The Glebe is a neighbourhood in Ottawa, Canada. It is located just south of Ottawa's downtown area in the Capital Ward with its northern border being demarcated by Highway 417, the Queensway, it is bounded by the Rideau Canal to the south and east. Many maps show the western edge as Bronson Avenue, but some include the triangle farther west formed by Bronson, Carling Avenue, Dow's Lake; the Glebe Community Association uses the latter definition. As of 2011, the area's population was 11,184; the Glebe has a strong community association which, in addition to running a large community centre, lobbies the local government on issues such as traffic calming and neighbourhood development. The Glebe has a community newspaper, Glebe Report, published independently since 1973; the Glebe is populated by families. The Glebe lies in the federal riding of Ottawa Centre, the same provincial electoral district; the stretch of Bank Street that runs through the Glebe is one of Ottawa's premier shopping areas, with many small stores and restaurants offering a wide variety of services.
Much of the rest of the Glebe consists of detached homes, many of them constructed in the early decades of the 20th century. Some of these homes are owner-occupied family residences, while others have been subdivided into multiple rental apartments; the Glebe is home to Lansdowne Park which contains TD Place Stadium, where Ottawa's Canadian Football League football team and the University of Ottawa Gee-Gees play their home games. Lansdowne Park contains TD Place Arena, the permanent home of the Ottawa 67's and was the temporary home for the Ottawa Senators before the Canadian Tire Centre was completed; the area that became the park was purchased from local farmers in 1868 by the City of Ottawa Agricultural Society. From the canal two bodies of water jut into the Glebe: Brown's Inlet; these areas are surrounded by some of the city's most expensive homes. The last Saturday in May of each year brings the "Great Glebe Garage Sale" to the neighbourhood. Sellers are expected to donate a portion of the proceeds to a designated charity.
The area is called the Glebe because in the initial 1837 survey of Ottawa the area of 178 acres was deeded by the Crown to St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church as Clergy Reserve; the word "glebe" means church lands, the area was known as "the glebe lands of St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church"; when the area was opened for development in 1870, real estate agents began to refer to it as "The Glebe". The initial area was bounded by Carling Avenue and Fifth Avenue on the north and south sides, Main Street and Bronson Avenue as the eastern and western limits; the original city limits on the south side had been set at Gladstone Avenue when the city was incorporated. Annexation in 1889 extended the new limits to the Rideau Canal. By Act of the Provincial Legislature, the Glebe became part of a small but growing city. By the late 1960s, the Glebe was bounded by the Queensway on the north side, by the Rideau Canal on the east and south, with Bronson Avenue as a western boundary; the Glebe was one of Ottawa's first suburbs.
In 1871 James Whyte, one of the leading merchants of the town, built a large residence on the Canal Road on the north side of the waterway at midpoint between what is now Bank Street and Bronson Avenue, which served the Basilian Fathers in the 1960s. In 1872, James Whyte moved into a new home on Bank Street near Holmwood Avenue, which served the community in the 1960s as a residence for older people. In 1882 the creation of Central Park and the construction of the new Canada Atlantic Railway terminal on the west side of the Rideau Canal at the end of the Glebe encouraged the development of the southern section of the city. In June 1891, the first electric street car set off down Bank Street for the Exhibition, which opened at Lansdowne Park in 1888. First Avenue Public School and St. Matthew's Anglican Church a small frame structure, opened their doors about the same time in 1898. Mutchmor Public School on Fifth Avenue was built in the 1890s with additions in 1911 and 1920 as housing density increased and new families moved into the district.
The separate school, Corpus Christi dates from this early era. Roman Catholic families attended Mass for some years to a temporary chapel on the south side of Fourth Avenue near Percy. In 1900, the Ottawa Electric Street Railway was established, with one of its first routes running south along Bank Street; the Drive way, from Elgin Street and Laurier Avenue over the route to the Experimental Farm, was built between 1900 and 1903, providing added impetus to city growth on the south side. Most Glebe houses date from this era, the area became home to many middle-class workers; as housing went up on the avenues, corner stores and other commercial properties began to appear on Bank Street. The electric street car allowed workers to take the street car to work; as part of this building program and Monkland Avenues were laid out and Clemow Avenue was paved west from Bank Street. From 1903-1904, a large low-lying area between Second and Third Avenues was filled in with sand taken from the land along Carling Avenue.
