Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini
The Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini is a public high school in Buenos Aires, it is one of the most prestigious in Argentina and Latin America. Founded on February 19, 1890 by President Carlos Pellegrini under the name of Escuela de Comercio de la Capital de la República, it would become the first vocational school in the country, enabling its graduates to be the first with the high school degree required for admission in Economic Sciences' Colleges; the school was renamed in 1908. In 1931, the school was placed under the control of the University of Buenos Aires, in 1953 women were given the right to study in the institution; as the school is under the UBA control, the high school diplomas are issued by the University of Buenos Aires itself. Most, if not all of the teaching staff teaches at the UBA, Physical Education classes take place at the UBA's Ciudad Universitaria; this relationship between the school and the University gives graduated students the possibility of attending an extra 6th year for a degree in Ciencias Comerciales.
This extra curricular year entitles the students to enter the UBA in many majors, specially including economy-related ones, without the need of attending the CBC. In the year 2005, several changes were made in what concerns to the CBC. Students can now make the entry course to any university, not only to the economy-oriented ones; the number of applicants in 2008 for the 2009 school year has dropped to 550, about half of the number of students who applied in 2007, previous years. Many of the students who did not apply to Carlos Pellegrini, chose similar institutions elsewhere, such as the Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, or the Instituto Libre de Segunda EnseñanzaThe main building was designed by Italian architect Gino Aloisi, inaugurated in 1909; the Carlos Pellegrini High School of Commerce is located on 1851 Marcelo T. de Alvear Street, between Riobamba St. and Callao Avenue, in the neighbourhood of Recoleta. The phone number is 4815-4001/5. Several bus routes serve the school and its vicinity: 12, 29, 37, 39, 60, 99, 101, 106, 108, 109, 111, 124, 132, 140, 150 and 152, as well as Line D and Line B of the Buenos Aires Metro.
The school's admission process is competitive. Every year, about 1500 students apply, all of which are attending the 7th year of their Primary School; these students are subject to 12 exams divided into four major areas: Mathematics, History and Spanish. They are required to take three tests of each one of the subjects mentioned above. Entry to the school is quite limited, as around 450 of the applicants achieve their goal. Two tests are given in a same day, students can leave school earlier than during normal class days; the first 6 exams are three from History. After the winter holidays they start with the Maths and Geography classes; the distribution of the tests is the same as the first part of the year. The school is one of the most politically active high schools in Argentina, with a high percentage of militant students who organise themselves in the Centro de Estudiantes del Carlos Pellegrini; the Student Center referred to as CECaP, holds annual elections and, until the year 2005, was subdivided in different areas, such as Sports, Charity Action and Culture.
The CECaP is well known for its left-wing tendency. Principal: Leandro Rodriguez Degree: Bachelor of Commercial Sciences Main subjects: Business, Economy, Spanish language, Biology, Physics and Computing. Languages.: English and French Number of students: 2500 Address: Marcelo T. de Alvear 1851, C1122AAA, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Official website Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires Instituto Libre de Segunda Enseñanza --
Juan José Paso
Juan José Esteban Paso, was an Argentine politician who participated in the events that started the Argentine War of Independence known as May Revolution of 1810. Juan José Paso is the son of Domingo de Passo. Domingo left Spain and moved to Buenos Aires in 1750, he worked as a baker. Domingo got married with María Manuela Fernández Escandón on March 8, 1755. Domingo became a vecino after his marriage, their son Juan José Esteban Paso was born on January 2, 1758, baptized five days later. The place of Paso's initial education is unknown, but it was not the Real Colegio San Carlos, as he is not among its recorded list of students. Paso studied at the University of Córdoba and graduated in Theology in 1779. Back in Buenos Aires, he was named professor of Philosophy at the Colegio Real de San Carlos. In 1783 he studied law in the University of Chuquisaca. After the British invasions of the Río de la Plata he pursued a political career as a revolutionary leader moved by the new national identity, growing among the'criollos'.
Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, he was a freemason. Paso assisted with the Cabildo Abierto of May 22, 1810 and supported the faction that sought the dismissal of viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, convincing many others with a fervent speech, he participated in the creation of the First Junta government on May 25 and was named Secretary of the Junta along with Mariano Moreno, with whom he shared political points of view. He was sent by the Junta to Montevideo to spread the ideas of the revolution. Paso was part of the First Triumvirate and the Second Triumvirate that ruled the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata between 1811 and 1814. During this period he participated in the Asamblea del año XIII and was sent to Chile as a representative, but the negotiations with Chilean patriots failed and the Capitaincy of Chile refused to take part in the Union. In 1815 Paso was named assistant to war consultant, he was elected a representative to the Congress of Tucumán that declared the Argentine Independence on July 9, 1816.
As Secretary to this Congress, Paso had the honor of reading the independence act. However, he was imprisoned and charged of treason for supporting the monarchist faction that wanted a monarchy as government for the new nation, he was released along with the other monarchist deputies. Elected a member of the Buenos Aires Province Legislature in 1822, Paso became president of that body. In 1824, he was again elected representative for the National Congress and supported the nomination of Bernardino Rivadavia as the first President of Argentina, he retired from politics in 1826 disgusted with the violent disagreements among the provinces that divided themselves between Unitarians and Federalists. Tanzi, Héctor. Juan José Paso, el político. Argentina: Ciudad Argentina. ISBN 987-507-067-X
Juan Galo Lavalle was an Argentine military and political figure. Lavalle was born in Buenos Aires to María Mercedes González Bordallo and Manuel José Lavalle, general accountant of rents and tobacco for the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. In 1799, the family moved to Santiago de Chile, but returned to Buenos Aires in 1807. In 1812 Lavalle joined the Regiment of mounted grenadiers as a cadet. By 1813 he reached the grade of lieutenant and moved to the army, which under orders of Carlos María de Alvear besieged Montevideo. Lavalle fought against José Gervasio Artigas in 1815 and in the Battle of Guayabos under the command of Manuel Dorrego. In 1816 Lavalle moved to Mendoza to join the Army of the Andes of the "liberator" José de San Martín and fought in Chacabuco and the Maipú in Chile, he continued along with San Martín on his way to Peru and Ecuador and took part in the battles of Pichincha and the Riobamba, after which he became known as the Hero of Riobamba. Because of disagreements with Simón Bolívar, Lavalle returned to Buenos Aires by the end of 1823.
He would govern Mendoza Province for a short time. He fought in the war against Brazil in command of 1,200 cavalry, with great episodes of valour in the battles of Bacacay and Ituzaingó in February 1827, beating the forces of General Abreu and being himself proclaimed General on the field of battle itself. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, Lavalle was a freemason. By the time he returned to Buenos Aires, the President of the United Provinces, Unitarian Bernardino Rivadavia, had resigned, Manuel Dorrego was elected the federal governor of Buenos Aires Province. Lavalle, a Unitarian himself, led a coup to take the government and executed governor Dorrego without a trial, his government started a reign of terror, aiming to destroy the Federal Party, but the resistance in the countryside didn't recede. In 1829, the demographic growth was negative. During that time, José de San Martín had returned from Europe. While he was in Montevideo, Lavalle offered him the government of Argentina as he was the only man capable of putting an end to the chaotic situation, because of his authority over leaders on both sides.
But when he learned about the spiraling factionalist violence, San Martín realised that he would have to choose sides as the only actual way to govern, so he refused and returned instead to self-exile in Europe. The other provinces did not recognize Lavalle as the legitimate governor, supported the rosista resistance instead. Lavalle would be defeated a short time at the Battle of Márquez Bridge by the forces of Juan Manuel de Rosas and Santa Fe governor Estanislao López. López returned to his province, menaced by Unitarian José María Paz. Meanwhile, Rosas forced him to resign with the Cañuelas pact. Juan José Viamonte was designated as interim governor, the legislature, removed during Lavalle's coup d'état was restored; this legislature would elect Rosas as the governor. Lavalle retired to the Banda Oriental. During the French blockade to the Río de la Plata, Fructuoso Rivera was reluctant to take military actions against Rosas, aware of his strength. Unitarians, who thought that the whole Argentine Confederation would rise against Rosas at the first chance, urged Lavalle to lead the attack, who requested not to share command with Rivera.
