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Carlos Chávez

Carlos Antonio de Padua Chávez y Ramírez was a Mexican composer, music theorist, educator and founder and director of the Mexican Symphonic Orchestra. He was influenced by native Mexican cultures. Of his six symphonies, the second, or Sinfonía india, which uses native Yaqui percussion instruments, is the most popular; the seventh child of a creole family, Chávez was born on Tacuba Avenue in Mexico City, near the suburb of Popotla. His paternal grandfather, José María Chávez Alonso, served as governor of the state of Aguascalientes and was executed on the orders of Emperor Maximilian in 1864, his father, Augustín Chávez, who died when Carlos was three years old, invented a plough, produced and used in the United States.. Carlos had his first piano lessons from his brother Manuel, on he was taught piano by Asunción Parra, Manuel Ponce, Pedro Luis Ozagón, harmony by Juan Fuentes, his family holidayed in Tlaxcala, Michoacán, Guanajuato and other places where the cultural influence of the Mexican indigenous peoples was still strong.

In 1916, Chávez and friends started a cultural journal and this led to his joining the staff of the Mexico City newspaper El Universal in 1924. In the succeeding 36 years he was to write over 500 items for this paper. After the Mexican Revolution and the installation of a democratically elected president, Álvaro Obregón, Chávez became one of the first exponents of Mexican nationalist music with ballets on Aztec themes. In September 1922, Chávez married Otilia Ortiz and they went on honeymoon to Europe, from October 1922 until April 1923, spending two weeks in Vienna, five months in Berlin, eight or ten days in Paris. During the latter visit he met Paul Dukas; some months in December 1923, Chávez visited the United States for the first time, returning in March 1924. Chávez again went to New York City in September 1926 and stayed there until June 1928. Upon his return to Mexico, Chávez became director of the Orquesta Sinfónica Mexicana renamed Orquesta Sinfónica de México. Chávez was instrumental in taking the orchestra on tour through Mexico's rural areas.

In December 1928, Chávez was appointed director of Mexico's National Conservatory of Music—a position he held for a total of five years. In that capacity, Chávez spearheaded three academias de investigación, two concerned with collecting and cataloguing indigenous music and its literature, the third to study the uses of old and new scales. In 1937, Chávez published a book, Toward a New Music, one of the first books in which a composer speaks about electronic music. In 1938, he conducted a series of concerts with the NBC Symphony Orchestra, during a period of absence by the orchestra's regular conductor, Arturo Toscanini. In 1940 he produced concerts at New York's Museum of Modern Art, by 1945, Chávez had come to be regarded as the foremost Mexican composer and conductor. From January 1947 until 1952, Chávez served as director-general of the National Institute of Fine Arts. In his first year, he formed the National Symphony Orchestra, which supplanted the older OSM as Mexico's premier orchestra and led to the disbanding of the older ensemble.

Throughout all this time, Chávez maintained a busy international touring schedule. In May 1953 he was commissioned by Lincoln Kirstein, director of the New York City center of Music and Drama, for a three-act opera to a libretto by Chester Kallman based on a story by Boccaccio, to be titled The Tuscan Players. Intended to be finished in August 1954, it was first postponed to April 1955, but only completed in 1956, by which time the title had been changed twice, first to Pánfilo and Lauretta to El amor propiciado; the City Center waived its rights to the first performance, given under the title Panfilo and Lauretta in the Brander Matthews Theatre at Columbia University in New York on May 9, 1957, under the baton of Howard Shanet. Stage direction was by Bill Butler, scenic design by Herbert Senn and Helen Pond, costumes by Sylvia Wintle; the principal singers were Sylvia Stahlman, Frank Porretta, Craig Timberlake, Mary McMurray, Michael Kermoyan, Thomas Stewart. The opera would be revised twice more and the title changed again to Los visitantes, for productions in 1968 and 1973, in Mexico City and Aptos, respectively.