Growth was slower on the blocks west of Bank Street, housing did not extend much beyond Kent Street. Between Powell and Carling Avenues, a transformation took place since an address in this part of the Glebe showed that the owner had property or position, pro
Carlingwood Mall is a mall located in the west end of the city of Ottawa, Canada. It is operated by 20 Vic Management Incorporated; the mall was one of the city's first major shopping centres. The shopping centre contains 120 services on a single enclosed level; the interior hallways are laid out in a rectangle, with secondary branching halls from the six entrances. Offices and services including the management office are located on a small second level in the northwest corner of the building. There are two small underground sections for some discount stores and the Carlingwood YWCA/YMCA; the stores are a mix of small independents, fast food outlets and a restaurant. The largest store is the Loblaws grocery store with an area of 36,451 sq ft at the east end of the mall. At the west end of the mall was a long-time Sears Canada location, now vacant; the mall is situated at the corner of Carling and Woodroffe avenues, about 1 kilometre north of the Highway 417. A 1996 survey found that 21% of shoppers used mass transit to get to the mall, that Carlingwood was an exception in being accepted as an automobile destination.
The weekly traffic averages about 155 000 visitors per week. Simpsons-Sears department store opened in 1955, it was a two-floor department store with 160,400 square feet of retail space. The mall was constructed over the next two years. Carlingwood opened in 1956 and offered 40 stores and was at the time the largest shopping centres in Ottawa. One of the selling points of the mall was its extensive 24 acres of free parking. Besides, one of the early stores to move into the mall was the established shoe store Armstrong & Richardson. Armstrong & Richardson ceased operations in 2018. In 1957, the Carlingwood Branch of the Ottawa Public Library opened in the mall, the first mall library in Canada; the branch moved to a nearby custom-built facility in 1966. In 2002, the management of the mall was criticised by CUPE, a labour union, for locking out cleaning staff who were part of the union in favour of non-union staff who received minimum wage and no benefits; the CUPE boycott of the mall ended with a victory for the union.
Bill Murnighan, a writer for Our Times, used the dispute as an example of the "crossroads" that union organising faced in Canada at the beginning of the millennium. Although the strike was directed at the shopping centre in the interest of gaining more publicity and having more impact, the cleaning staff were not employees of the shopping centre; the cleaning of the shopping centre is contracted out, the cleaning staff were striking against the shopping centre to put pressure on their employer, Allans Maintenance. Until July 2005, the Alex Dayton Seniors Activity Centre, co-founded by Ottawa Mayor Bob Chiarelli, was located near entrance three in the east side of the mall. For the 2007 Ontario election, the space was used as the office for provincial politician Jim Watson's re-election campaign; the mall was renovated in the mid 2000s to add other "comfort" improvements. In an interview with Ottawa Business Journal, former General Manager Denis Pelletier named the renovation as one of the reasons for the mall's successful 2005 Christmas shopping season, along with the mall's new bargain store, the Sears anchor, easy customer access.
This renovation has resulted in a customer-friendly centre. In the four main passages, there are upholstered benches, capable of seating over 180 people. In addition, there are in the three refreshment areas, each with two or more seats. Both sitting and refreshment areas are decorated with planters containing shrubs. On January 8, 2018, Sears closed due to the retailer closing all stores; the mall has applied to demolish the vacant store. The mall was the home of one of the oldest and smallest Zellers stores in Ottawa until the store closed in 1999 and was replaced with a drug store, it formerly contained a Marks & Spencer. Carlingwood's site
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places, paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, bicycle, or horse. Roads consist of one or two roadways, each with one or more lanes and any associated sidewalks and road verges. There is sometimes a bike path. Other names for roads include parkways, freeways, interstates, highways, or primary and tertiary local roads. Many roads were recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance; the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines a road as "a line of communication using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips open to public traffic for the use of road motor vehicles running on their own wheels", which includes "bridges, supporting structures, crossings and toll roads, but not cycle paths". The Eurostat, ITF and UNECE Glossary for Transport Statistics Illustrated defines a road as a "Line of communication open to public traffic for the use of road motor vehicles, using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips.
Included are paved other roads with a stabilized base, e.g. gravel roads. Roads cover streets, tunnels, supporting structures, junctions and interchanges. Toll roads are included. Excluded are dedicated cycle lanes."The 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic defines a road as the entire surface of any way or street open to public traffic. In urban areas roads may diverge through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space easement and route. Modern roads are smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel. In the United Kingdom The Highway Code details rules for "road users", but there is some ambiguity between the terms highway and road. For the purposes of the English law, Highways Act 1980, which covers England and Wales but not Scotland or Northern Ireland, road is "any length of highway or of any other road to which the public has access, includes bridges over which a road passes"; this includes footpaths and cycle tracks, road and driveways on private land and many car parks.