As a result, they led both their own armies. His imminent attack was backed up by conspiracies in Buenos Aires, which were discovered and aborted by the Mazorca. Manuel Vicente Maza and his son were among the perpetrators, were executed as a result. Pedro Castelli organized an ill-fated uprising against Rosas, was executed as well. Rosas did not wait to be attacked and ordered Pascual Echagüe to cross the Paraná river and take the fight to Uruguay; the Uruguayan armies split: Rivera returned to defend Montevideo, Lavalle moved to Entre Ríos Province. He expected that the local populations would join him against Rosas and increase his forces, but he found severe resistance, so he moved instead to Corrientes Province. Governor Pedro Ferré defeated López, Rivera defeated Pascual Echagüe, clearing for Lavalle the way to Buenos Aires. However, by that point France had given up its trust on the effectiveness of the blockade, as what was thought it would be an easy and short conflict was turning into a long war, without clear security of a final victory.
France cut its financial support to Lavalle. He didn't find help at local towns either, there was widespread desertion among his ranks. Buenos Aires was ready to resist his military attack, but the lack of support forced him to give up and retire from the battlefield, without starting any battle. Persecuted, his troops suffered constant attacks and Lavalle was forced to move further north, being defeated by Manuel Oribe in La Rioja and Tucumán. Escaping with a small group of 200 men, he was accidentally shot by a Montonera detachment which spread-shot a reputed Unitarian's house, not realizing that Juan Lavalle, the chief of the Unitarians, was staying there; this occurred in 1841 in San Salvador de Jujuy. Afraid that his body would be desecrated by the Federales, his followers fled to Bolivia carrying Lavalle's decomposing remains with them. Hurrying over the Humahuaca pass, they decided to strip the skeleton by boiling it and, after burying the flesh in an unmarked grave, carry the bones, which are today buried at the La Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires.
A statue of the general standing on top of a long, slender column, commemorates the figure of Lavalle at Plaza Lavalle in Buenos Aires. The classic source on Lavalle is "History of Arg
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento was an Argentine activist, writer and the seventh President of Argentina. His writing spanned a wide range of genres and topics, from journalism to autobiography, to political philosophy and history, he was a member of a group of intellectuals, known as the Generation of 1837, who had a great influence on nineteenth-century Argentina. He was concerned with educational issues and was an important influence on the region's literature. Sarmiento grew up in a poor but politically active family that paved the way for much of his future accomplishments. Between 1843 and 1850 he was in exile, wrote in both Chile and in Argentina, his greatest literary achievement was Facundo, a critique of Juan Manuel de Rosas, that Sarmiento wrote while working for the newspaper El Progreso during his exile in Chile. The book brought him far more than just literary recognition. While president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874, Sarmiento championed intelligent thought—including education for children and women—and democracy for Latin America.
He took advantage of the opportunity to modernize and develop train systems, a postal system, a comprehensive education system. He spent many years in ministerial roles on the federal and state levels where he travelled abroad and examined other education systems. Sarmiento died in Paraguay, at the age of 77 from a heart attack, he was buried in Buenos Aires. Today, he is respected as writer. Miguel de Unamuno considered him among the greatest writers of Castilian prose. Sarmiento was born in Carrascal, a poor suburb of San Juan, Argentina on February 15, 1811, his father, José Clemente Quiroga Sarmiento y Funes, had served in the military during the wars of independence, returning prisoners of war to San Juan. His mother, Doña Paula Zoila de Albarracín e Irrázabal, was a pious woman, who lost her father at a young age and was left with little to support herself; as a result, she took to selling her weaving. On September 21, 1801, José and Paula were married, they had 15 children. Sarmiento was influenced by his parents, his mother, always working hard, his father who told stories of being a patriot and serving his country, something Sarmiento believed in.