From 1958–1959 he was the Charles Eliot Norton professor at Harvard University, the public lectures he gave there were published as a book, Musical Thought. From 1970 to 1973, Carlos Chávez served as the music director of the Cabrillo Festival of Contemporary Music, his orchestral composition Discovery had been commission by the Festival and was first performed there. Failing health and financial setbacks forced Chávez to sell his house in the Lomas de Chapultepec neighborhood of Mexico City and move in with his daughter Anita in Coyoacán, in the fringes of the Mexican capital, where he died on 2 August 1978. Carlos Chávez's manuscripts and papers are housed in the Music Division of the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts and in the National Archive of Mexico, in Mexico City. Chávez's music does not fall into clear stylistic periods, but rather cumulates elements in a process of c

History of Cuban nationality

For most of its history, Cuba was controlled by foreign powers. The country was a Spanish colony from 1511 until 1898; the United States governed the nation from 1898–1902, would intervene in national affairs until the abolishment of the Platt Amendment in 1935. The struggle for independence and a national identity was a complex and prolonged affair that began in earnest during the late 18th century and lasted well into the 20th century. From the island's discovery in 1492 to 1750, Spain ruled Cuba from afar, with a Crown-appointed Governor overseeing the colony under the military title of Captain General. Laws approved by the Governor crossed the Atlantic and were filtered between countless levels of colonial bureaucracy; the administrators tended to compromise with local elites, who were granted permission to administer justice themselves. In the 1630s, Americans were permitted to hold office in Cuba; these positions were filled by wealthy criollo, who purchased the privilege directly, operated with reduced Spanish supervision.

This led to increased corruption, drove a wedge between the wealthy and the working-class. In the 1750s, when Spain sought to reassert control in the Americas, these elite positions were weakened, much to the anger of those who had enjoyed the collateral benefits of authority. In the early 19th century, Cuban nationalist movement lagged behind its counterparts in the rest of Latin America. Maintaining good relations with Spain was essential for the health of Cuba's agrarian economy, as the island nation was dependent at the time upon exporting its sugar to European markets. Cuba, as one of the last outposts of slavery relied on Spain for protection against any potential slave uprisings; as compared to most other Latin American countries at the time, a large percentage of the Cuban population were Spaniards or their descendants. Nonetheless, during the 19th century, vocal nationalists like Jose Marti inspired Cubans to rebel against their colonizers. Many nationalists saw Spain as incapable of supporting a booming Cuban economy.

Cuba made use of new industrial technologies, such as steam engines, well before their large-scale introduction in Spain. Nationalists thus concluded that Cuba was entering a new stage of modernity, while Spain was becoming more and more obsolete, holding Cuba back from economic and political success; the dissatisfaction with Spain's inept administration, their lack of representation in the government, high taxes sparked the beginning of the 10 years war in which over 200,000 lives were lost. Being crushed by the Spanish army only fueled their nationalism more, it caused a uniting of all the Cuban people, with an emphasis on former slaves, who were freed shortly after the war. However, when the Cubans rose up again, Spain implemented their policy of Reconcentration; this forced hundreds of thousands of Cubans into labor camps, where they were starved. This furthered their nationalism more because they couldn't take what was being done to their own people; the stories of the rebels' bravery and nationalism reached the United States, who sent aid which soon became the Spanish–American War.

However, the Spanish control of Cuba soon became replaced with a large American influence in Cuba's affairs. Once again Cuban nationalism was an at an all-time high since they had just fought for their own independence, now they had another country in their affairs. Between 1780 and 1867, over 780 000 slaves were brought to Cuba; this was more than all the rest of Spanish America combined. Slavery was leaned upon by the owners of the profitable sugar plantations. By 1886, people of colour – the majority being ex-slaves – made up 1/3 of the population of Cuba; the issue of integration was a complex and contentious issue. Rights were hard to come by for many former slaves and for those who lived and worked in rural communities. Emancipation was a slow process that started in 1868 and continued until 1886; as a preliminary step, the Moret Law of 1870 granted freedom to children and those over the age of sixty but offered little else. As the skirmishes continued and losses compounded during the 10 Years’ War, the anti-colonial forces spoke more about the idea of a free Cuban citizen.

Though there was still a strong racial divide, many slaves joined up with the revolutionaries. Although this initial rebellion did not force any significant changes, the participation of slaves did not go unnoticed. By the early 1890s, Spain was willing to offer considerable civil rights and voting rights to many former slaves in a vain attempt to weaken another attempt at rebellion. Prior to the 1890s, suffrage had been granted uniquely to taxpayers; this back-fired, however, as it only provoked white elites who intensified their criticism directed at colonial policies. While white Cuban elites and their colonial administrators debated civil rights and public policy, black Cubans had been showing initiative; the first step toward property rights came. A pig could accrue value, be sold for profit or consumed. Many people seized upon the potential of this and began raising as many pigs as possible feeding them from their own rations to keep them growing; the pigs would be sold to either the plantation owner or someone else, a profit would be made.