Vehicle Excise Duty, a road use tax, is payable on some vehicles used on the public road. The definition of a road depends on the definition of a highway. A 1984 ruling said. Another legal view is that while a highway included footpaths, driftways, etc. it can now be used to mean those ways that allow the movement of motor-vehicles, the term rights of way can be used to cover the wider usage. In the United States, laws distinguish between public roads, which are open to public use, private roads, which are controlled. Maintenance is becoming an increasing problem in the United States. Between 1997 and 2018, the number of existing roads too bumpy to drive on compared to roads with decent surfaces has increased by 11% due to potholes that are not being properly addressed; the assertion that the first pathways were the trails made by animals has not been universally accepted. Some believe; the Icknield Way may examplify this type of road origination, where human and animal both selected the same natural line.
By about 10,000 BC human travelers used rough roads/pathways. The world's oldest known paved road was constructed in Egypt some time between 2600 and 2200 BC. Stone- paved streets appear in the city of Ur in the Middle East dating back to 4000 BC. Corduroy roads are found dating to 4000 BC in England; the Sweet Track, a timber track causeway in England, is one of the oldest engineered roads discovered and the oldest timber trackway discovered in Northern Europe. Built in winter 3807 BC or spring 3806 BC, it was claimed to be the oldest road in the world until the 2009 discovery of a 6,000-year-old trackway in Plumstead, London. Brick-paved streets appeared in India as early as 3000 BC. c. 1995 BC: an early subdividing of roadways evidenced with sidewalks built in Anatolia. In 500 BC, Darius I the Great started an extensive road system for the Achaemenid Empire, including the Royal Road, one of the finest highways of its time, connecting Sardis to Susa; the road remained in use after Roman times.
These road systems reached as far east as India. In ancient times, transport by river was far easier and faster than transport by road considering the cost of road construction and the difference in carrying capacity between carts and river barges. A hybrid of road transport and ship transport beginning in about 1740 is the horse-drawn boat in which the horse follows a cleared path along the river bank. From about 312 BC, the Roman Empire built straight strong stone Roman roads throughout Europe and North Africa, in support of its military campaigns. At its peak the Roman Empire was connected by 29 major roads moving out from Rome and covering 78,000 kilometers or 52,964 Roman miles of paved roads. In the 8th century AD, many roads were built throughout the Arab Empire; the most sophisticated roads were those in Baghdad, which were paved wit
Commissioners Park (Ottawa)
Commissioners Park is a park in Ottawa, Canada. It lies within the westernmost section of The Glebe, bounded by Dow's Lake, Preston Street, Carling Avenue and Dow's Lake Road. Throughout the warmer months it is a popular place for family walks; the National Capital Commission maintains the park and manages to keep flowers blooming there throughout the growing season. During the annual Tulip Festival, it is a major tulip viewing area with the highest concentration of tulips in the region numbering as many as 300,000, it features a sculpture Man with Two Hats by Henk Visch, commemorating the liberation of Holland by Canadian troops during World War II, identical to the National Canadian Liberation Monument in Apeldoorn, the Netherlands. An explanatory plaque contains the following text: During the Second World War, Canadian soldiers played a crucial role in the liberation of the Netherlands. With the donation of this monument - an expression of joy and a celebration of freedom - the Netherlands pays lasting tribute to Canada.
A statue identical to this one stands in Apeldoorn in the Netherlands. The twin monuments symbolically link the Netherlands, her Royal Highness Princess Margriet of the Netherlands unveiled the monument in Ottawa on May 11, 2002, the other in Apeldoorn on May 2, 2000. Artist: Henk Visch Official website
Britannia is a group of neighbourhoods in Bay Ward in the west end of Ottawa, Canada. It is located on the Ottawa River across from Aylmer, adjacent to its namesake, Britannia Bay, north of Carling Avenue and west of the Sir John A. Macdonald Parkway; the area constituted a municipal ward from 1973 to 1994. The area has a mix of high income housing; the lower income areas of the area are closer to Richmond Road in the south, the more affluent areas are located in the community of Britannia Village in the north, which includes the Britannia Yacht Club at the north end of Britannia Road. The total population of the area was 8,355 as of the 2011 census. Many of Britannia's old cottages live on as bungalows. Surrounded by water and hills; the Ottawa River Pathway is a long segment of Capital Pathway along the south bank of the entire length Ottawa's portion of the Ottawa River. A bike path extends from Britannia some 12 kilometers to the Parliament buildings downtown. Today, there is no neighbourhood in Ottawa more mixed than Britannia forming a contrast with many of the homogenized satellite communities that have become Ottawa.