In Sarmiento's own words: I was born in a family that lived long years in mediocrity bordering on destitution, and, to this day poor in every sense of the word. My father is a good man whose life has nothing remarkable except having served in subordinate positions in the War of Independence... My mother is the true figure of Christianity in its purest sense. At the age of four, Sarmiento was taught to read by his father and his uncle, José Eufrasio Quiroga Sarmiento, who became Bishop of Cuyo. Another uncle who influenced him in his youth was Domingo de Oro, a notable figure in the young Argentine Republic, influential in bringing Juan Manuel de Rosas to power. Though Sarmiento did not follow de Oro's political and religious leanings, he learned the value of intellectual integrity and honesty, he developed qualities which de Oro was famous for. In 1816, at the age of five, Sarmiento began attending the primary school La Escuela de la Patria, he was a good student, earned the title of First Citizen of the school.
After completing primary school, his mother wanted him to go to Córdoba to become a priest. He had spent a year reading the Bible and spent time as a child helping his uncle with church services, but Sarmiento soon became bored with religion and school, got involved with a group of aggressive children. Sarmiento's father took him to the Loreto Seminary in 1821, but for reasons unknown, Sarmiento did not enter the seminary, returning instead to San Juan with his father. In 1823, the Minister of State, Bernardino Rivadavia, announced that the six top pupils of each state would be selected to receive higher education in Buenos Aires. Sarmiento was at the top of the list in San Juan, but it was announced that only ten pupils would receive the scholarship; the selection was made by lot, Sarmiento was not one of the scholars whose name was drawn. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, he was a freemason. In 1826, an assembly elected Bernardino Rivadavia as president of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata.
This action roused the ire of the provinces, civil war was the result. Support for a strong, centralized Argentine government was based in Buenos Aires, gave rise to two opposing groups; the wealthy and educated of the Unitarian Party, such as Sarmiento, favored centralized government. In opposition to them were the Federalists, who were based in rural areas and tended to reject European mores. Numbering figures such as Manuel Dorrego and Juan Facundo Quiroga among their ranks, they were in favor of a loose federation with more autonomy for the individual provinces. Opinion of the Rivadavia government was divided between the two ideologies. For Unitarians like Sarmiento, Rivadavia's presidency was a positive experience, he set up a European-staffed university and supported a public education program for rural male children. He
The Primera Junta or First Assembly is the most common name given to the first independent government of Argentina. It was created on 25 May 1810, as a result of the events of the May Revolution; the Junta had representatives from only Buenos Aires. When it was expanded, as expected, with the addition of the representatives from the other cities of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, it became popularly known instead as the Junta Grande; the Junta operated at El Fuerte, used since 1776 as a residence by the Viceroys. This Junta—officially named the Junta Provisional Gubernativa de las Provincias del Río de la Plata a nombre del Señor Don Fernando VII —allegedly meant to govern in the name of the King of Spain, while he was imprisoned by Napoleon Bonaparte. Juntas were a form of transitional or emergency government, which attempted to maintain Spanish sovereignty, that emerged during the Napoleonic invasion in Spanish cities that had not succumbed to the French; the most important for Spanish America was the Junta of Seville, which claimed sovereignty over the overseas possessions, given the fact that the province of Seville had enjoyed exclusive rights to the American trade.
Its claims had been rejected by Spanish Americans, its authority was superseded by a Supreme Central Junta of Spain, which included American representation. When the Supreme Central Junta abolished itself in 1810, the politically active inhabitants of Buenos Aires saw no better moment than this to establish a local government, they had been influenced by the recent democratic and republican philosophical wave, were concerned about the commercial monopoly exerted by the Spanish crown, suffocating the local economy. Buenos Aires province had mitigated this problem through contraband. Local politicians, such as former council member and legal advisor to the viceroy, Juan José Castelli, who wanted a change towards self-government and free commerce, cited traditional Spanish political theory and argued that the King being imprisoned, sovereignty had returned to the people; the people were to assume the government until the King returned, just as the subjects in Spain had done two years earlier with the establishment of juntas.