These profits would sometimes parlay into the ownership of a horse, which implied a certain degree of freedom and mobility. Work

Ikeda, Gifu

Ikeda is a town located in Ibi District, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 December 2018, the town had an estimated population of 24,034 in 8291 households and a population density of 620 persons per km2; the total area of the town was 38.80 square kilometres. Ikeda is located in southwestern Gifu Prefecture; the Ibi River flows through the town, hilly to mountainous in the west, including Mount Ikeda on the border with the neighbouring town of Ibigawa. Parts of the town are within the borders of the Ibi-Sekigahara-Yōrō Quasi-National Park; the town has a climate characterized by characterized by hot and humid summers, mild winters. The average annual temperature in Ikeda is 15.0 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1991 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 27.5 °C, lowest in January, at around 3.6 °C. Gifu Prefecture Ōgaki Ibigawa Ōno Gōdo Tarui Per Japanese census data, the population of Ikeda has increased over the past 40 years; the area around Ibigawa was part of traditional Mino Province.

During the Edo period, it part of Ikeda District, was divided between territory controlled by Ōgaki Domain and tenryō holdings directly controlled by the Tokugawa shogunate. During the post-Meiji restoration cadastral reforms, the area was organised into Ibi District, Gifu Prefecture; the village of Ikeda was formed on July 1, 1897 with the merger of the villages of Ikeno, Shimohigashino, Sunabata and Sugino. Ikega merged with neighbouring Rokugō and Hongō in 1950, was raised to town status on May 1, 1954. Ikeda annexed neighbouring Yahata and Miaji on April 1, 1955. Ikeda has five public elementary schools and one public middle school operated by the town government; the town has one public high school operated by the Gifu Prefectural Board of Education. Yōrō Railway Yōrō Line Ikeno - Kita-Ikeno - Mino-Hongō National Route 417 Mount Ikeda Media related to Ikeda, Gifu at Wikimedia Commons Official website

Ural Airlines Flight 178

Ural Airlines Flight 178 was an Ural Airlines scheduled passenger flight from Moscow–Zhukovsky to Simferopol, Crimea. On 15 August 2019, the Airbus A321 operating the flight carried seven crew; the flight suffered a bird strike after taking off from Zhukovsky and crash landed in a cornfield, 5 kilometres past the airport. All on board survived; the aircraft suffered a bird strike shortly after takeoff from Zhukovsky International Airport, Russia, bound for Simferopol International Airport, Crimea. A passenger recorded the plane's descent into a cornfield after a flock of gulls struck both CFM56-5 engines; the first bird strike caused a complete loss of power in the left engine. A second bird strike caused the right engine to produce insufficient thrust to maintain flight; the pilots opted to make an emergency landing in a cornfield beyond the end of the airport runway and decided to turn off both engines just before touchdown. The aircraft made a hard landing in the cornfield 2.8 nautical miles from Zhukovsky International Airport.

The pilot chose not to lower the landing gear in order to skid more over the corn. Everyone on board the flight survived. There have been differing reports on the number of injuries sustained as the criteria for counting a person as "injured" are not overly strict. According to some reports, 55 people received medical attention at the scene. 29 people were taken to hospital. Six people were admitted as in-patients; the number of injuries was fixed at 74, none of whom was injured. All passengers were offered ₽100,000 as accident compensation; the aircraft was an Airbus A321-211, registered in Bermuda as VQ-BOZ, msn 2117. It was built in 2003 for MyTravel Airways, it operated for AtlasGlobal as TC-ETR in 2010, Solaris Airlines in 2011 as EI-ERU, before being delivered to Ural Airlines in 2011 as VQ-BOZ. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair in the accident and the airline announced that it would be cut up in situ to be scrapped, in an operation, scheduled to commence on 23 August 2019; the accident represents the sixth hull loss of an Airbus A321.

