Carlo Rubbia, is an Italian particle physicist and inventor who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Simon van der Meer for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN. Rubbia studied physics at the University of Scuola Normale in Pisa, he graduated on cosmic ray experiments in 1957 with Marcello Conversi. Rubbia obtained his Italian doctoral degree in 1958 from the University of Pisa. Following his degree went to the United States to do postdoctoral research, where he spent about one and a half years at Columbia University performing experiments on the decay and the nuclear capture of muons; this was the first of a long series of experiments that Rubbia has performed in the field of weak interactions and which culminated in the Nobel Prize-winning work at CERN. In 1960 he moved back to Europe, attracted by the newly founded CERN, where he worked on experiments on the structure of weak interactions. CERN had just commissioned a new type of accelerator, the Intersecting Storage Rings, using counter-rotating beams of protons colliding against each other.
Rubbia and his collaborators conducted experiments there. The main results in this field were the observation of the structure in the elastic scattering process and the first observation of the charmed baryons; these experiments were crucial in order to perfect the techniques needed for the discovery of more exotic particles in a different type of particle collider. In 1976, he suggested adapting CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron to collide protons and antiprotons in the same ring — the Proton-Antiproton Collider. Using Simon van der Meers technology of stochastic cooling, the Antiproton Accumulator was built; the collider started running in 1981 and, in early 1983, an international team of more than 100 physicists headed by Rubbia and known as the UA1 Collaboration, detected the intermediate vector bosons, the W and Z bosons, which had become a cornerstone of modern theories of elementary particle physics long before this direct observation. They carry the weak force that causes radioactive decay in the atomic nucleus and controls the combustion of the Sun, just as photons, massless particles of light, carry the electromagnetic force which causes most physical and biochemical reactions.
The weak force plays a fundamental role in the nucleosynthesis of the elements, as studied in theories of stars evolution. These particles have a mass 100 times greater than the proton. In 1984 Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer were awarded the Nobel Prize "for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction" To achieve energies high enough to create these particles, together with David Cline and Peter McIntyre, proposed a radically new particle accelerator design, they proposed to use a beam of protons and a beam of antiprotons, their antimatter twins, counter rotating in the vacuum pipe of the accelerator and colliding head-on. The idea of creating particles by colliding beams of more "ordinary" particles was not new: electron-positron and proton-proton colliders were in use. However, by the late 1970s / early 1980s those could not approach the needed energies in the centre of mass to explore the W/Z region predicted by theory.
At those energies, protons colliding with anti-protons were the best candidates, but how to obtain sufficiently intense beams of anti-protons, which are produced impinging a beam of protons on a fixed target? Van den Meer had in the meantime developed the concept of "stochastic cooling", in which particles, like anti-protons could be kept in a circular array, their beam divergence reduced progressively by sending signals to bending magnets downstream. Since decreasing the divergence of the beam meant to reduce transverse velocity or energy components, the suggestive term "stochastic cooling" was given to the scheme; the scheme could be used to "cool" the anti-protons, which could thus be forced into a well-focused beam, suitable for acceleration to high energies, without losing too many anti-protons to collisions with the structure. Stochastic expresses the fact that signals to be taken resemble random noise, called "Schottky noise" when first encountered in vacuum tubes. Without van der Meer's technique, UA1 would never have had the sufficient high-intensity anti-protons it needed.
Without Rubbia's realisation of its usefulness, stochastic cooling would have been the subject of a few publications and nothing else. Simon van de Meer developed and tested the technology in the proton Intersecting Storage Rings at CERN, but it is most effective on rather low intensity beams, such as the anti-protons which were prepared for use in the SPS when configured as a collider. In addition to the observation of the intermediate vector mesons, the CERN Proton-Antiproton Collider dominated the scene of high energy physics from its first operation in 1981 until its close in 1991, when the Tevatron at Fermilab took over this role. An new phenomenology of high energy collisions has resulted, in which strong interaction phenomena are dominated by the exchange of the quanta of the strong force, the gluons, particles which are similar to the intermediate vector bosons, like the photons, they are massless. Instead, the W and Z particles are among the heaviest particles so far produced in a particle accelerator.
