8 percent, the rest are distributed between Maluku and Sulawesi.

Sambal as a hot and spicy relish, is most originated from Java, as etymology study suggests that the term is a loanword derived from Javanese sambel. Just like many culinary introduction and adaptation in the archipelago, over the years this hot and spicy relish branched off in an assorted array of sambal varieties, localised according to local taste and the availability of the ingredients. Today sambal is a staple of Southeast Asian households, essential in cuisines of Indonesia and Singapore. Traditional sambals are freshly made using traditional tools, such as mortar. Sambal can be cooked. There are two main categories of sambals in Indonesia, they are sambal mentah. Cooked sambal has undergone cooking process which resulted in a distinct flavour and aroma, while raw sambal are mixed with additional ingredients and consumed immediately. Sambal masak or cooked sambals are more prevalent in western Indonesia, while sambal mentah or raw sambals are more common in eastern Indonesia; the chili pepper, garlic and tomato are freshly ground using a mortar, while the terasi or belacan is fried or burned first to kill its pungent smell as well as to release its aroma.

Sambal might be prepared in bulk, as it can be stored in a well-sealed glass jar in the refrigerator for a week to be served with meals as a condiment. However, some households and restaurants insist on making freshly prepared sambal just a few moments prior to consuming to ensure its freshness and flavour. In most warung and restaurants, most sambal is prepared daily in bulk and offered as a hot and spicy condiment. Today some brands of prepared, instant, or ready-to-use sambal are available in warung, traditional markets and convenience stores. Most are bottled sambal, with a few brands available in aluminium sachet packaging. Compared to traditional sambals, bottled instant sambals have a finer texture, more homogenous content, thicker consistency, like tomato ketchup, due to the machine-driven manufacturing process. Traditionally made sambals g

Yes (Coldplay song)

"Yes" is the sixth track from Viva la Vida or Death and All His Friends, the fourth studio album by British rock band Coldplay. The track consists of two songs: the eponymous "Yes" and the hidden "Chinese Sleep Chant". Both compositions were written by all band members; the title song its tuning, was inspired by The Velvet Underground. Its main characteristic are the low vocals by Chris Martin. "Yes" features strings arranged and played on an electric violin by musician Davide Rossi, a frequent collaborator of the band. In an article for Rolling Stone anticipating the album, Evan Serpick writes: "Martin’s vocals take center stage like never before: sounding more aggressive and strong than they sit on top of an irresistible North African string-and-tablas arrangement and ache more convincingly than all the lilting falsetto in the world", describing the piece as Coldplay's freshest song since their debut album. Lyrically the song is about love, sensuality and loneliness. Chris Martin himself called "Yes" a "sexy" song, but "written for another character", saying that he's "just pretending to be someone else in there."

The hidden song "Chinese Sleep Chant" was described as "a self-conscious parody of shoegaze" with My Bloody Valentine influences. Critics noted the "wall of sound processed guitar-swirl and falsetto vocals through reverb." Describing the composition, Serpick from Rolling Stone says: "Opening with a jagged guitar riff, the song settles into a propulsive dance-track loop with low-mixed, angelic vocals." Will Champion commented the experimantation on Martin's voice, "drenched in vocal effects and backwards and all kinds of weird and kind of wonderful vocal treatments" to make it sound unique. In an interview Martin defined the song as Brian Eno's favourite, as well as Guy Berryman's favourite and Champion's least favourite from the album."Yes" is not the only example of double song on Viva la Vida or Death and All His Friends. The band discussed the reason for including two songs on the same track, explaning that they hoped to add more value to the whole recording, in response to the decline of music sales.

They expressed the desire to keep the album concise with a total of ten tracks. ColdplayChris Martin – lead vocals, acoustic guitar, piano Jonny Buckland – lead electric guitar Guy Berrymanbass guitar, backing vocals on "Chinese Sleep Chant" Will Champion – backing vocals, percussionTechnical personnelMarkus Dravs – production Brian Eno – production, keyboards Davide Rossi - electric violin Rik Simpson – production Lyrics of "Yes"