The Viceroy and his supporters countered that the colonies belonged to Spain and did not have a political relationship with only the King. Therefore, they should follow any governmental body established in Spain as the legal authority, namely the Supreme Central Junta of Spain and its successor, the Council of Regency; the meeting of a Buenos Aires cabildo abierto during 22 May 1810, came under strong pressure from the militias and a crowd that formed in front of the cabildo hall on the Plaza Mayor, up to 25 May. The crowd favored the stance of the local politicians, the cabildo ended up creating the Primera Junta, the first form of local government in the territory that would become Argentina. Spain would never recover its dominion over that territory. From the beginning of the new government, two factions manifested their differences, a more radical one, whose visible leader was the Junta's Secretary, Mariano Moreno, the conservative wing that supported the Junta's President, Cornelio Saavedra.
In general the principles of the May Revolution were popular sovereignty, the principle of representation and federalization, division of powers, the maintenance of the mandates, publication of the government's actions President Cornelio SaavedraSecretaries: Mariano Moreno Juan José PasoCommittee member Manuel Alberti Miguel de Azcuénaga Manuel Belgrano Juan José Castelli Domingo Matheu Juan Larrea Despite the replacement of Cisneros, the Royal Audience and the Cabildo stood with the authorities that existed before the revolution, who opposed the Junta since its first day. The Audience refused at first to swear allegiance to the Junta, when they did, prosecutor Caspe did so with clear gestures of contempt. Caspe would be ambushed near his home, in retaliation for this; the Cabildo imposed a time limit on the Junta: if the General Congress was not formed in six months, the Cabildo would reassume government. The Junta answered the same day; the Audience requested that the Junta submitted to the Regency Counsel, but the Junta refused, on the grounds that Cisneros did not so submit and the Audience did not request him to.
The Audience itself swore allegiance to the Counsel shortly after, they were all banished in response. Together with the ex-viceroy Cisneros, they were forced to take the ship Dart that left them at the Canary Islands. From the early days of the Primera Junta there was a strong rivalry between Moreno. According to Ignacio Núñez, the Morenists accused Saavedra of plotting to restore the tyranny of the viceroys in his office, while the Saavedrists accused Moreno of usurping government roles that were not intended for him. Matheu would point in his memories that the Morenists were upset because they perceived that Saavedra enjoyed receiving honors and distinctions that they had chosen to avoid; the Junta was received with mixed reactions from the other cities of the viceroyalty. Santa Fe, Entre Ríos, Misiones and Mendoza supported the change, others did not. Upper Peru, which benefited from the system of mita to exploit the mines in
Assembly of the Year XIII
The Assembly of Year XIII was a meeting called by the Second Triumvirate governing the young republic of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata on October 1812. One of the objectives of the assembly was to define an institutional government system for the republic. Without the presence of representatives from some of the provinces, it was inaugurated on January 31, 1813. At the same time, it was to proclaim independence from Spain, write the first constitution of the young state. During the assembly, different interests delayed the declaration of independence, but a number of common points were established: The national coat of arms was chosen; the national anthem was commended. The Freedom of Wombs law, which put an end to slavery, was passed. All titles of nobility were suppressed; the creation of the national currency was ordered. The Spanish Inquisition and the practice of torture were abolished. A statute was approved that replaced as Executive Power the Second Triumvirate for a unipersonal Supreme Directorship Argentine War of Independence Instructions of the Year XIII United Provinces of the Río de la Plata
Juan Larrea (politician)
Juan Larrea was a Spanish businessman and politician in Buenos Aires during the early nineteenth century. He headed a military unit during the second British invasion of the Río de la Plata, worked at the Buenos Aires Cabildo, he took part in the ill-fated Mutiny of Álzaga. Larrea and Domingo Matheu were the only two Spanish-born members of the Primera Junta, the first national government of Argentina, he supported the secretary Mariano Moreno within the Junta, was moved to the distant city of San Juan when the Morenists were removed from government. He returned as a deputy for Córdoba in the Assembly of Year XIII constituent assembly, promoting many resolutions. Together with Carlos María de Alvear, he organized the strategy for the downfall of the royalist stronghold in Montevideo, a threat to Buenos Aires during the Argentine War of Independence. Despite the victory, he faced political conflicts with admiral William Brown and an economic crisis, was exiled from the country, he moved to Bordeaux, but returned to Buenos Aires when his exile was lifted by the Oblivion law.