This land where Britannia stands was once a part of a large estate, owned by Captain John LeBreton in 1818. John LeBreton advertised the sale of real estate in the village area in 1828. LCol Joseph Bouchette referred to Lac Deschênes as Chaudiere Lake in 1832. Around 1876, an apple orchard near the head of the rapids was undermined and washed away during a big flood; the Britannia Methodist Church formed in 1873 and celebrated its 140th anniversary in 2013. The Church grew out of services held in the home of Ira Honeywell, the first settler in Nepean Township. Members had been meeting in homes since 1869. In 1911, the Neogothic Britannia Heights Methodist Church was erected at Richmond. Renamed the Britannia United Church in 1920 after the amalgamation of the United Church of Canada. After her congregation moved to Britannia United on Pinecrest Road in 1961, the building was used to sell Macintosh & Watts china, to sell paintings and as a construction shack until it burned down in 1975, it was once a small mill owned by Mr John Jamieson to the west of Ottawa.
A cottage town and boating club developed around the site of the old mill. The Britannia Yacht Club was established in 1887; the Club house still retains its historic appearance. Members of the club have won Olympic gold medals. Canada's only Gold medal winner from the 1936 Summer Olympics, Frank Amyot, paddled these waters in the 1920s and 1930s; the Club's Dragon Lounge's bar was fashioned out of a dragon sail boat. The Clubhouse was included amongst other architecturally interesting and significant buildings in Doors Open Ottawa, held June 2 and 3, 2012; the Britannia Bay post office was established in 1889, under the community's first postmistress Mrs C Hand. The "G. B. Greene", known as'Queen of the River,' a double-decked side wheeler steamer built by the Upper Ottawa Improvement Company in 1896, took up to 250 passengers up the Ottawa River to Chats Falls on daily pleasure excursions. Although she was dismantled in 1946, her anchor remains at Britannia Beach today. In 1899, the Ottawa Electric Railway Company built a street-car line to Britannia.
In 1899, the Metropolitan Power Company was formed to construct a power house just north of the Britannia Boathouse Club with a 2000-foot canal to extend to the lower end of the Lac Deschênes Rapids. The area became popular at the turn of the century because the Ottawa Gas and Electric company extended the trolley line and created an amusement park at Britannia beach to encourage users of the trolley system to use the system on weekends. A cottage and beach community resulted; the first trip of the Ottawa Electric Railway Car 202 Britannia-on-the-Bay on the Britannia Line was 13 January 1900. The electric line to the village on Britannia Bay was open for regular traffic in the spring 1900. By 1904, the trolley company had built a wide pier 1,000 feet long out into the river. Along the east side, there were cottages, the Boat club house. Along the south side, the land between the road and the lake has been turned into a park, with pavilions and bath houses; the beach was ideal for bathing, since people could wade out to the end of the pier without danger.
The village, with its two churches and neat cottages, was one of Ottawa's most fashionable suburbs in 1904. Justice Mosgrove had a 35-acre grape farm, not far from Britannia Park, on the river. Albert Bedingfield's stencil designs, now in the Library and Archives Canada collection, were published by Britannia-Bay, Ont. During World War I, men were encouraged to join the 207th CEF at the Britannia Pier. During World War II, the Princess Alice Barracks Cabin at Britannia Bay provided a summer home for Royal Canadian Air Force personnel near the Britannia Boating Club's facilities for tennis and boating. Rented from the King's Daughter's Guild of Ottawa, the cabin featured 60 beds, a separate cookhouse and dining pavilion; the cabin had served the King's Daughter's Guild of Ottawa since 1913 as a Fresh Air Cottage for mothers and undernourished children. After the war, the Fresh Air Cottages were rented to families as year round apartments. During a kitchen fire at the Fresh Air Cottage on Dec 11, 1952, Roger Murphy, aged 2 died and 26 residents were left temporarily homeless.
The Fresh Air Cottage on Cassels Street, was expropriated and demolished, is now part of the conservation area around Mud Lake. Rapid growth in all directions during the 20th century meant that it was soon surrounded by the w
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Fairlawn Plaza is a strip mall on Carling Avenue in Ottawa-West, Canada. The mall opened in 1961 when the plaza's original tenants were Steinberg's grocery store and J. Pascal Hardware. Miracle Mart was one of the early tenants. Canadian Tire was a tenant for many years until it closed in March 2008 and moved to a bigger location down the street; the Royal Bank of Canada had a branch at the plaza. Fairlawn Diner, a dry cleaners, a beauty salon and barbers shop which all closed during renovations in 2009-10. Business had been affected when Canadian Tire closed; the expansion of Carlingwood, which itself had many of the same types of retail stores as Fairlawn Plaza, may be one reason for the mall's dwindling customer base. An expanded Fairlawn Centre now includes Harvey's, Swiss Chalet, H&R Block and Bridgehead Coffee