The pilot in command was 41-year-old Damir Yusupov who graduated from the Buguruslan Flight School of Civil Aviation, in Buguruslan, Russia, in 2013. He has received a degree in Air Navigation from the Ulyanovsk Institute of Civil Aviation, in Ulyanovsk, Russia. At the time of the accident, he had over 3,000 hours of flight time; the co-pilot was 23-year-old Georgy Murzin who graduated from the Buguruslan Flight School of Civil Aviation, in 2017. At the time of the accident, he had over 600 hours of flight time. There were five flight attendants on board; the proliferation of birds near Moscow–Zhukovsky is attributed to illegal waste dumps. The deployed bird control measures are insufficient. In 2012, the management of one of the waste sites had been sued in Zhukovsky district court, alleging that "the waste sorting facilities attract massive numbers of birds due to significant content of edible refuse, with the site located at the distance of 2 km from the airport runway this could lead to collisions between birds and aircraft, threatening human life and limb".

The court did not find sufficient grounds to rule in favor of plaintiffs and their demands to enjoin the defendants from sorting or storing household waste at the specified site. As of 2019, this site is no longer sorting or storing household waste, instead compacting it and transferring it further for disposal. A Zhukovsky air traffic controller declared: We issue warnings to every departing aircraft; the birds come to sit on the runway ⁠— ⁠there's the river and the dump nearby, so they're here constantly. In September 2019, Rosaviatsiya proposed to work with law enforcement authorities to check the legality of waste dumps near airports, will examine the frequency of scheduled and unscheduled inspections of airports for the presence of birds. Shortly after the accident, Ural Airlines released a statement on Twitter stating: "Flight U6178 Zhukovsky-Simferopol on departure from Zhukovsky sustained multiple bird strikes to the aircraft engines; the aircraft made an emergency landing. There were no injuries to the passengers and crew."

The airline praised the professionalism of the pilots. On social media, immediate comparisons were made between the accident and the "Miracle on the Hudson" incident involving US Airways Flight 1549; the pilot in command, Damir Yusupov, first officer, Georgy Murzin, were awarded the honorary title of Hero of the Russian Federation. While being praised in Russia, the crew of the aircraft was entered into the blacklist of Ukrainian NGO Myrotvorets, which accused them of "knowingly and on multiple occasions making illegal crossings of the state border of Ukraine". Author of the first Russian disaster movie Air Crew, Alexander Mitta, announced plans to make a film based on the events of Flight 178; the Interstate Aviation Committee opened an investigation into the accident. The investigation is being assisted by Rosaviatsiya, the British Air Accidents Investigation Branch, the French Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile; the cockpit voice recorder and flight data recorder were both recovered and their data downloaded.

US Airways Flight 1549 – 2009 accident after both engines failed following a bird strike shortly after takeoff.

Luigi Panarelli

Luigi Panarelli is an Italian football coach and a former player who played as a defender. He is the manager of Taranto. Panarelli started his career at hometown club Taranto, he won Serie D Champion in 1995. He played another season at Serie C2 before joined Serie A side S. S. C. Napoli, which he failed to play regularly, he followed Napoli relegated to Serie B in 1998, but just played 3 times before joined league rival Andria. In summer 1999, he joined Serie A side Torino and followed the team relegated in 2000 but just played 5 time in 2 seasons. In summer 2001, he left on loan to Serie B side Crotone as he was the surplus of Torino for the Serie A campaign. In summer 2002, he was signed by A. S. Roma in co-ownership deal; that season Torino signed Alberto Maria Fontana, Giammarco Frezza Daniele Martinetti in co-ownership deal and Roma signed Panarelli in co-ownership deal for €5M, Gabriele Paoletti for €5.5M, Alberto Schettino for €1.6M, which made there were no cash involved but generate €12.1M transfer income to both parties and €12.1M cost to amortize in instalments, generate "profit" in the first season.

Panarelli was signed a 3-year contract, which he was rumoured to play for Palermo owned by Roma President Franco Sensi. But after Palermo was sold 1 month he was loaned to Serie C2 side Florentia Viola, the new club to replace the bankrupted A. C. Fiorentina, but failed to play regularly. In the next season, he left for hometown club Taranto and played 24 matches at Serie C1. In June 2004, Torino signed remained rights of Frezza and Martinetti for free and Roma signed Paoletti for fee and Panarelli Schettino for just €60,000 in total. Panarelli left for Teramo on loan. In August 2005, Panarelli signed a contract with Avellino, he was not a regular of the team, in March 2006 appeared in the reality TV show without asking the permission of the club. He released by Avellino and in November 2006 signed a contract with Salernitana, but on 31 January 2007 he joined U. S. Foggia. In August 2007, he signed an annual contract with Cavese. In 2008–09 season, he played for Prima Divisione side Sorrento. In August 2009, he was signed by Seconda Divisione side Brindisi where he played 17 out of first 18 matches.