He served as consul for a time, but his business declined and he committed suicide on June 20, 1847. He was the last surviving member of the Primera Junta. Juan Larrea was born on June 1782, in the city of Mataró, Catalonia, his father was Martín Ramón de Larrea, in charge of customs operations in Mataró, his mother was Tomasa Espeso. He studied mathematics and navigation, focused his education towards a career in commerce, his father died in 1793, so Larrea became the patriarch of the family. They moved to Buenos Aires, where he established a warehouse for wines and sugar, he traded with Peru, Upper Peru, Paraguay and colonial Brazil. By 1806 he was a well respected businessman, a syndic of the Royal Consulate, he promoted the role of deputies from Buenos Aires at the Madrid court, to better the representation of the Brazilian viceroyalty and reduce the privileges of peninsular merchants. Buenos Aires and other nearby cities faced the British invasions of the Río de la Plata in 1806 and 1807. In the absence of reinforcements from Spain, viceroy Santiago de Liniers arranged that everyone in Buenos Aires capable of bearing arms should join the resistance against the second invasion.
Larrea established the Legion of Catalan Volunteers with Jaime Nadal y Guarda, Jaime Lavallol and José Olaguer Reynals. Larrea was appointed captain of this military unit; the defense was successful, the British were driven away from the viceroyalty. Larrea's business prospered, in 1808 the Buenos Aires Cabildo appointed him to oversee a naval patrol to suppress shipments of contraband; this gave him an opportunity to put his nautical skills to use. He participated in the secret meetings of patriots who promoted political change, joined the 1809 Mutiny of Álzaga, which attempted to depose viceroy Liniers and replace him with a Junta; the mutiny failed, but the patriots continued to plot, in 1810 the May Revolution succeeded in deposing the new viceroy. Larrea did not take part in the discussions at the open cabildo, but was appointed as member of the Primera Junta. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, he was a freemason. Larrea's prestige as an influential businessman promoted his appointment as member of the Primera Junta.
However, as with the other members, the precise reasons for his inclusion are unclear. The Junta's membership has been considered a balance between Alzaguists. Larrea resigned his wages from his position as Junta member, organized the resources for the upcoming war of independence. Together with Manuel de Sarratea he drafted a new code regulating business in Argentina, he secured the exile of former viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros by bribing the captain of the ship carrying him, the Dart, to avoid any landfall until reaching the Canary Islands on the far side of the Atlantic, he supported the execution of Liniers after the defeat of his counter-revolution, supported the secretary Mariano Moreno against the president Cornelio Saavedra. Larrea voted for the incorporation of deputies from other cities into the Junta, although he had indicated his opposition to the proposal, it was intended by Saavedra. The proposal prevailed, the Primera Junta became the Junta Grande by incorporating the new deputies.
The resignation and death of Mariano Moreno did not reduce the conflicts between Morenists and Saavedrists. A rebellion on behalf of Saavedrism ensued, on 5 and 6 April 1811, aiming at the resignation of all remaining Morenists, including Larrea. Larrea was accused of joining factions and risking public security, was deposed. Taken prisoner, he was moved to the nearby city of Luján, to the distant San Juan. Larrea resumed business activities in San Juan, avoiding politics until 1812; the Revolution of October 8, 1812 returned the Morenists to power, so Larrea could return to Buenos Aires. He returned as a deputy for Córdoba to the Assembly of Year XIII constituent assembly. In the assembly, Larrea promoted a customs law which taxed most imports, but made exceptions for machines, scientific tools, books and military supplies, he organized a local mint, the supply of the Army of the North. The presidency of the assembly rotated, Larrea presided from April 30 to June 1, 1813. During this time the Assembly outlawed torture and repealed all noble titles, chose the official Argentine National Anthem.
Larrea served in the Second Triumvirate, replacing José Julián Pérez as finance minister, until the Assembly replaced the Triumvirate with the Supreme Director, an office placing the powers of head of state in the hands of one pers