Together, these discoveries provide strong evidence that theoretical physicists are on the right track in their efforts to describe Nature at its most basic level through the so-called "Standard Model". The data on the intermediate vector bosons confirm the predictions included in the "electroweak" theory, w
Matthijs Eduard Willem van den Bos is a scholar of Iranian and Shi'i Studies. He teaches in the Department of Politics at Birkbeck College of the University of London. Professor van den Bos has been a Visitor at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, NJ, a fellow of the Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies at the University of Amsterdam, a fellow at the International Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern World in Leiden. Before joining the University of London, van den Bos taught at the Universities of Utrecht and Amsterdam. Van den Bos has undertaken extensive field research in Iran and among Shiite communities in Western Europe. An anthropologist and scholar of Iranian Studies by training, he has published in the realm of Sufism in Iran and of European Shi'ism, contributed, among other things, several entries on Iranian Sufism to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, the most authoritative encyclopedia in Islamic Studies, his full list of publications is available at https://birkbeck.academia.edu/MatthijsvandenBos Professor van den Bos has received many research awards, among them multi-year grants from the Wenner-Gren Foundation and the Netherlands Organization of Sciences.
He is a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy. His book "Mystic Regimes: Sufism and the State in Iran, from the late Qajar era to the Islamic Republic," published by Brill Academic Publishers, has been reviewed in, among others, the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft and the International Journal of Middle East Studies. Bibliography at the University of London M. E. W. van den Bos, 1969 - at the University of Amsterdam Album Academicum
Jason King is a British television series starring Peter Wyngarde as the titular character. It was produced by ITC Entertainment and had a single season of 26 episodes which were each one hour long, including commercial breaks, it was shown internationally as well as in the UK, has been released on DVD in the UK, US, Australia and Germany. The series featured the further adventures of the title character who had first appeared in Department S. In that series he was a dilettante dandy and author of a series of adventure novels, working as part of a team of investigators. In Jason King he had left that service to concentrate on writing the adventures of Mark Caine, who resembled Jason King in looks, manner and personality. None of the other regular characters from Department S appeared in this series, although Department S itself is referred to in dialogue. In the course of visiting international locations as part of his research, or through being summoned by people needing assistance, King would be embroiled in adventure stories featuring glamorous women, exotic locations, menacing villains, political turmoil, or espionage intrigue.
The first episode depicted King's retelling of a Mark Caine novel to a television executive, alternating between King's interpretation of events, the television executive's version. King's version showed style and class, while the executive's version featured added suspense, more cliches, had the women in more revealing costumes. In the footage representing both men's vision of the novel adapted for the screen, Mark Caine was portrayed by Wyngarde; the titles of the Mark Caine books each consisted of four short words, in the manner of some of Ian Fleming's James Bond novels. The Mark Caine title mentioned most in the series was Index Finger Left Hand. Subsequent episodes featured Wyngarde playing King trying to write his novels and being pressured by his publisher Nicola Harvester about deadlines. King, was distracted by beautiful women and his real-life adventures and was sometimes tricked by Ryland of the British Government into assisting the Government in international political matters: all of which found their way into the adventures of the fictional Mark Caine.
The series was created by Dennis Spooner and like its predecessor was made by Lew Grade's ITC Entertainment production company, for ATV – Grade's broadcasting subsidiary of ITC. However, unlike previous ITC series which were shot on 35mm film, Jason King was filmed on 16mm to cut costs. King's choice of fashion was named by Mike Myers as an inspiration for his popular movie character Austin Powers. An analogue of Jason King appears in the comic book series The Invisibles, written by Grant Morrison as "Mr. Six", the so-called "Last of the International Playboys", member of "Division X". In the X-Men comics, the character of Jason Wyngarde was inspired by Jason King and Peter Wyngarde. Mastermind had first appeared in the 1960s, but took on the appearance and identity of Jason Wyngarde in the build-up to the X-Men's first confrontation with the Hellfire Club in the late 1970s. Wyngarde had played the leader of another Hellfire club in "A Touch of Brimstone", an episode of the popular TV series The Avengers, in which Diana Rigg appeared in a leather costume that Jean Grey adopted as the Hellfire Club's Black Queen.
He is one of the inspirations for Kim Newman's psychic crime fighter and secret agent Richard Jeperson. Wyngarde is said to have been the inspiration for the character of Fireball in the strip of the same name in D. C. Thompson's Bullet comic; the Two Ronnies performed a sketch entitled'Jason King', with Ronnie Corbett putting on all the airs and graces of King and Ronnie Barker playing a suspect in a murder investigation, during their third series in 1973. Jason King was the basis for Jason Bentley, played by Peter Richardson in the Comic Strip Presents episode Detectives on the Edge of a Nervous Breakdown. Wyngarde, interviewed on BBC TV when this episode was transmitted, was flattered by the affectionate parody, but insisted that Jason King would never wear crushed velvet; the character appeared in Episode 1 of Series 10 of Rab C Nesbitt in which he surfaces from inside an armoured vehicle outside the house of the show's title character, where he's holding a government minister hostage. On being offered a shirt by Jason King of the type he might wear, by way of appeasement, Rab decides it is time to call an end to the siege and says "When Jason King says'Jump!', you say'How high?'"
In the 1972 Malaysian comedy film Laksamana Do Re Mi, the characters remark on the villain Menteri Fasola's resemblance to Jason King. Most younger Malaysians have no idea who Jason King do not get the 1970s cultural reference. In 1992, Harry Enfield's Television Programme featured a sketch called'The Playboys', influenced by Jason King. In the spoof titles the actor portraying playboy'Sam Moritz' was named as'Jason Queen'. Episode 5 of season 17 of Top Gear featured'The Interceptors', a spoof of 1970s detectives shows, with Jeremy Clarkson adopting the guise of'Jason Clarkson', a hero embodying many of Jason King's attributes. Peter Wyngarde – Jason King Anne Sharp – Nicola Harvester Ronald Lacey – Ryland Dennis Price – Sir Brian Richard Marner – Signor Czibor / Markovitch Anton Rodgers – Phillipe de Brion Jason King, ordering breakfast in a cafe: "A bit too early for coffee. After being held at gunpoint and given a plane ticket with orders to leave the country, J
Cross-linking immunoprecipitation is a method used in molecular biology that combines UV cross-linking with immunoprecipitation in order to analyse protein interactions with RNA or to locate RNA modifications. CLIP-based techniques can be used to map RNA binding protein binding sites or RNA modification sites of interest on a genome-wide scale, thereby increasing the understanding of post-transcriptional regulatory networks. CLIP begins with the in-vivo cross-linking of RNA-protein complexes using ultraviolet light. Upon UV exposure, covalent bonds are formed between proteins and nucleic acids that are in close proximity; the cross-linked cells are lysed, the protein of interest is isolated via immunoprecipitation. In order to allow for sequence specific priming of reverse transcription, RNA adapters are ligated to the 3' ends, while radiolabeled phosphates are transferred to the 5' ends of the RNA fragments; the RNA-protein complexes are separated from free RNA using gel electrophoresis and membrane transfer.
Proteinase K digestion is performed in order to remove protein from the RNA-protein complexes. This step leaves a peptide at the cross-link site, allowing for the identification of the cross-linked nucleotide. After ligating RNA linkers to the RNA 5' ends, cDNA is synthesized via RT-PCR. High-throughput sequencing is used to generate reads containing distinct barcodes that identify the last cDNA nucleotide. Interaction sites can be identified by mapping the reads back to the transcriptome. CLIP was undertaken to study interactions between the neuron-specific RNA-binding protein and splicing factor NOVA1 and NOVA2 in the mouse brain, identifying RNA binding sites that had Nova binding sites and were validated as Nova targets in knock-out mouse brains. In 2008 CLIP was combined with high-throughput sequencing to generate genome-wide protein-RNA interaction maps for Nova. A review of the range of proteins studied by HITS-CLIP has been published. HITS-CLIP analysis of the RNA-binding protein Argonaute has been performed for the identification of microRNA targets by decoding microRNA-mRNA and protein-RNA interaction maps in the mouse brain, subsequently in Caenorhabditis elegans, embryonic stem cells, tissue culture cells.
As a novel modification of HITS-CLIP, m6A-CLIP was developed to map m6A locations in mRNA by UV-crosslinking m6A antibody to the target RNA. Improved bioinformatics methods applied to Argonaute HITS-CLIP, have identified binding sites with single nucleotide resolution. Furthermore, the post-transcriptional regulatory networks of prokaryotic RNA binding proteins have been elucidated under application of CLIP-seq; the main steps are: mapping CLIP-seq reads mapping Degradome-Seq reads grouping overlapping reads into clusters querying miRNA targets from different public databases identifying miRNA–target interactions with an alignment score from CleaveLand not exceeding the cutoff threshold of 7.0 the ClipSearch program was developed to search for 6–8-mers in CLIP-Seq data The DegradomeSearch program was developed to search Degradome-Seq clusters for nearly perfect complements of miRNA sequences HITS-CLIP known as CLIP-Seq, combines UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation with high-throughput sequencing to identify binding sites of RNA-binding proteins.
CLIP-seq depends on cross-linking induced mutation sites to localized protein-RNA binding sites. Because CIMS are reproducible, high sequencing depths allow CIMS to be differentiated from technical errors. PAR-CLIP is a biochemical method used for identifying the binding sites of cellular RNA-binding proteins and microRNA-containing ribonucleoprotein complexes; the method relies on the incorporation of photoreactive ribonucleoside analogs, such as 4-thiouridine and 6-thioguanosine into nascent RNA transcripts by living cells. Irradiation of the cells by UV light of 365 nm induces efficient cross-linking of photoreactive nucleoside-labeled cellular RNAs to interacting RBPs. Immunoprecipitation of the RBP of interest is followed by the isolation of the cross-linked and co-immunoprecipitated RNA; the isolated RNA is converted into a cDNA library and deep sequenced using high-throughput sequencing technology. Cross-linking the 4-SU and 6-SG analogs results in thymidine to cytidine, guanosine to adenosine transitions respectively.
As a result, PAR-CLIP can identify binding site locations with high accuracy. However, PAR-CLIP is limited to cultured cells, nucleoside cytotoxicity is a concern. 4-SU substitution occurs in 1 out of every 40 uridine nucleosides, that T to C transitions occur at the cross-link site. PAR-CLIP has been employed to determine the transcriptome-wide binding sites of several known RBPs and microRNA-containing ribonucleoprotein complexes at high resolution; this includes the miRNA targeting TNRC6 proteins. ICLIP is a technique used for identifying protein-RNA interactions; the method uses UV light to RNA molecules. As with all
Ewald Frie is a German historian. Ewald Frie studied modern history, medieval history, Catholic theology at the University of Münster. From 1989 to 1991 he worked as Academic Trainee at Institute for Westphalian Regional History in Münster. In 1992 he gained his PhD. Frie has been Academic Assistant and Assistant Professor at the Chair of Modern History, held by Hans-Ulrich Thamer, at the University of Münster. From 1993 to 1995 he was Assistant Professor at Science Center North Rhine-Westphalia in Düsseldorf. In 1995 he became Assistant Professor at the Chair of Modern History, held by Wilfried Loth, at the University of Duisburg-Essen. In 2001 he finished his Second Doctorate. Afterwards Frie worked as Assistant Professor at the University of Duisburg-Essen until April 2007 when he became Professor at the University of Trier. One year Frie accepted a call to become Full Professor for modern history at the University of Tübingen. From July 2011 to August 2016 Frie was spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center 923 "Threatened Orders.
Societies under Stress". German history of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries European nobility Poverty and the welfare state Australian history Review Editor for the listserv H-SOZ-KULT Member of the Preußischen Historischen Kommission Member of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Preußische Geschichte Member of the Lamprecht-Gesellschaft, Leipzig Member of the Arbeitskreis für Außereuropäische Geschichte University Liaison for the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Co-editor of the book series "Bedrohte Ordnungen", "Adelswelten", "Contubernium. Tübinger Beiträge zur Universitäts- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte" Co-editor of the Internet portal “Europäische Geschichte” associated with the “history.transnational” project Member of the Board of the Sigurd-Greven-Stiftung, Cologne Revolution, Krieg und die Geburt von Staat und Nation. Staatsbildung in Europa und den Amerikas 1770–1930.. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2016, ISBN 978-3-16-153597-0. Aufruhr – Katastrophe – Konkurrenz – Zerfall. Bedrohte Ordnungen als Thema der Kulturwissenschaften.
Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2014, ISBN 978-3-16-152757-9. Friedrich II. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2012, ISBN 978-3-499-50720-5. Das Deutsche Kaiserreich. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2004, ISBN 3-534-14725-1. Friedrich August Ludwig von der Marwitz: 1777–1837. Biographien eines Preußen. Schöningh, Paderborn 2001, ISBN 3-506-72730-3. Caritativer Katholizismus in Deutschland im 19. Und 20. Jahrhundert: Literatur zur Erforschung seiner Geschichte aus den Jahren 1960 bis 1993. Lambertus, Freiburg im Breisgau 1994, ISBN 3-7841-0728-1. Wohlfahrtsstaat und Provinz: Fürsorgepolitik des Provinzialverbandes Westfalen und des Landes Sachsen 1880–1930. Schöningh, Paderborn 1993, ISBN 3-506-79580-5. Frie's Homepage at University of Tübingen
Gaurav Dagaonkar is an Indian music director and songwriter. Prior to this, Gaurav composed an item number called Kaafirana in the film "Joker", directed by Shirish Kunder, starring Akshay Kumar and Sonakshi Sinha; the song was picturised on Chitrangada Singh. The lyrics of the song were changed from "I Want Fakht You" to "I Want Just You", as the former was deemed objectionable by the censor board; as music director, Gaurav's first release was the movie Lanka, which released on 9 December 2011. The film was produced by filmmaker Vikram Bhatt; the song'Sheet Leher' won 2 Radio Mirchi Music Awards. Amongst other songs composed by Gaurav has been the song'Soniye' from the film Will You Marry Me; the song has been sung by Pakistani singer Rahat Fateh Ali Khan as has been written by lyricist Shabbir Ahmed. Gaurav has featured in the music video of the remix of'Soniye', alongside Bollywood actors Rajeev Khandelwal, Shreyas Talpade and Mugdha Godse. Gaurav is the lead vocalist and frontman of the group'Synchronicity'.
Synchronicity is the name of the series started by Gaurav in which he performs mash-ups of popular Bollywood and Western songs. The first mashup to be recorded and shot as a music video in this series was Tujhe Bhula Diya / Hello; the video has had over 500,000 hits on YouTube. Subsequently, two more tracks, Yara Sili Sili / Careless Whisper and Pee Loon / You Sang To Me were released to a great response. With several requests to perform live and the musicians involved, got together to form the band Synchronicity. Gaurav and Arunima Bhattacharya are the permanent singers in the group, while guest singers in live shows include names like Neeti Mohan, Shalmali Kholgade, Rahul Saxena, Natalie De Luccio, Ustad Sawan Khan, Thomson Andrews and Vidhi Sharma, he has released synchronized tracks with Nepali and Bollywood songs. As a live performer, Gaurav plays with a four-piece band and has performed at some of the biggest festivals in India such as Mood Indigo, Backwaters, he has shared the stage with renowned artistes and bands from India and Pakistan such as Junoon, Silk Route, Mohit Chauhan, Rahul Sharma etc.
He is one of the official brand ambassadors of Gibson guitars in India. Gaurav has been featured amongst the "Faces of the Future" by India Today. Website http://gauravdagaonkar.com/ Gaurav's http://www.gauravonline.com Gaurav refuses job offers to choose music – https://web.archive.org/web/20120216081244/http://inhome.rediff.com/cms/print.jsp?docpath=%2F%2Fmoney%2F2006%2Fapr%2F01iim.htm Narayana Murthy releases Gaurav's demo – http://www.telegraphindia.com/1060402/asp/frontpage/story_6046972.asp Gaurav releases his album – http://photogallery.indiatimes.com/articleshow/2752731.cms Gaurav on Indiatimes: http://photogallery.indiatimes.com/articleshow/2759382.cms Gaurav in the "Times of India" – http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2006-12-17/india/27827173_1_iim-a-grad-iim-campus-management-ahmedabad Gaurav named in Faces of the Future – http://indiatoday.digitaltoday.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=25296&Itemid=1&issueid=89§ionid=20&secid=34&limit=1&limitstart=3 Gaurav in Westside Plus, TOI – http://www.mumbaipluses.com/santacruzplus/index.aspx?page=article§id=3&contentid=200802292008030316282966e77f5bbe§xslt=&comments=true&pageno=1 Sonu Nigam sings for'Joker' – http://sonuniigaamandviviek.blogspot.com/2010/01/sonu-niigaam-ji-records-two-songs-in.html Gaurav on'Eventfaqs' – https://web.archive.org/web/20130922112646/http://ec.eventfaqs.com/gauravdagaonkar/profile/4f772736-5029-4c06-ba95-f73f9ffdc0aa.pdf Gaurav on'Box office Capsule' – http://www.boxofficecapsule.com/news-specific.aspx?news_id=673 Gaurav in'Hindustan Times' – http://www.hindustantimes.com/Entertainment/Bollywood/Giselli-set-to-reprise-Alba-s-role/Article1-822833.aspx