In January 2010, he returned to Taranto. Serie B: 2001 Serie D: 1995 Profile at AIC. Luigi Panarelli at Luigi Panarelli at Footballdatabase

Bogdan Filov

Bogdan Dimitrov Filov was a Bulgarian archaeologist, art historian and politician. He was Prime Minister of Bulgaria during World War II. During his service, Bulgaria became the seventh nation to join the Axis Powers. Born in Stara Zagora, Filov was educated in Imperial Germany at Leipzig, Würzburg, his Ph. D. dissertation from Freiburg was published as a book – a supplement to the prestigious German magazine Klio in Leipzig. From May 1, 1906, he worked in the National Archaeological Museum in Sofia. Filov studied archeology and numismatics in Bonn and Rome in 1907–1909, he was the indisputable leader of "antique" archaeology in Bulgaria. In 1918 he discovered a necropolis of Peresadyes, rich with gold and iron artifacts. Between 1910 and 1920 Filov was Director of the National Archaeological Museum, he conducted the first studies of the ancient city of Kabile, near Yambol, in 1912. In 1920 Filov became a professor of archeology, of art history, at Sofia University. In 1920 a Chair of Archaeology was established at the University, Filov was appointed to it.

The Archaeological Society in Sofia developed into an Archaeological Institute with a Department of Antique Archaeology. In 1937, Filov was elected chairman of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. On 15 February 1940, following the resignation of Georgi Kyoseivanov, Filov was appointed Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Bulgaria. Filov was an ally of Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria. On 7 September, Bulgaria was awarded the southern part of Dobruja by the Treaty of Craiova. On 14 February of the following year, Bulgaria signed a non-aggression pact with the Axis powers and on 1 March joined the Tripartite Pact. On Bulgaria's Independence Day, March 3, German troops crossed into Bulgaria on the way to invade the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and the Kingdom of Greece. Though a titular member of the Axis, Bulgaria stayed out of the war as much as possible during the regime of King Boris and Premier Filov. After the death of Boris in August 1943, Filov became a member of the Regency Council established because the new Tsar, Simeon II, was underage.

In November, 1940, the government of Bogdan Filov proposed the Law for protection of the nation. This law was equivalent to the Nuremberg Laws of the Third Reich and deprived the Jews of civil rights. Filov established the Commissariat for Jewish Affairs as executive body concerned with Jews in Bulgaria. In accordance with a governmental decision made in March 1943, Jews from the "newly annexed territories", who were not Bulgarian subjects, were deported by Bulgarian authorities to German extermination camps: in total, 11,343 Jews from occupied northern Greece and Vardar Banovina were deported to German custody and to the Treblinka killing centers. However, yielding to pressure from the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and from the deputy speaker of Parliament, Dimitar Peshev, the Nazi-allied government did not deport its 50,000 Jews, Bulgarian subjects, from the "old lands", thus saving them. Following the armistice with the Soviet Union whose forces had entered Bulgaria in 1944, a new Communist-dominated government was established and the Regency Council members were arrested.

Filov and ninety-two other public officials were sentenced to death by a "People's Tribunal" on the afternoon of 1 February 1945 and executed by firing squad that night in Sofia cemetery. They were buried in a mass grave, a bomb crater; the former professor was described in one obituary as a man who had mistakenly "preferred making history to teaching it". Filov's property was confiscated and his wife exiled; the sentence was revoked by the Bulgarian Supreme Court on June 26, 1996. Treaty of Craiova Military history of Bulgaria during World War II Bulgaria in the Second World War by Marshall Lee Miller, Stanford University Press, 1975. Royalty in Exile by Charles Fenyvesi, London, 1981, pps:153-171 - "Czar Simeon of the Bulgars". ISBN 978-0-86051-131-1 Boris III of Bulgaria 1894-1943, by Pashanko Dimitroff, London, 1986, ISBN 978-0-86332-140-5 Crown of Thorns by Stephane Groueff, Lanham MD. and London, 1987, ISBN 978-0-8191-5778-2 Un archeologo al servizio della monarchia bulgara. La parabola politica di Bogdan Filov by Alberto Basciani, in Francesco Guida Intellettuali versus democrazia.

I regimi authoritari nell'Europa sud-orientale, Carocci, 2010, ISBN 978-88-430-5239-4 Newspaper clippings about Bogdan Filov in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW